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In & measure, every six followed by two or four quavers; in 12 every three or six quavers, six semiquavers, &c. Of demisemiquavers and all shorter notes, it is not customary to group more than four, or at the utmost, eight. The notes forming any special measurable combinations, such as quintuplets, sextuplets, &c., are always grouped together.

So much for dividing the bars when it is a matter of one succession of notes only. We know already, from the Introduction, that in a composition, two and more simultaneous successions of tones can exist, that there is music of more than one part.

These combinations require particular consideration in respect of the division of the bar.

In the first place, as to the manner of writing this description of music, it is two fold. The successions of sounds may be written on one staff, as here for example

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bound together. In the first passage, the two staves are connected by the closing double bar, as well as by the brace. In the last, besides the brace, there are moreover cross bars passing through all the staves, although this assistance is not generally given.

If we wish to divide the bars in a composition in several parts, we must consider each part by itself, and so divide it. Now, as they must all begin at the same time, the first, second, third, &c., crotchet, quaver, &c., of all the parts must fall together. So in No. 97 above, the united three successions of crotchets proceed together, while the succession on the lower staff begins with the first combination of crotchets above it, and continues until their termination. In No. 98, the first tones in the upper staff continue during the time of two crotchets. In union with these tones there appear on the second staff, eight semiquavers, the first of which begins with the said tones on the upper staff, while the lowest part begins with a quaver rest, and is followed by quavers. The first quaver, therefore, coincides with the third semiquaver of the succession next above it, the fourth quaver (or the fifth quaver including the rest) with the ninth semiquaver, and with the crotchets, the third part of the upper succession.

There is an exception from the regular division of several combined parts. This occurs when several notes of the same length are placed over each other on the staff, and are accompanied by the word Arpeggio, (meaning) in the manner of harp playing,

or with this sign before the notes.

In this case, the notes are not to be played literally, all together at the same instant, but a mere trifle after each other, the lowest generally first. If their succession should be as swift as possible, a line is drawn across the notes. Thus for example

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the upper succession of notes is variegated enough to give us a little trouble in the division: but in the simple lower line, we see at once the six parts of the bar, and thereby the notes corresponding to each in the upper line. However, we must not rely blindly on this favourable position of the notes, as above. They ought indeed to be exactly so arranged, but often, from the neglect of the writer or of the engraver, they are not so.

We will notice two manners of writing, not very uncommon, but which are deficient in perspicuity. The first is, placing notes of a whole bar's duration, not at the beginning of a bar, as here

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triplets are opposite the sextulets. There are, therefore, two sextulet notes to one triplet quaver: consequently the upper succession consists of real sextulets.

Furthermore, we facilitate the division of compositions in many parts, by beginning with the easiest (as at page 39), that is, by that part in which the parts of the bars are most intelligibly written. So in No. 100, we have begun by the lower part, where the six parts of the bar instantly strike the eye. In No. 103, for the same reason, we should begin with the upper part. In No 98 it would be most advisable to follow the part with the semiquavers; for this is the most regular, and enables us by its groups of notes to discern and recognise the parts of the bar. Also, it would not be difficult for the beginner to divide the other parts. The minims of the upper part would receive two groups of four semiquavers, and each quaver of the lower part would have two semiquavers.


Of these we can notice only the most important, in order not to enter too much into detail, in a work of elementary instruction. Such minutiæ were better left to the private instructor, and the occasions that may prompt them.

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Here we see some beginnings with such imperfect bars. At (a) the first crotchet is wanting; (b) begins with the fourth part; (c) with the eighth quaver; (d) with the second quaver.

What such a bar is deficient in quantity, must appear at the end of the composition; so that the first imperfect bar and last bar added together, must make a perfect bar.* Therefore, in the above examples, the last bar of (a) must contain a crotchet, of (b) three crotchets, of (c) seven quavers, and of (d) one quaver. In very extended compositions, for greater convenience, or in order to make a more important close, we may release ourselves from this obligation, and write a conclusion in full.

Compositions beginning with a complete bar, are said to be (in contradistinction to those with initial imperfect bars)


As we have found in page 36, that the governing measure may be departed from without any previous mark or sign, so single bars are sometimes introduced, which differ from the general measure, without any notice or warning. This is more especially

But how is the form of this imperfect bar to be explained? It flows of itself from the idea of the arrangement of bars, and we only postponed it from the beginning in order to have more leisure for its elucidation. Our only object in the development of the orders of bars was to obtain smaller visible sections of equal size, and naturally we measured froin the principal part. Might we not, however, begin with any other part, so long as the equality of the sections were adhered to? Here, for example,

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triplets and sextulets of ambiguous form would have been necessary, if it had been essential to write the

upper part in § measure.†

+ The most lemarkable and ingenious application of mixed measures is in the first finale of Don Juan When the minuet begins a second time (in G major, see the Score, Part I, page 259, published by Breitkopf and Härtel), Mozart places three different orchestras on the theatre. The first plays the minuet. On the repetition, the second begins to tune and prelude a little, in the measure of the minuet. But now, on the repetition from the beginning, it joins the minuet with an Anglaise (country dance), in measure. On attaining the second part of the minuet, the Anglaise continues, and the third orchestra begins to tune and prelude, as was previously done by the second. In fine, on the second recommencement of the minuet, the second orchestra begins again its Anglaise and the third falls in with a jovial Schleifer. So at last the three orchestras are playing three different dances, in three different measures:






and the dance swarms with the most enchanting variety of figures, apparently full of disorder, but intertwined with measure and grace, while the choristers, now in this group, now in that, pour forth their bright and perspicuous melodies throughout the threefold dance. The suitableness and pictorial effect of the situation, and the cordial geniality with which Mozart created and combined it, are indeed wonderful. Having said thus much, and turning to the technical construction of

this composition, it is not difficult of inspection. For every crotchet in the minuet there comes a bar of the waltz (like a triplet of quavers); for every two bars of the minuet there are three bars of the Anglaise; and for each crotchet of the Anglaise, a bar of the waltz.

In Beethoven, in his second quintet (in C major), Op. 29, in the finale (page 30 of the score), we find a masterly and extended combination of two measures, of which the following is the beginning,

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with the themes which progress together. Mozart was inspired by a dramatic intention, as Beethoven was by a feeling purely musical. The Lame of an ancient German dance.-TRANSLATOR.

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through all the octaves; and they are even repeated in the same bar, when, from the multiplicity of notes,

on the contrary, the way indicated at (b) would be the they might possibly be forgotten. Thus here

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has been played erroneously in many rehearsals of a large work in various places; at NB. 1, the base has been played eb instead of e; and at NB. 2, ab instead of a, because the chord immediately preceding inclines to eb-g-bb and ab-c-eb.

However, we must be careful not to carry this precaution too far, whereby the notation might become overcharged; and moreover, the performer might be left in doubt, whether the superfluous signs were meant as elucidations, or were not perhaps errors of the pen.


1. ACCENTUATION OF THE PARTS OF A BAR. We have now learned the fundamental lines of musical rhythm in the dividing of a bar. We know which are the Chief Parts, Secondary Parts, &c. and

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and thereby the running passages marked by curves would gain in fluency. This freedom from the severity of rules will be more carefully weighed in But the rules the instructions for performance. each 82

we can distinguish three accents. Such a measure we know, consists of two smaller measures, which latter again, are similarly formed of two still smaller measures, each of 3. Here then, we have in the first place, actual chief parts (marked with three accents); then, ex-chief parts which had been chief parts in the measure (marked with two accents); and lastly, ex-chief parts of the measure (marked with one accent). After these, come the unaccented secondary parts.

2. ACCENTUATION OF THE MEMBERS OF A BAR. Let us now begin to dissect parts of a bar. For example, crotchets into quavers, or triplets of


so begins the play of accents. The first member of a part appears as a chief member; the second or following ones, as secondary members: the first is accented, the others are not.

If we dissect further, for instance, a quaver into semiquavers

the first will be the chief member of a part: the first member of a preceding member (here, the third semiquaver) will be an ex-member-therefore the first must sound loudest, the second less loud, and the secondary members still more gently, as the double and single accentuation is intended to show.

If now we exhibit all these gradations of loudness

with all their consequences must be known in order to observe them so far as may seem appropriate.

We now return to a form of double derivation or interpretation, that is, the sextulet. If we consider it as a double triplet, the first and fourth tones become chief parts (or the latter an ex-chief part), and must be accentuated as follows:

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