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Biographicul Portraits.-General Kosciusko. (VOL. 2 pendence, appointed him a Major-Gen- He was, like his old general, under the eral. Kosciusko did not disappoint the necessity of assisting in every departhopes of his compatriots. During the ment; - directing the administration of war of 1792, he, with four thousand the Republic, procuring supplies of promen, defended a post which he had for- visions, levying troops, superintending tified in the space of twenty-four hours, the payment of contributions ; and like and which was attacked by a corps- Washington he was seconded in the perd'armée of sixteen thousand Russians, formance of these numerous duties, by After a battle of six bours, near Dubien- the confidence and patriotism of bis ka, he retreated almost without loss, countrymen, that is to say, by the great But it did not depend on him to avert mass of the Poles; for even amidst the the destiny which awaited his country. general enthusiasm there were several Peace was signed, and Poland was re- examples of cowardice and treachery; duced to a ridge of territory. Koscius- and Kosciusko may perhaps be reproachko having retired from the service, went ed for not having adopted measures for to fix his residence at Leipsig.

obliging all to contribute, even in spite of Poland, in spite of her weakness, still themselves, towards the general good. continued to struggle with her enemies. The partisans of anarchy about this Kosciusko was solicited once more to time obtained a fatal ascendancy in the take up arms in the cause of his country- Polish councils. King Stanislaus could men, a duty which he was easily pre- no longer maintain a crown which had vailed on to fulfil. Inspired by his as- for a length of time been tottering on his sistance, several of the most ardent Re- head; he was merely a prisoner, for publicans rose in insurrection in 1794, whom some slight sentiments of respect before they had adopted the necessary were entertained. Kosciusko, who was measures for maintaining the war. invested with an equivocal authority, Kosciusko poblished an energetic mani- could neither repress the anarchy, nor festo, placed bimself at the head of the dispense with the support of the anarchinsurgents, took Cracow, and being mas- ists. An ill-regulated government was ter of this second capital, be appealed to therefore established, and Kosciusko rethe Poles for the re-establishment of the signed his dictatorial authority, like constitution of 1791. Twenty thous- Cincinnatus, whom he seemed to have and men assembled under his banners ; adopted as his model. He nevertheless Warsaw and Wilna declared themselves continued to serve his country by his in favour of the republican cause. He valour. Being opposed to the Russian defeated twelve thousand Russians near General Fersen, near Macriewitz, be reRaclawitz, with a corps of four thousand pulsed him on three successive occasions ;

His success enabled him to raise but on the fourth attack the Polish lines an army of fifty thousand men, among were broken, and thrown into confusion. whom, however, only twenty thousand Kosciusko, covered with wound were regular troops ; the remainder be- from his horse, exclaiming, “Fiois Poloing peasantry armed with scythes. With niæ," and was made prisoner by the this irregular and undisciplined army, conquerors. This was, in fact, the terhe maintained himself against one hun- mination of the Polish republic. Sudred thousand enemies during a long waroff took Warsaw, and an Austrian campaign. The Prussians besieged army penetrated to Lublin. Warsaw, which was furnished with only On being conducted to Russia, the a few hastily constructed entrenchments. brave Kosciusko received the highest tesKosciusko defended this position, until timonials of esteem from the Emperor the diversion made by Dombrowski and Paul I. That Sovereign restored him Madalinski induced the Prussian army to liberty as well as his companions in to retrograde. The Polish general was arms, and gave him an estate with 1500 no sooner rid of the Prussians, than he serfs, a present, however, which was but beheld the approach of a numerous Rus- little acceptable to the defender of Pogian army. The instructions which he land. He now resolved to quit Europe, had received from Washington now prov- and baving declined receiving the sum ed of the most essential service to him. of 12,000 rubles which the Emperor

men.

ON TUE DEATH OP KOSCIUSKO.

VOL. 2.] Lines on Kosciusko.--Naturalists' Diary for February

393 Paul ordered to be presented to him, he of respect and veneration, surrounded by departed with his friend, the poet Niem- his consoling recollections, a few faithful cevitz, for London, from whence he em- friends, and the poor to whom he proved barked a second time for America. Hav- a constant benefactor. He expressed a ing spent a few years in the society of wish that the utmost simplicity might be his old companions in arms, he returned observed at his funeral, and that his morto Europe in 1798, and fixed his resi- tal remains might be borne to the grave dence in France.

by the poor." Buonaparte wished to make use of The following lines, written immedithe name of Kosciusko as a means of ately on seeing an account of the death exciting the Poles to insurrection ; but of this Patriot Soldier, have been transthe experienced and skilful General mitted to us. quickly foresaw his designs, and refused to become an accomplice. He continu

To sigh forth sorrow,

from the heart's recess, ed to reside on an estate which he bad O'er one we lov'd with every lovingness, purchased in the neighbourhood of Fog- Is the last tribute from the mourner's eye, tainbleau. . When the war broke out Who weeps the parting of some kindred tie ; in 1801, new offers were made to him; And blest and happy in their home's abode ;

Their virtues great, perchance, round where they trod, and though Kosciusko gave a decided These, yet in circumscribed space enshrind, refusal, yet his answer was misrepresent- But rarely meet man's sympathies combin'd. ed and published without his knowledge. But when the soul now hears the mournful knell He had no opportunity of publicly dis- The founts of feeling quickly all o'erflow, covering this fraud until the year 1814 ; And the whole world becomes one field of woe ; but the truth was well known through- Nations record the fall-all earth is gloom, out Europe, and the government of And the bright name is stamped on memory's tomb! Buonaparte regarded Kosciusko as a

Lo, Pity largely weeps, and Freedom sighs,

For on his bier pale Kosciusko lies; suspected individual. When the Rus- He, of Sarmatia, thousand tongues record, sians entered Champagne, in 1814, they Who for his country raised the brightest sword. learnt with astonishment that their old Can Earth's sons have a nobler, loftier aim,

Than to inscribe the records of their fame? enemy was living peaceably in the neigh- Can Triumph swell a bolder note on high, bourhood. The Generals treated him Than the bright sounds to immortality? with the highest consideration, and it is Can Genius twine a Garland for its brow even said that the Emperor Alexander More fair, more zlowing for the world t' avow,

Than when the laurels of its fancy wave held a long interview with him. No To deck the covering of a hero's grave ? consideration however could induce The high-ton'd minstrel gave his numbers scope, Kosciusko to end his days in Poland ; And brightest tributes of all-heavenly Hope he went to pass the last years of his life Told of thy deeds, (for Genius woke the swell,)

How Kosciusko and Sarmatia fell! in Switzerland.

There is thy eulogy,---there let it rest ; He expired at Soleure on the 16th of And Memory's rays entwine it to each breast ; October. “ He lived," says the Ga- Whilst man takes Freedom's path and Honour's claim, zelte de Lausanne, “in tranquil retire- Thy deeds, thy footsteps be his guide to Fame ;

And where on loftiest flight Fame's pinions soar, ment, where he had become the object 'Twill tell of Kosciusko, now no more !

G. L.

THE NATURALIST'S DIARY FOR FEBRUARY.

From “ Time's Telescope." ON

N the approach of winter, in Russia, floors, under the carpets, are covered with

double windows are put up in all the felt. The stoves produce a temperature houses, having the joints and interstices in the most spacious apartments and halls caulked and neatly pasted with paper, which annihilates all thoughts of winter. This precaution not only fences against In February, the weather in our clicold and wind, but secures a free prospect mate is usually variable, but most ineven in the depth of winter, as the panes clined to frost and snow. of glass are thus never incrusted with ice. The effects of cold are more sud. The outer doors, and frequently the den, and, in many instances, more ex

SC ATHENEUX. Vol. 2.

394 Naturalists' Diary Winter Markets at St. Petersburgh. (VOL 2 traordinary and unexpected, than those hogs, fowls, butter, eggs, fish, all stiffened of heat. He, who has beheld the vege- into granite. table productions of even a northern The fish are attractively beautiful, summer, will not be greatly amazed at possessing the vividness of their living the richer and more luxuriant, but still colour, with the transparent clearness of resembling growths of the tropics. But wax imitations. The beasts present a one, who has always been accustomed to far less pleasing spectacle, most of the view water in a liquid and colourless larger sort being skinned, and classed state, cannot form the least conception according to their species : groups of of the same element, as hardened into an many hundreds are seen piled upon their extensive plain of solid crystal, or cover- hind legs against one another, as if each ing the ground with a robe of the purest were making an effort to climb over the white. The highest possible degree of back of its neighbour. The motionless astonishment must, therefore, attend the yet apparent animation of their seemingly first view.of these phenomena. struggling attitudes (as if suddenly seized

But, it is not to their novelty alone in moving, and petrified by frost) gives that they owe their charms. Their a horrid life to this dead scene. Had an intrinsic beauty, perhaps, is individually enchanter's wand been instantaneously superior to that of the gayest objects pre- waved over this sea of animals during sented by other seasons. Where, indeed, their different actions, they could not is the elegance and brilliancy that can have been fixed more decidedly. Their compare with that which decorates every hardness, too, is so extreme, tbat the tree and bush on the clear morning natives chop them up for the purchasers succeeding a night of hoar-frost ? Or, like wood. All the provisions which what is the lustre that would not appear remain, on the commencement of a dull and tarnished, in competition with a thaw, immediately putrefy; but as the field of snow just glazed over with a duration of the frost is generally calcufrosty incrustation? What can be more lated to a day, but little loss is suffered in beautiful than the effect of snow and this respect. frost at a mill-dam, or rather, where the A curious circumstance occurred at mill-wheel dashes? Cowper has given Stockholm, in the winter of 1799. A us a most picturesque description of this sugar house taking fire, a number of circumstance, when he tells us, how engines immediately hurried to the spot. scornful of a check’ the snowy weight - But the water being frozen to the leaps

depth of a yard in every place near the The mill-dam, dashes on the restless wheel,

street, it was necessary to break the ice And wantons in the pebbly gulf below:

with hatchets and hammers. The water, No frost can bind it there; its utmost force when procured, was continually stirred, Can but arrest the light and smoky mist, That in its fall the liquid sheet throws wide.

to prevent it from freezing. Io the And see where it has hung th' embroidered banks

upper stories of this building was deWith forms so various, that no pow'rs of art, posited a large stock of sugar, and many The pencil or the pen, may trace the scene ! vessels full of treacle, which being broken Here glitt'ring turrets rise, upbearing high (Fantastic misarrangement !) on the roof

by the falling in of the roof, the juice ran Large growth of what may seem the sparkling trees

down along the sides of the walls. The And shrubs of fairy land. The crystal drops, water thrown up to the top of the house That trickle down the branches, fast congealed, by the engines, and flowing back on the Shoot into pillars of pellucid length, And prop the pile they but adorned before.

walls, staircases, and through the win

dows, was stopped in its downward To those who are unaccustomed to coarse by the mighty power of the frost

, the various changes produced by the After the fire was 'extinguished, the influence of intense frost

, nothing can engines continued for some time to play, appear more wonderful than the winter and the water they discharged was frozen market at St. Petersburgh. The aston- almost the very instant it came it conished sight is there arrested by a vast tact with the walls already covered with open square, containing the bodies of ice. Thus a house was formed of the many thousand animals

, piled in pyra- most extraordinary appearance that it is midical heaps, on all sides ; cows, sheep, possible to conceive. It was so curious

VOL. 2.) Naturalists' Diary Norwegian Skating Corps.

395 an object, that every body came to gåze “Cavalry," he says, “could neither at it as something wonderful.

The pursue
thein nor escape

their pursuit; whole building, from top to bottom, was and, as they are sharp-shooters, they incrusted with a thick coat of ice; the might in the long run destroy the whole doors and windows were closed up, and of an invading force, however numerous in order to gain admission it was necessary it might be. It was chiefly owing to with hammers and hatchets to open a them that the Swedish army, sent, in passage; they were obliged to cut through 1718, by Charles XII. against Dronthe ice another staircase, for the purpose theim, in the moath of December, was of ascending to the upper stories.

so obstructed in its march, as to be reAll the rooms, and wbat remained of duced to perish in the snow.” the roof, were embellished by long He gives in the Appendix, a more stalactites of multifarious shapes, and of particular account of the equipment a yellowish colour, composed of the and mode of individual operations of the treacle and congealed water.

This Skielöber-Corpset, or Corps des Patin. building, contemplated in the light of the eurs; operations, however, which can sun, seemed to bear some analogy to seldom have any object more martial those diamond castles that are raised by than the pursuit of game. the imaginations of poets. It remained ““Figure to yourselves a pair of boards, upwards of two months in the same each of the breadth of the hand, and state, and was visited by all the curious. hardly the thickness of the little finger; The children in particular had excellent a little hollowed along the middle on the amusement with it, and contributed not side toward the ground, to prevent a little to the destruction of the enchanted wavering, and to cut a straight line, palace, by searching for the particles of Both are bent upward at the ends, a sugar, which were found in many places little bigher before than behind. They incorporated with the ice.

are bound on the feet with two straps, Hunting and shooting are among the passed through them at the middle, favourite amusements of this season.

where the wood is left a little higher and In the moor, and the marsh, and the fen, thicker for this purpose. The board for The snipe feels the death-levelled blow, the right foot has often a facing of reinAnd the woodcock still bleeds in the glen.

deer or sea-dog skin ; the advantage of Skating, also, is much practised by young which is, that in bringing forward the persons. During hard frosts, in the sens feet alternately and in parallel lines, the of the Isle of Ely, men, women, and skater can give himself a strong impetus children, use their snow-patlens, or skates on the right foot, by means of the hell almost as much as they do in Holland. which the hair of this skin has on the The skaters of Norway, however, eclipse snow, as, though perfectly slippery in all other skaters, in their formidable going the right way, it is roughened, and equipments, as well as their extraordinary resists in any inclination of the skate to feats of hardibood. M. Lamolle, a re- an opposite movement. cent traveller in Norway, gives us the " It is affirmed, that a practised skater following singular description :- In a can go, as soon as the snow is a little visit to the Military Institution his at. hardened, faster and for a longer time, tention was particularly excited by an even on a level ground, than the best article not found in the ordinary appara- horse trotting on the best road. But in tus of war, a kind of wooden skates, of descending a mountain, he darts with which the one for the left foot is from such a velocity, that he would absolutely eight to ten feet long and three or four lose his breath if he did not endeavour to inches broad; the one for the right foot moderate his flight. He ascends with is only about three (another account says comparative slowness and some difficulty, six) feet long. M. Lamotte says, there as he is obliged to go zig-zag; but is a regiment of chasseurs, nombering nevertheless he reaches the top as soon nearly a thousand men, trained to the as the best footman. He has the advanuse of these skates or pattens, and that, tage, besides, that however little firmness in certain circumstances, they would be the snow may have acquired, he cannot almost irresistible.

sink.: The arms (of this regular corps)

396

Luminous Landscapes-Animal Sagacity.

(VOL. 2

are, a carbine held by a thong which and bring it parallel with the right: they passes over the shoulder, a large bunting have thus turned half round; they have knife, and a staff three ells and a half only to repeat the movement, if they long, and an inch and a quarter in wish completely to reverse their direcdiameter, pointed with iron, and set in tion." iron to some small · distance upward Among the juvenile sports of winter from the point. This last serves chiefly may be named, the rolling up a gigantic to check the rapidity of a descent; the snow-ball, the making a snow-man, and skater then puts it between his feet, and running mazes in the snow till they are so drags it, or he drags it by his side; he twenty yards across or more, like Shakuses it also to push himself forward speare's quaint mazes in the wanton when he has to go up hill. It may green. serve, besides, as a rest for his firelock, The pleasure of social enjoyments and when he has a mind to let fly. But · family comforts' at this season are indeed the Norwegian peasants hold prettily delineated in the following lines: their guns free when they fire, and

When the wind bleakly blows, scarcely ever miss their mark.

When it rains or it shows, ““ It might be supposed the skaters And all nature seems freezing and skiv'ring with cold; would find a great difficulty, from the

When the herds seek the shed,

When the birds droop the head, length of their wooden equipment, in and the flocks chill and cheerless crowd into the fold; turning themselves: but this is not the Then-in love what a charm! case. They draw backward the right Then-true friendship how warm! foot with its shorter board, and place it

In domestic endearments what exquisite bliss!

Though the wind bleakly blows, at right angles with the long one wielded

Though it rains, or it snows, by the left; then they raise this latter This, this is the season of social delight.

VARIETIES:
CRITICAL, LITERARY, AND HISTORICAL.

From the Literary Gazette.

of light on the various parts of the enLUMINOUS LANDSCAPES. graved picture, and which, being seen THE powers of the pencil and of the by the spectator in a darkened room,

graver have already been rivalled will possess a vividness of colouring that by those of the needle, in the delineation may perhaps be superior to any hitherto of Landscape and History; but we un- known effort of the pencil or the needle. derstand that it is proposed to introduce It is proposed that the colours employed a new mode of Painting, if it may be so shall be from the combustion of chemical called, the effect of which must un- substances, aided, perhaps, by the voltaic doubtedly be most exquisitely brilliant, flame. as well as true to nature. The principle on which it is founded, is the extreme

NATURAL HISTORY. facility with which colour, in consequence

From the Sporting Magazine, Sept. 1817. of very recent chemical discoveries, can

ELEPHANT be given to flame. For instance-when On Friday morning Sept. 5, a person, Cuprane, or Protochlorid of copper, is who was viewing Gilman & Atkins's exintroduced into the flame of a candle or hibition of wild beasts, gave the elepbant lamp, it affords a peculiar dense and a piece of bread. The animal instandy brilliant red light, tinged with green and swallowed it, and with his trunk soon blue towards the edges--and thus with petitioned for more. The man then thrust other chemical substances. On this at his truok with some violence a spiced principle, then, the landscape or picture nut, which he also swallowed; but wheis to be engraved on a sheet or sheets of ther the plain and simple taste of the elethin copper, each stroke being cut through phant was disgusted with the inflammatoso as to admit the passage of light. At ry spices contained in the composition, or the back of this an apparatus is fixed the rudeness of the donor, he watched an which throws different coloured streams opportunity while the man was in close

ANECDOTE

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