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TOL. 2.) Biographical Portraits. Prancis Jeffrey, Esq.

427 feelings of resentment, destructive of the tural acid, that requires to be mixed with quiet reciprocities of social intercourse. the nauseous alkali of folly io others, to His taste is sometimes capricious, and is produce that brisk and wholesome corevidently more under the influence of the rective which has become so fashionable moment than regulated by settled princi- as to be almost necessary to the sickly ples; but, upon the whole, a spirit of appetite of the age. justice may be discovered in his most Mr. Jeffrey has without question more merciless animadversions. Sometimes admirers than enemies; the latter are he has released bis victims from the rack, only to be found among the small class when it might have been thought that he who subject themselves to his jurisdiction, intended to inflict a capital punishment : while the former are spread throughout at others he has gamboled to the last; the whole commonality of readers. But and, with true feline cruelty, only ended he has no disciples. He has too much their misery when he was tired of tor- practical sense ever to become the foundmenting them. But we are acquainted er of a sect; for it is not in the nature of with no writer who more youthfully states that quality to inspire enthusiasın, or to his own taste and predilections; and, if allow it to be felt. His head and heart there is some degree of conceit in his in- are made up of household stuff, and seem genuousness, it must be allowed that, to have so little affinity for any thing rowhen he advocates the principles of those mantic, that we are inclined to think ever opinions in which his judgment is settled his personal manners must have many and matured, he does it with a manliness angular points towards those who are less that has nothing superior in the literature earnest to be always instructive. The of any age or country.

cast of his mind seems to be much more It has been objected to Mr. Jeffrey's akin to that of the man of business than papers, and indeed to his journal, that of the author; but he oftener expresses the want of circa mstantial and scientific himself with the billious irritability of the knowledge is but ill supplied by theoret- one, than the hearty urbanity of the ical ingenuity. It cannot, however, be other; he is, in fact, neither a man of the denied that, on a great variety of subjects, world nor a man of genius, but belongs he has manifested much ability and in- to that dubious class who are regarded formation. He may not appear always with indulgence by the wise, while they a profound scholar, but he is uoiformly are lauded by the weak and contemned an accomplished gentleman. Some of only by the foolish. He is an author adhis belle-lettres articles are among the mirably suited to the occasional topics of best-written dissertations in the English bis own day; but, when time shall bave language; especially those in which a obliterated those associations in the pubvein of historical illustration serves to de. lic mind, to which he so felicitously revelope the particular and relative merits fers, and draws from them so many apt of the author under consideration. and amusing illustrations, his style

But a light and sketchy outline is the lose much of its perspicuity, and a great character of his style, His canvas is selo deal of its life and interest. A critic, ia dom filled ; and, if he occasionally fin- fact, is something like a player; his talishes a head with delicacy and effect, he ents are brought out by the ideas of othneglects the extremities, and often sub- ers, and his merits can only be appreciastitutes, for the bands and feet, the ted by comparing bis efforts with those of idle flourishes of a free and rapid pencil. his cotemporaries. Mr. Jeffrey is clever, In his manner there is frequently much but not great ; eloquent, without being elegance, sometimes great beauty, but impressive ; accomplished, but not proalways a large expanse of loose and care. found. His main fault belongs more to less writing. Conceited and dainty ex- the man than the author—it is in presu, pressions may be here and there discov• ming to be the censor of private manners, ered; they are, however, more of the na- wbere the clear and obvious line of his ture of freckles than of moles, and we duty (as pointed out both by the consuspect are sometimes esteemed as beau- sciousness of his own petulance, and the ties. His wit may be described as the nature of the task he has assumed,) is an tithesis of affectation. A sharp na- merely to review the merits and defects

428 Illustration of Saints' Days, obscure Ceremonies, &c. [vol. 2 of published books. Latterly, however, as Dr. Johnson says, “there may yet be he has more modestly adhered to his vo- virtue.” cation ;" and, where there is shame,”

TIME'S TELESCOPE, FOR MARCH.

From

A

Time's Telescope." MONG the Romans, March, from the church of Saint Andrew, which,

Mars, was the first month, and with the town and whole diocese, are marriages made in this month were ac- named after him. Near the church counted unhappy. The Saxons called stand several chapels, formerly resorted March lent-monat, or length-moneth, to with great devotion : the principal is • because the days did first begin, in that of St. Nun, motber of St. David, length, to exceed the nights.'

near which is a beautiful well still freIn mantle of Proteus clad,

quented by pilgrims. Another chapel is With aspect ferocious and wild ;

sacred to St. Lily, surnamed GwasNow pleasant, now sullen and sad,

Dafydd, that is, Št. David's man; for Now froward, now placid and mild.

he was his beloved disciple and comSuch is the poet's character of this panion in bis retirement. He is hon. month, which is, in general, cold, with oured there on the 3d, and St. Nun, who keen winds, the air clear and healthy. lived and died the spiritual mother of SAINT DAVID'S DAY, MARCH 1.

many religious women, on the 2d of

March. The three first days of March The leek worn on this day by Welshmen is said to be in memory of a great in honour of these three saints; at

were formerly holidays in South Wales vietory obtained by them over the Saxons; they, during the battle, having leeks in present only the first is kept a festival

ihroughout the principality. their bats, to distinguish themselves, by In the wild and romantic scenery of order of St. David. Another account Llanthony, at the foot of the black adds, that they were fighting under their King Cadwallo, near a field that was in the sequestered vale of Ewias, St.

mountains, on the banks of the Honddy, replenished with that vegetable.*

David formed a hermitage and erected a Saint David was the great ornament and pattern of his age. He spoke with

chapel:-much force and energy, but his example

A little lowly hermitage it was

Down in a dale, hard by a forest's side, was more powerful than his eloquence; Far from resort of people, that did pass and be bas in all succeeding ages been In traveil to and fro: a little wyde the glory of the British church. He

There was an holy chapell edifyde,

Wherein the hermit dewly wont to say continued in the see of St. David's

His holy things each morn and eventyde ; many years; and having founded

Thereby a christall streame did gently play, several monasteries, and been the spiritual Which from a sacred fountain welled forth alway. father of many saints both British and So retired is this spot, that, at one Irish, he died about the year 544, at a time, it was scarcely known to the very advanced age. He was buried in neighbouring bamlets. Walter de Laey, * The following is Shakspeare's account of it,(Henry those mysterious erections, and being

one day in pursuit of a deer, discovered V.) in the dialogue between Fiuellin and the king :

Flu. Your grandfather of famous menory, a'nt please struck with the solemnity of the spot, be your majesty, and your great uncie, Edward the plack was visited by religious enthusiasm ;prince of Wales, as I have read in the chronicles, he disclaimed the world, and erected the fought a most prave pattie here in France. K. Henry. They did, Fluelin.

abbey of Llanthony for the use of the Flu. Your majesty says very true. If your majesty is Cistercian order. remembered of it, the Welshmen did goot service in a garden where lecks did grow wearing lecks in their Mon MIDLENT SUNDAY, MARCI I. mouth caps, which, your majesty knows, to this hour is an honorable pedge of the service; and, I do pelieve your

The middle or fourth Sunday in Lent majisty takes no seoen to wear the leckonsi Tavy's-day. was formerly called the Sunday of the K. Henry, I wear it for a mcinorable honour. five Loaves, the Sunday of Bread, and

VOL. 2.] Tiine's Telescope for March-Perpetuam-St. Patrick's Day. 429 the Sunday of Refreshment, in allusion SAINT PATRICK, MARCH 17. to the gospel appointed for this day. It The tutelar saiot of Ireland was born was also named Rose-Sunday, from the in th year 371, in a village called pope's carrying a golden rose in his hand, Bonaven Tabernia, probably Kilpatrick, which he exhibited to the people in the in Scotland, between Dunbriton and streets as he went to celebrate the eu- Glasgow. He is, however, claimed as a charist, and at bis return. Mothering Cambrian by Mr. Jones, in his. Welsh Sunday is another name attached to this Bards,' who makes him a native of diy, from the practice, in Roman Cath- Caernarvonshire. When sixteen years olic times, of people visiting their another. old, he was carried into captivity by ehurch on Midlent Sunday. Hence, certain barbarians, together with many perhaps, the custom now existing in of bis father's vassals and slaves, and some parts of England, of children visit- was taken to Ireland, where he kept cating their parents, and presenting them tle on the mountains and in the forests, with money, trip kets, or soine other in hunger and nakedness, amid snows, trifle. Furinety is commonly a rural rain, and ice. After six months, our repast on this day. It is made of whole saint escaped from this slavery, only to grains of wheat first parboiled, and then fall into the hands of another master. At put into and boiled in milk, sweetened length emancipated, he travelled into and seasoned with spices.

Gaul and Italy, and spent many years in PERPETUA, MARCA 7.

preparing himself for the holy functions

of a priest, studying intensely until his , Perpetua, a noble lady of Carthage, 55th or 60th year. Being successively only 22 years of age, suffered martyrdom ordained deacon, priest, and bishop, he in 203, by order of Minutius Firmianus, received the apostolical benediction from under the persecution of the Emperor Pope Celestine, and was sent by him, Severus. In the amphitheatre, Perpetna about the beginning of the year 432, to was exposed to the attacks of a wild preach the gospel in Ireland. He died cow, and, after being much gored by at the good old age of 123, and was this animal, she languished for some time, buried at Down, in Ulster. under the wounds given ber by a young Every day was he wont diligently to and unskilful gladiator.

sing the entire psaltery, with many songs On this day the Jews celebrate the and hymns, and the Apocalypse of the festival of Purim. In this ceremony the apostle John, and two hundred prayers seader recites the whole book of Esther, before God; three hundred times did he wbich, being written on parchment, is bend his knees in adoration of the Lord; spread out in the manner of a letter, in every canonical hour of the day did be reference to the twenty-sixth verse of the one hundred times sign himself with the ninth chapter. As oiten as the reader sign of the cross. Nevertheless did he inentions the name of Haman, it is cus- not omit every day wortbily and devoutly tomary for the children (who have little to offer up unto the Father the sacrifice wooden hammers) to knock against the of the Son; and never ceased he to teach wall, as a memorial that they should en- the people, or instruct bis disciples. deavour to destroy the whole seed of • And in a wonderous manner dividing Amalek.

the night-season, thus did this wakeful SAINT GREGORY, MARCH 12. guardian and labourer in the Lord's vine

yards distinguish that also. For in the Saint Gregory, surnamed the Great, earliest part thereof having with two was born about the year 540.

hundred genuflexions, and one hundred consecrated Pope about the year 590, psalms, praised God, then applied be and died in 604. Before his advance. unto study; and in the latter part

, he ment to the see, Gregory projected the plunged himself into cold water, and eonversion of the English nation ; and, raising his heart, his voice, his eyes, and although his offer to this effect was at first his hands towards heaven, offered he retused, he accomplished his wishes after one hundred and fifty prayers.--Afterhe assumed the papal chair.

ward he stretched himself on a bare stone,

He was

430 Time's Telescope for March.-Palm-SundayLady-Day, 8c. [Vol. 2 and of another stone making a pillow, vegetation shown by the trees of this clihe rested his most sanctified body with mate, are gathered and adopted for a short sleep; or that more clearly we branches of palm. Mr. Bourde says, may speak, he refreshed himselt unto the the branch of palm was used in the Jabour of his continual conflict.-With country near Jerusalem as an emblem of such rest indulging, he girded his loins victory. Our adoption of the willow with roughest haircloth, the which had buds may arise from their being the first been dipped in cold water.'

bloom which appears in the woods after The shamrock is said to be worn by the the close of winter; and might be used Irish, upon the anniversary of this saint, also typically, from their bearing testiforthe following reason: When he preach- mony of renovation, as a sacred emblem ed the gospel to the Pagan Irish, he illus- of victory over death. trated the doctrine of the Trinity by show Much ceremony is still observed by ing them a trefoil, or three-leaved grass, the Greek church in Russia on Palm with one stalk; 'which operating to their Sunday. “On the eve of this day,' says conviction, the shamrock, which is a Dr. Clarke, “all the inhabitantts of bundle of this grass, was ever afterwards Moscow resort, in carriages, on horseback, word upon this saint's annniversary, to or on foot, to the Kremlin, for the purcommemorate the event.-- Brand. chase of palm branches, to place before

The Order of St. Patrick was insti- their Boghs, or images, and to decorate tuted by George III, in 1783. It con- the sacred pictures in the streets, or sists of the sovereign, a grand master, a elsewhere. "It is one of the gayest proprince of the blood royal, and thirteen menades of the year.

The governor knights, making in the whole sixteen, and attended by the maitre de police, the seven officers. The lord lieutenant for commandant, and a train of uobility, go the time being is the grand master. in procession, mounted on fine horses. 1785.--HENRY KIRKE WHITE BORN,

The streets are lined by spectators; and MARCH 21.

cavalry are stationed on each side, to Too, too prophetic did thy wild note swell,

preserve order. Arriving at the KreinImpassioned minstrel ! when its pitying wail lin, a vast assembly, bearing artificial Sighed o'er the vernal primrose as it fell

bouquets and boughs, are seen moving Untimely, withered by the northern gale.

here and there, forining the novel and Thou wert that Power of promise and of prime !

Whose opening bloom 'nid many an adverse blast, striking spectacle of a gay and moving Charmed the lone wanderer through this desart clime, forest. The boughs consist of artificial

But charmed him with a rapture soon o'ercast, flowers, with fruit. Beautiful represenTo see thee languish into quick decay.

tations of oranges

and lemous, in wax, Yet was not thy departing immature ! For ripe in virtue thou wert reft away,

are sold for a few copecks (an English And pure in spirit as the blest are pure ; halfpenny). Upon this occasion, every Pure as the dew-drop, freed from carthly learen, person who visits the Kremlin, and That sparkles, is exhaled, and blends with heaven !

would be thought a true Christian, PALM SUNDAY, MARCH 22. purchases one or more of the boughs, In the missals, this day is denominated called palin-branches.' Dominica in ramis Palinarum, or Palm Sunday, and was so called 'froin the ANNUNCIATION OF THE B. V. M., or Lady palm branches and green boughs formerly

Day, March 25. distributed on that day, in conmemoration

This day celebrates the angel's message of our Lord's riding to Jerusalein. Sprigs to the Virgin Mary, respecting our of boxwood are still used as a substitute Blessed Lord. She was, probably, aa

years

of

age for palms in Roman Catholic countries. only child, and but fifteen

She died On this day is still retained the ancient when espoused to Joseph. usage of decorating churches and houses A. D. 48, being about 60 years old. with evergreens, &e. It was the custom MARCH 26, 1812.-GREAT EARTHQUAKE of the antient Christian church to repre.

AT THE CARACCAS. seat our Saviour's entry into Jerusalem The first commotion took place at on this day, by a procession with palms. five o'clock in the afternoon. The air In this country the buds of the willow, was calm, the heat excessive : nothing which is one of the earliest marks of preceded or announced such a catast[o

VOL. 2.] Time's Telescope for March.-Maundy Thursday, &c. 431 phe. A shaking was first perceived, and others, belonging to the Lord strong enough to set the bells of the Chamberlain's office, attended by a church a-ringing : it lasted about six party of the yeomen of the guard, disseconds, and was followed by an interval tributed to seventy-five poor women, of ten or twelve seconds, during which and seventy-five poor men, being as the earth exhibited an undulation simi- many as the king is years old, a quantity lar to the motion of the sea in a calm : of salt fish, consisting of salmon, cod, the crisis was then supposed to have and herrings, pieces of very fine beef, passed; but immediately, extraordinary five loaves of bread, and some ale to subterraneous poises were heard, and drink the king's health. At three o'clock electrical discharges infinitely stronger they assembled again, the men on one than atmospheric thunder ; the earth was side the chapel, and the women on the agitated with a quickness which cannot other. A procession entered, of those be described, and seemed to boil like engaged in the ceremony, consisting of a water when subjected to the heat of a party of yeomen of the guard, one of very strong fire : there was then a per- them carrying a large gold dish on his pendicular rumbling or etrepitus for head, containing 150 bags, with seventyabout three or four seconds, followed by five silver pennies in each, for the poor agitations in an opposite direction from people, which was placed in the royal forth to south, and from east to west, closet. They were followed by the for three or four seconds also. This sub-almoner in bis robes, with a sash of short but awful period was sufficient to fine linen over his shoulder and crossing overturn the whole city of Caraccas, his waist. He was followed by two with upwards of thirty towns, and the boys, two girls, the secretary,and another country houses and numerous establish- gentleman, with similar sushes, &c. &c. ments spread over the surface of that all carrying large nosegays. The church delightful province ! In an instant, all evening service was then performed, at was destroyed to an extent of 300 miles, the conclusion of which the silver pennies and 80,000 inhabitants ceased to live, were distributed, and woollen cloth, while thousands were dreadfully wound- linen, shoes and stockings, to the mea ed !

and women ; and, according to antient, MAUNDY THURSDAY, MARCH 26.

custoin, a cup of wine to drink the king's

health.' This day is called in Latin (lies At Rome, Maundy Thursday is a Mandali, the day of the command, be- day of great parade. The altar of the ing the day on which our Lord washed Capella Paolina is illuminated with more the feet of his disciples, as recorded in than 4000 wax tapers; and the pope the second lesson. This practice was and cardinals come thither in procession, kong kept up in the monasteries. After bringing the sacrament along with them, the ceremony, liberal donations were and leaving it there. Next follows the made to the poor, of clothing and of silver auglist ceremony of the benediction, and money, and refreshment was given them afterwards the pope washes the feet of to initigate the severity of the fast. On some pilgriins, and serves them at dinner. the 15th April, 1731 (Maundy Thurs The second grand ceremony at day), the Archbishop of York wushed Moscow takes place on this day at noon, the feet of a certain number of poor when the archbishop washes the feet of persons.

James II was the last king the apostles. • 'The priests appeared in who performed this in person. A relic their most gorgeous apparel. Twelve of this custom is still preserved in the monks, designed to represent the twelve donations dispensed at St. James's on apostles, were placed in the cathedral) this day.

in a semicircle before the archbisbop.--The following in an account of the The archbishop,performing all and much ceremony on Maundy Thursday, 1814. more than is related of our Saviour in the 'On this day the annual royal donations 13th chapter of St. Jolin, takes off his were distributed at Whitehall Chapel. robes, girls up his loins with a towel, In the morning, the Sub-ulmoner, and and proceeds to was!: the feet of them all the secretary to the Lord High Almoner, until he comes to the representative of

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