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From the European Magazine. THE ancients adopted a very pecu- ed person was to rise at midnight, and to

- liar method of pacifying the wan- walk barefooted, silently, only making dering spirits of such as had been slain a small noise with his thumb and finger, by treachery. The murderer never to keep the disturbed spirit at some disthought himself safe from being haunted tance: he then must wash his hands by the spectre of the person whom he three times in spring water, and fill his bad killed, until he had cut off the feet, mouth with beans, which he was to the hands, the nose, and the ears, from throw behind him, for the spectre, who the slaughtered corpse, and hung them watched his motions, to pick up; he to his own neck, or under his arm-pits. was at the same time to pronounce, This appears from the Greek scholiasts “ With these beans I redeem me and on Sophocles, Æschylus,&c. Deiphobus, mine"--without turting back his head. the husband of Helena, was probably Then after one more ablution, after treated in th.s way; which accouots for striking a vessel of brass, and after adthe uncouth appearance which he made juring the ghost nine several times, by before Æneas in the shades.

name, to depart, he might turn his head, ----------- " Lacerum, crudeliter ora, and the ceremony was ended.* Ora, manusque, ambos, populataque tempora, In what manner are we to account for Auribus et truncas, inbonesto vulnere nares," the difference between that noble wild* Midst other barbarous devices,

ness found in the tales of superstition, The Greeks had cut his face in slices,

handed down to us by our Celtic ancesOf cheeks, nose, lips, they'd quite bereft him.

tors, and the uninteresting insipidity of And not an inch of ear had left him.”

all the ghost and witch stories which the

latter ages have produced ? Perhaps the And this naturally introduces the Ro- cause may be found in that universal alman method of getting rid of those trou- lowance of preternatural visitations, blesome, nocturnal visitors, the Lemures, which, in former times, pervaded every 30 named from a transversion of the rank of society, and, of course, encourword Remus, who was said to have aged the greatest and most fancitul wits haunted his brother, and murderer, Ro- of the time to busy themselves in inventmulus.

On this account, the hag-ridden prioce * It should seem that a person who had reinstituted a festival, called Lemuria, to solution enough to pass throngh a forin so

very alarming, must have too tirm a mind to appease the unquiet dead. The haunt- give any credit to such childist expiatory cerVol. 9. ATAENEU M.

emonies.

raptis,

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ing and recounting picturesque relations, to conquer and devour the buried surwhile in modern days, since the belief of vivor. He added, that the spectre had such events has been confined wholly to so far prevailed, as to have feasted on the ignorant, the poor, and the superan- the horse, the dog, and half the face of nuated, neither genius nor imagination the wretched narrator ; but that he had are at hand to raise the tale one degree at length, by the exertion of his old prowabove a white sheet, or a pair of saucer ess, overpowered the spectre, and be. eyes, nor to supply the spectre with any headed and buried the possessed carcase." language more expressive than that of

o Here the story ends; and perhaps one

u scratching, knocking, or fluttering. Let us, for example's sake, recount

w of the most singular parts of it is, that it one out of a hundred stories told by the

"was told to the Norwegian Prince in exancient northern writers.

"* tempore verse.* A circumstance, which, - Asuithus and Asmundus were heroes

in the mouth of a man who had been and companions in arms : they had

Ud one hundred years fighting with a gobfought and conquered together during

lin, and wbo had but half a face left,

But such effusions many years, and their friendship was seems uncommon.t spoken of as a pattern to the warriors

Ore of poetry were usual in former ages, in of the North. At length, the one, after

| all remarkable occurrences. The moda desperate conflict, was slain in battle:

2. ern vampire has strong traces of descent the survivor, after causing a spacious

from the above quoted Gothic phantom. vault to be constructed for his friend's Thus we are told by Matthew Paris, body, and after having seen his arms, that, as Gilbert Follioi (afterwards Bishhis horse, and his favourite dog (as was op of London) was, one night, revolving the mode of the times), placed within in his head certain points in politics, a his reach, besides a large store of provi- science to which he had a stronger turn sious, entered the cavern armed as he than to divinity, he was most learfully was, and, in consequence of a mutual interrupted in his meditation by Satan, vow which had passed between them, who, with an unpleasant tone of voice, insisted on being closed in with his deceased comrade. The orders of suci a * Quid stupetis, qui relictum me colore cerman were not to be disputed. The sol- o nitus

Obsolescit nempe vivis omnis inter mortuos diers walled up the opening of the vault, Neso heaped over the whole the usual mound Missus ab inferis, spiritus Assuiti, of earth, and departed, lamenting the Sævis alipedem dentibus edit,

Infandoque canem præbuit ore. loss of two such leaders. It chanced Nec contentus equi nec canis esse, that, a century afterwards, Eric, a Swe- Mox, in me, rapidos transtulit ungues, dish Prince, marching, with his army, Hinc, lacere vultus horret imago,

Discissâque genà, sustulit aurem, near the scene of this awful event, was Emicat, inque fere vulnere sanguis, incited by the hopes of finding some vast Haut impune tamen monstrifer egit, treasure to violate the asylum of the dead. Profodique nocens stipite corpus.

Nam ferro secur, mox, caput ejus, His pioneers instantly levelled the bil + A Mr. Child, of Plymstock, in Deronlock, and the arch of the vault soon gave shire, was inspired by the Muses, if we nay way; when, instead of the expected believe tradition, on an occasion almost as

unpromising for a bard. He was benighted, solemn stillness of a tomb, the ghastly half frozen, and on the point of perishing, figure of the surviving hero rushed forth when, with the point of his sword, he wrote, all covered with blood, and deprived of

of with his borse's blood, this testamentary

preu distich: half his visage.

“Whoever finds, and brings me to my tomb... The tale he told to the Norwegian

" The Land of Plimstock---that shall be his was frightful as his own appearance. doom." “ As soon,” he said, “ as the tomb bad The monks of Ford Abbey are said to have been closed, a hungry cruel spirit had gained the estate so bequested by throwing a

: temporary bridge over a river wbich separated taken possession of the body of his the body from their burial ground ; and a slaughtered friend, and had, without bridge near the ruins of that religious house, ceasing a moment, employed all the ti

the still is reported to bear the name of Guile

" Bridge. Dr. Fuller says he cannot tell the force and arms of the deceased in order date of this tale.

Unis.

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thus accosted him in rhyme, ** O Gil- pants poison, and other deadly things, berte Folliot !--Dum revolvis tot et tot and let the eggs lie therein for some

– Deus tuus est Astarot.”—To whom days : set them under hens that do cluck, the unterrified priest replied, with great- but shake them not in your hands, lest er presence of mind than civility,+" Men- you destroy the mischief sought for. tiris, Dæmon, Qui est Deus-Sabbaoth, There is no greater cause to be found to est ille meus."

produce divers monsters, than by eggs.” Near the abbey of Clairvaux, in Swit- No man ever gave into popular and zerland, there is a tradition that an evil superstitious prejudices more readily spirit lies beneath a mountain, enchain- than the (otherwise) ingenious and ened by St. Bernard ; and the smiths of tertaining antiquarian, John Aubrey. that neighbourhood, when they go to His method of relation was always work in the morning, always think it quaint, and sometimes too general, as in their duty to strike three strokes on their the following instance :anvils to rivet his fetters.

“ Anno 1670, not far from CirencesThis infernal being deserves much less ter, was an apparition. Being demandcompassion than those industrious phan- ed whether a good spirit or a bad ? toms, wbo, according to a reputable tra- returned no answer, but disappeared dition, are still to be heard near a south with a curious perfume and most meloern cliff in Wales, constantly employed dious twang." in hammering on the brasen wall which Merlio intended for the defence of Bri- The following anecdote from the same tain. But the headless enchanter hav- writer is more particular :-“When I". ing, after he had set them to work, been the writer,J.Aubrey) “ was a freshman decoyed by the lady of the lake into a at Oxford, 1642, I was wont to go to perpetual confinement, the poor spirits Christ Church to see king Charles I. at still continue their unavailing labor, and supper ; where I once heard him say, must hammer on till Merlin regains his that as he was bawking in Scotland, he freedom.

rode into a quarry, and found the cov“Should a glass-house fire be kept up and I do remember this expression sur

ey of partridges falling on the hawk : without extinction for a longer term than ther : viz. And I will swear upon the seven years, there is no doubt but that book' 'tis true. When I came to my a salamander would be generated in the chamber. I told this story to my tutor ; cinders." This very rational idea is much said he. "That covey was London.'more generally credited than wise men would readily believe,

The annals of France report that in

793 there fell out an uncommon scarcity; In a folio book of some price, we the ears of corn were all void of submeet the following recipe :

stance, and strange preternatural beings " How lo make a Basiliske. were heard in the air, proclaiming them“I deny not" (quoth the Author) selves to be demons who had ravaged the “but a living creature may be generat- harvests in order to revenge the clergy for ed, that sball poison one by seeing and the reluctance of the people as to the touching, as if it were a Basiliske. But payment of tythes ; which, in consetake heed, you that try to produce this quence of this diabolical interference, were creature, that you do not endanger your- ordered to be regularly discharged. St. self, which, I think, may easily come to Foix, who relates this story, humourpass. Infuse fruitful eggs, where you ously asks, “ How the devils came to have a liquid moisture of arsenic or ser- interest themselves so warmly in behalf

- of the priesthood ?”. * “While thus you're revolving on good and on evil,

King James the First defines a necroThis world is your Heaven, your God is the mancer to be the devil's master, and to Devil."

command him by art. A witch his sera + “Satan, thou liest ! the God who evermore vant, for whom he works by compact.

Both was and is, is him whom I adore."

On the Increase of the Glaciers of Chamouni.

(vol. 2

The learned Godwin, in bis Antiqui. With such as these, the rabbis assert ties of the Jewish Nation, favors as with that Laban spake. the method of composing the Teraphim, Dr. Fuller, in his “ Worthies of Eng. which were a species of image endued by land." after repeating the old prophetic magic art with the power of prophesying. proverb. “ The Teraphim have spoken vanity.”

spokeo vanny. “When our Lady falls in our Lord's lap,

When one Zech. x. 2. Rabbi Eliezer is quoted as “ Then let England beware a misbap :" the author.

and after bringing fifteen instances of Recipe for making the Teraphim. singular misfortunes, which have happen“ They killed a man that was a first- ed to England when such a conjunction born son, and wrung off his head, and of feasts has occurred, warns the next seasoned it with salt and spices, and generation to beware of what may fall wrote upon á plate of gold the name of out in the year 1722: happily, that an unclean spirit, and put it under the year is past, and probably another like head on a wall, and lighted candles be- era, without any signal misfortune hapfore it and worshipped it.”

pening to the kingdom.-Aug. 1817.

ON THE INCREASE OF THE GLACIERS OF CHAMOUNI.

BY PROFESSOR PICTET, OF GENEVA.

From the New Monthly Magazine. TRAVELLERS who have visited most frequented of these glaciers, bad

1 the valley of Chamouni, and those made in 1815 such advances as began persons also who are acquainted with it to excite alarm ; for its foot had actually from description alone, know that the reached woods and meadows from which prodigiously thick masses of ice which it had before been always more or less cover Mont Blanc, descend into that val- distant. The guides unanimously agreed ley to the foot of the mountain, fill up the in the reality of these advances, though broad ravines or rather dales formed by they widely differed in their estimate of nature on the sides of the vast colossus, the magnitude of them : and in stateand at length dissolve in the plain far dis- ments of this kind there is always reason tant from the spot which gave them birth to apprehend exaggeration. I resolved, These icy vales are called glaciers, and therefore, at the time of my visit to the each of them has its appropriate name. valley of Chamouni, in August 1815, Along the valley of Chamouni there are to determine by accurate measurements six of these glaciers which follow in this the horizontal distance of sone of the order as you go up the valley ; La Gria, projecting points of the lowest mass of Taconna, Les Bossons, Les Bois, Ar- the glacier, from such spots in the meadgentiere, and Le Tour.

ow grounds menaced and partly reached Between the continual descent of the by the ice, as were marked by blocks of ice which composes these glaciers, and granite. Two of the oldest and inost inits annual effusion at the foot of them, is telligent guides, Pierre Balmat and Gaformed a kind of equilibrium by means cliat, suroamed the Giant, assisted me in of which the foot or extremity of the gla- this operation. I left with them a copy cier advances or recedes, according as of these measurements, distinguished by the mean temperature of the year is lower numbers, with directions to repeat them or higher. At the foot of the Bois gla- in ihe same manner from time to time, cier, near the source of the Arveron, is and to acquaint me with the result. In to be seen a number of large blocks of July, 1816, I received from the son of granite which serve to mark how far the one of ihese men a letter from which the glacier that brought them advanced it following is an extract. different periods beyond its present lini “I hasten to inform you, that agreeaits.

bly to your instructions my father mea. Les Bossons, wbich is one of the most sured the Bossons glacier on the 30th of accessible and consequently one of the June, and found as follows:

VOL. 2.]
Swiss Scenery.

i 45 “ Towards the point No. 1, the gla- It is highly probable, or rather certain cier has advanced about 50 feet.. that this year (1816) so peculiarly dis“ Towards No. 6, 33 feet.

tinguished by its low temperature will “ Towards No. 7, 13 feet.

belong to those in which the increase and “ I have also to remark that the Bois, advances of the glaciers bave been most or Arveron glacier, has likewise advanced considerable; and the above data willalconsiderably, and actually threatens the ford the means of stating the extent ofthat village."

increase with some degree of certainty.

RECENT SKETCHES OF SWISS SCENERY.

From the Monthly Magazine. The Valley of the Rhone. beheld a shadowing of those attributes My dea Madam,

which are assigned to the Deity! Yet, (N this valley are found persons called let me hasten to draw a veil before this

Goitres and Cretins. The former are picture of loathsome imbecility ; and distinguished by swellings of the neck, ought I not to apologize for having so large as to repder them hideous ; this dwelt so long on a subject which must disease does not materially diminish the distress you? I do so, and beg to asnumber of their days, although it has sure you, as an apology, that my mind some effect on their general health. The was haunted by this afflicting subject, as cretins are the most powerless, the most we are troubled by a frightful dream, loathsome, the most unlike human beings, which clings to our diseased imaginations. yet bearing the human form, that I ever It is some relief to the feeling mind to beheld ; they are so baneful, that my na- know, that this malady, which we have ture chills even at the recollection of them, reason to believe bas always asilicted the They are boro idiots; they never attain Valaisans, has been of late years greatly a maturity of form or of intellect; their alleviated ; yet a traveller cannot enter youth, their middle age, their latter years, far into this valley without being afflicted are the same-a heavy, an unchangeable, with the sight of goitrous persons enia leaden traoce, locks up the sources of ployed at their avocations, or cretips ina pliysical and mental energy. They pos- active and insensible, reclining in chairs, sess the appetitive organs, yet enjoy nei- or in the arms of their parents. ther sights, nor sounds, nor odours, nor In considering the sources of these dis. sensations; but hunger,hunger approach. orders, Mr. Coxe appears to offer a theing voracity, appears to supply the dark- ory for the first only ; it is his opinion ness of the other senses. They are sunk that this disease is attributable to a calcaeven bepeath the lowest gradation of ani. reous deposit, found in the waters of the mated beings; they are incapable of the valleys where goitres reside ; that the blind attachment of brutes, they have not adhesion of this to the glands of the throat, locomotion, for a cretin of twenty-five at that early period when they are most years cannot stand, but lives in a cradle, susceptible, causes this expansion, which or in the arms of the wretch whose des- at length becoines monstrous; he asserts tiny it is to preserve its existence. Add that animals also are affected in the same to this maturity of years, contracted fea- manner. This disorder is not peculiar tures of face, a head partially covered to Switzerland, or even Europe, it is with bair, bearing the dark hue of man- known to exist in Asia, for goitrous perhood, eyes weak and scarcely unclosed, sons are found in the valleys of all mounand lashes so clotted with thick moisture tainous countries, excepting those in a as to deform, rather than ornament, the high northern latitude. I do not hear, lid, flesh devoid of elasticity, with the indeed, that they are found farther north discoloration of death picture all this, than our own vale of Derbyshire. Mr. and you may think that you behold the Coxe, in proof of what he seems to concreature that has no parallel. Yet this sider no longer hypothetical, informs us being, fallen as it is below the vilest of that this calcareous deposit has been the brute species, bears the human form ! found in the throats of such men and ana the form of man, in whom is sometimes imals, as have been dissected.

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