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reflection by holding fast that which the moment required, and so in every instance she has elevated her mode of action into consciousness, her thoughts into living incarnated operation. Such also has been the development of art-entirely according to reason, proceeding by facts, by real operation, as her history, properly understood, demonstrates.
Also, in the practice of music, this fundamental proposition is thoroughly practicable. The tonal system, the system of notation, the arrangements of rhythm, are so entirely according to reason, that every scholar, under the gentlest guidance of the teacher, can unfold them further from their first intimations, and can again discover them for himself. It appears to us one of the crudities of the usual mode of teaching, to burden the scholar with the whole tonal system at once, then (or even before, as some books of instruction do*), with the whole system of notation (and perhaps in several clefs at the same time), then with the whole system of bars, while for the moment he wants only the smallest part of them; such as a few notes in one clef, leaving the remainder to be acquired on further advancement. By this misapplication, the scholar is withdrawn from immediate living and improving comprehension to an unartistic work of memory.
It follows, therefore, that the order of these books of instruction, which merely present the materials of instruction to the memory, should also illustrate and complete their work; and not doing so, can have no claim to be considered an order or plan of really practical instruction.
Even the exercises, whose immediate object is to produce readiness of hand and voice, must not only be brought into the service of the hand and the observant understanding, but also be used for the pleasurable feelings of the scholar, whenever practicable, so that what he has learned may as soon as possible be applied in artistic form. From these considerations we cannot look without hesitation upon an invention lately introduced, to make beginners practice upon finger-boards made of paper. However convenient and cheap this may appear, it is evident that artistic participation must be injured, or, to say the least, not excited or vivified.†
This is the true doctrine, which, in the smallest and the greatest, holds fast and advances the reality of art, and upholds the student from the lowest up to the pinnacle-however high he may be able and willing to climb--in perfect artistic sympathy and activity. But this is possible only to a teacher, who, himself an artist, is replete with the spirit of art.
We take advantage of the form of an appendix, in order to give a more detailed explanation of some particularities of certain works of art, for which we did not wish to interrupt the direct line of our instructions, seeing that the object of the book would allow us only the most necessary elucidations in the most compressed arrangement.
With the same view, we refer only to such works as we must suppose every educated artist or zealous student must have within reach. In fine, we can only point out, not thoroughly explain.
For the first example, let us take Beethoven's sonata for the pianoforte in Eb major, Op. 7, the first phrase.
Bars 1 and 2, 3 and 4, are two members of a phrase, which end on the entrance of the 13th bar. With this bar a repetition begins (the melody lies in the under part) which is intended to close at the 17th, but continues in the same motion to the 21st, and then to the 25th bar. Independently of the falling together of each closing and beginning bar, the following members in reality step forward2-2-8 (4 times 2 bound together)-4-4 bars. More clearly now follow four members of 2 bars each, which, from the similarity of their contents, blend together into two sections of 4 bars each; the
* They therefore teach the sign before the thing signified, so that their notation is objectless, and must remain incomplete until we become acquainted with tones.
close is made by a phrase of 8 bars, again in members of every 2 bars.
On going over the next phrase, we would call attention to the following in dotted crotchets. It becomes more comprehensible in 4 times 2 bars,, and is repeated after a firm close in the dominant. But thereby it is prolonged from its third member. The Largo of the same sonata shall be our second example. Its first phrase, consisting of 8 bars, shows members of
1-1-1-1-and 4 bars.
Now, a phrase of 2 bars is three times repeated, changed; after which, the first phrase (extended by 10 bars in the middle) returns. In the following bar, a new phrase begins of 4 and again 4 bars, whose first half, altered, is repeated and closes in the 5th bar, with which a member of 2 bars begins,
This manner of teaching was adopted in Berlin by the late Mrs. Schindelmeisser and Dr. Lange, so far as the author knows, with good results for the quick attainment of technical readiness. The scholars perform the exercises on paper or real keys (without strings), while another person produces the sound on a real instrument. The progress of the pupils, at all events, gives evidence of the talents of the otherwise already advantageously-known teachers, and if youth is to be taught in large masses where an instrument is not to be had, or if the unpleasant sound of technical passages is to be avoided, this plan furnishes, perhaps, the best remedy. But it must be allowed that a method of practice so abstract that the scholar does not hear himself-in which he himself produces no sound-that music, which he is to learn and bring forth, he is only to hear by the operation of another: such a musical exercise cannot be so animated and animating as the living sound which the scholar himself produces, and therefore feels with greater vivacity and judges of by his own feelings. But then, must all the world learn the piano? must it be taught in masses? and is not technical skill in inseparable union with true musical practice, and therefore to be acquired before everything audible? The author hopes to publish soon, in another place, and after a future more minute investigation, a more extended disquisition on this subject, and he will freely and joyfully retract his objections if any good grounds should appear sufficient to destroy their validity.
repeats itself, and with another repetition of its last bar, leads back to the first but altered theme.
Let us take the scherzo or allegro phrase for our last example. The first part is a subject in a more extended form. A phrase of 4 bars, and a following one of members of 1, 4, and 2 bars, compose the opening phrase. The closing phrase consists of the repetition of the first phrase (altered) of 4 bars, a member of 2 bars taken from the latter, and a closing phrase of twice 4 bars, the latter of which is extended by a ninth bar.
So much for the rhythmic construction of this composition, which by no means belongs to those of simple construction. The tonic contents, the return of the themes, &c., will facilitate the comprehension of the rhythm of this and other works, even to the uninformed. After a moderate number of these investigations, the feeling thereof will awaken, and be gradually so strengthened, as to require no more such minute dissections; so that we shall proceed at once to comprehension and performance.
THE FUGUE FORM. Page 87.
For the first example, we will take the simple fugue in Eb major, in the first part of the Wohltemperirten Klavier, of Seb. Bach.
If we compare the two first entering parts (bass and tenor) with each other, we find, that setting aside a change of the first interval, seven bars proIceed with each.
The seven first bars of the bass* show us, therefore, the theme of the fugue, which enters as subject; thereupon, the tenor enters with the answer; then enter, without episode, the alto with the subject, and the treble with the answer. This is, therefore, the first passing through. An episode of two bars leads to a close in the third bar in Bb major. The counter subject, which the bass placed against the answer of the tenor, is used in part only by the tenor and alto; every participating part in the counter-subject in the counter-harmony, moves in the whole ad libitum. This was then the order of the first passing through, from below to above :
BASS, TENOR, ALTO, TREBLE, and the theme changed regularly as subject and answer on the tonic and dominant.
At the close, Bb major, the second passing through begins. The tenor joins in with the answer-the bass follows before the tenor has got to the end of the theme; indeed, in the next bar,f and therefore in the stretto, with the subject in the eighth and ninth bars of the passing through, the alto enters with the answer, and the treble with the subject, in likewise the closest passing, so that the following order of the parts takes place :
TENOR, BASS, ALTO, TREBLE, and the theme appears in regular but reversed order, as answer and subject. The passing has again been chiefly in Eb major, and in it has ended. Or more
* We add, for the professional eye, that in rigour, the entrance of the seventh bar is the close of the theme.
+ The first tone is shortened in order to separate it better from the tenor.
likely (for the close does not follow), it goes into an episode of eight bars, after the tenor in the following ninth bar has led the subject (as answer) into Ap major; and now, in both the following bars, treble and bass bring again the stretto, which was previously here (as the tenor and bass had done before), which therefore this time appears in the two outward parts; and then a few free bars close the fugue. The fugue in C minor in the same work, Part I., shall be our second example.
This is so carefully elaborated, that we must go through it by bars.
The theme closes with the first crotchet of the second bar. The alto has begun, the treble follows the second bar with the answer; then after an episode at the fourth bar, the tenor with the subject, and after a longer episode at the seventh bar, the bass with the (somewhat altered) answer. Here the passing through might close; it becomes, however, super-complete, inasmuch as in the following bar the treble again appears; at bar 10 the alto, and at the 11th bar the bass enters again with the theme, whereon at the 14th bar the fugue closes in G minor.
In the same bar the treble enters in the closest stretto, passing with the theme in the regular size, and the alto with the same in augmentation; at bar 15, the tenor joins the theme inverted; at bar 16, the alto and treble; and at bar 17, the tenor and treble take the theme in orderly size and motion, but in the stretto (the treble has the theme twice without interruption), upon which, at bar 18, the alto has it again in regular size (and stretto towards the treble), and at bar 19, the bass has it in augmentation, as also without interference afterwards at bar 21 in reversed order, and at bar 22 in the regular size and motion. So, in this manner, in an undivided passing through, the theme has passed eleven times, and that in stretto, inversion, and augmentation. The further investigation we leave to the inquisitive reader.
We will take a third example from the E major fugue itself. We mention only out of it, that from bar 26 the theme is carried through all the parts, from above to below in diminution. At bar 30, the diminution passes (for the fifth time in the bass) in close passages towards the theme in the proper size in the alto.
THE RONDO FORM. Page 89.
The rondo forms are in modern music so abundant and so easily distinguished, that the most hasty allusion to a few examples of them will be sufficient. For greater convenience, we take them out of a single collection; namely, the three sonatas of Beethoven, Op. 2.§
First Example.-The Adagio of the first Sonata.
The chief subject is a two-part song; the first division of it of 8 bars (4 bars opening, and 4 closing phrases) closes in the chief tone. The second division begins with two slighter or weaker members of
The first tone shortened in consideration of the bass.
§ More intimate and numerous investigations of the Rondo and Sonata forms are given in the 3rd Part of the Instruction for Composition.
every two bars, upon which the chief subject, other-. wise directed, closes with 4 bars. Here begins the secondary subject, which, in the manner of a passage, proceeds forward, and with a motive taken from the chief subject, closes in C major. Now the chief subject steps again forward, complete (but altered) and an extensive coda closes the whole. Second Example.-The Largo in the second Sonata.
The chief subject (in D major) formed as the preceding, closes at bar 19. Here the first secondary subject (in the relative key) proceeds freely forward, and at bar 31 leads into (the second time altered) the chief subject, which continues from bar 32 to 50. Here the second secondary subject enters, and also in the principal tone (D major) leads to the chief subject, at first in D minor (because D major had been already used), then into D major and to the close. In this last arrangement the first division only of the chief subject is repeated.
Third Example.-The Finale of the same Sonata The chief subject (A major) closes at bar 16. It is of similar construction to the forementioned. A passage-like phrase conducts bar 26 to the first secondary subject (E major), after which the chief subject, somewhat altered, returns. The second secondary subject follows in A minor, in extended order, whereon the chief subject and the first secondary subject (this latter in the principal key) are repeated. A lengthened coda, whose contents are taken from the chief and second secondary subjects, closes the whole.
We consider the last rondo-form as more effective after the sonata-form.
THE SONATA FORM. Page 90.
We will take, for the first example, the first subject of Beethoven's Sonata, Op. 2, F minor.
The chief subject is contained in the first eight bars its repetition is begun in the dominant, not pursued, but turned to the dominant of the relative key (Eb major), upon which, at bar 20, the secondary subject enters in the relative itself (Ab major). It proceeds in the manner of a passage, and at bar 40 a closing subject begins, with which the first division ends.
The second division begins with the chief subject (Ab major), leaves the secondary subject (in the subdominant of the principal key, Bb minor) to follow, and goes with it, after a passage-like procedure (at bar 33 of the second division), into an organ-point.
The third division brings now all the first— chief subject, secondary, and closing subjects, both the last, in the chief key again. We take a second example from the third Sonata (F major) of Mozart;
Part No. 1 of Breitkopf's edition, from the first subject. The chief subject consists of two themes: the first closes at bar 12. The second, quite different, and altogether separated from the first, closes at bar 22. Both make their perfect close in F major. Now begins a third passage-like subject in D minor, which leads to G minor; but this close changes to a half-close in C minor in the manner explained at page 72. Now a first theme of 16 bars follows the secondary subject in C major; then, after a passage, a second theme (at least indicated by, if not borrowed from, the foregoing); and after some passages comes the closing subject.
Further elucidation remains for individual research. Here we come to the mixed Rondo-sonata form, mentioned at page 89, and consider them as exhibited in the finale of Beethoven's Sonata, in G major, Op. 31.
The chief subject appears in a two-part song form, page 88. An opening phrase of 4 bars, closing in the key of the dominant, which is repeated with a close in the principal key, forms the first division: another phrase of 4 bars, likewise repeated but closing imperfectly, constitutes the second. This chief phrase, with transposition of the melody to the bass, is repeated and proceeds through E minor and D major to A major. Here, at the closing tone, is introduced the secondary phrase in D major, a phrase of 4 bars, very free and easy (suitable to the character of the whole), consisting of three repetitions of a member of two half-bars and a usual closing form. It leads to a closing phrase intimately combined with it, which, with the help of the subdominant (G major, for we are now in D major), assumes an appearance of closing in the key of the dominant. In this event, the first division would be constructed in perfect sonata-form.
But the close does not follow. In lieu of it, the sub-dominant of D major (G major), which was in reality a mere note of transition, becomes, without more ado, held fast as principal tone, and the whole chief phrase (with some alteration) is repeated. So far, in order to have recognized the third or fourth rondo-form, page 89, we should have strengthened the first division by a closing phrase.
In the meanwhile this form also is given up. The first division of the chief subject is again brought into G minor, carried forward, a quite new phrase is brought for assistauce (it has only 4 bars and will not become a secondary subject), and exchanging with the first division of the chief subject, it is carried forward, exactly as in the second division of the sonata-form, to the dominant and organ point. Now follows the third division again in regular sonata form.