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major and the minor, and that we can form both upon every tonic.

the chromatic (1) and diatonic (2) portions, two harmonic successions (3 and 4) follow; and only then

A second foundation for regulated successions of again, a diatonic and chromatic sequence; so that the tones is the so-called


proceeding upwards or downwards. or both in succession. But a melody will rarely be formed entirely from this scale only; since its progression, by semitones only, is too uniform and minute. The chromatic scale indeed, as we have shewn (page 18, in note), cannot be the foundation of any scale; it is no fundamental form in our tonic system.

A third foundation for a regulated succession of tones, is

THE SUCCESSION OF Tones IN A CHORD, or several chords, which combinations we shall understand better in the course of the following sections; for example:


but such a succession is visibly too confined, and at too large intervals, to be a foundation for any considerable time.

Out of these materials are constructed all possible successions of tones; seldom from one source alone, but mostly from two, or indeed, from the contributions of all three. In the above example, two foundations are mixed. The tones of the first bar and those of the second, each by themselves, belong to a chord foundation; but from the first to the second, and from the second to the third bar (c-b and d-c), the passage is diatonic. Such an interchange of foundations may proceed with greater variety, as for example in this passage:


Here at No. 1, is a chromatic foundation-at No. 2, a diatonic-at No. 3, a derivation from a chord, and so forth.

But however rich a succession of tones may be in variety, if it aspire to become a melody and attain artistic meaning, it must observe in the interchange and selection, a certain order; a succession with an intention; in fine, an artistic plan. So, for example, the foregoing passage begins chromatically, proceeds diatonically to a harmonical succession, and then repeats and strengthens this order in the second and third bars. But it must not be expected that the order will always be so simple and transparent as in this instance. Here, for example,


we see a much more variegated arrangement. After

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harmonic successions are made prominently important. But that superiority is claimed again by the third preferably harmonic bar (7 and 8), so that two similar halves are formed, both of which begin diatonically and chromatically, and then proceed harmonically.

Every group of two, three, or more tones, which serves as material for a succession of tones, we will call a

MOTIVE OF THE SUCCESSION OF TONES. Thus, Nos. 1, 2, 3, &c., in the preceding passage, were motives of that succession. In these two successions

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The rhythmic arrangement of a melody ought also to be regulated so as to express some idea or intention.

After our elucidations on the successions of tones, we need not occupy much time upon this point.

The rhythmic arrangement is founded on value, and on the nature and laws of bars; and, like the arrangement of tones, has for its object the formation of a consistent whole, combined with judgment to produce an intended effect. It proceeds in its constructions from one or more fundamental conceptions, which we may call


and forms by equal or similar repetitions, continuations, and alternations-always according to the laws of proportion and of agreeableness, and with a view to the object of each particular work-a more or less extensive rhythmic combination. In this manner, rhythm is the governing attendant in the management of tones, from the smallest melodic conception, up to the greatest and most comprehensive forms of art.

Here we give an example of a rhythmical motive. In the passages immediately preceding, the successions have been in tones of equal and short duration. We give now a succession of a quaver and two semiquavers, which is the rhythmic motive:

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All freedom in the construction of melodies is here admitted.

A flight of rapid and mostly similar notes is also called

A PASSAGE, particularly when of considerable extent. A passage formed of diatonic or chromatic intervals is called

A RUN, more especially if of great length (running at least through an octave), and is chiefly confined to diatonic successions in one direction. If its performance should be accompanied with extraordinary technical difficulty, if it be calculated to produce a brilliant display of the skill and boldness of the executant, it is called



A melody which is constituted into a whole, by having a determined beginning and end, is called a phrase.

By what means is that conclusion effected?

In respect of tone, by the melody's beginning with a tone which becomes important throughout, and closing with the same. In respect of rhythm, by its beginning on a chief part (of a bar) or an ex-chief part, and closing exclusively on a similar part. For these reasons the foregoing successions of tones, Nos. 185 to 187, and others, are only passages, and not phrases, because they are deficient of that decisive rhythmic-tonic conclusion.

Which are tonically important tones?

We can, in the first place, name only one- -the tonic. We shall learn hereafter, from instruction in harmony and modulation, that other tones belonging to tonic harmony (the third and fifth of the tonic), when they act as constituent parts of this harmony, must be considered as effective for a close. That, moreover, a phrase may close in a tone different from that in which it began; in which case the tonic of the new scale and its harmonies are available as closing tones. Finally, that also, the dominant and its harmonies may become the closing tones of a phrase.

In order to return to the important closing tonethe tonic, we shew here

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we have a phrase in two sections (1 and 2, and 3 and 4 bars), and each separates into members of different dimensions; first, into two members, each of two crotchets (the rest included), then into a member of four crotchets. 3. A SUBJECT.

This consists of a phrase and counter-phrase, or of several united phrases, forming together a great MUSICAL SUBJECT.

The subject comprises, therefore, two or more small unities more or less closed, under one larger unity. This can take place according to rule, only when the second and following phrases are similar in contents to the first, or at least, are of the same derivation. In the following sections of this work we shall find new methods for combining phrases into subjects.

In the first place, we have only one chief means of distinction, viz., the direction of the succession of tones. If the first phrase rises, the second falls. Here we recognise that the essential form of a subject, the union of two phrases, is the phrase and counter-phrase, as we say above. Thus here,194. Opening phrase. Closing phrase.

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closing with the repetition of the whole closing phrase. In all such

APPENDAGES AND INTERMIXINGS it is generally advisable, and therefore customary, to preserve the symmetry or proportion between the fore and after phrase, by using nearly similar sections of similar length. Where this, however, on deeper grounds, is not done, we shall soon learn by a little practice, after the foregoing intimations, to distinguish the different forms in any composition before us. Only thus far is it fitting that we should proceed upon this point in our General Musical Instruction. More intimate acquaintance herewith, will be furnished in the doctrine of composition, and in the Science of Music.


We have already remarked (page 33), and we will repeat the observation, that it is rhythm chiefly, which gives order, comprehensibility, and signification to our compositions; and renders them capable of producing an unfailing and determined effect. It was rhythm which singled out and reduced to order an unintelligible mass of notes, which brought equal and unequal notes into parts of bars and into whole bars, and thence into passages, phrases and subjects; in fine, into appreciable and effective combination.

Now, we know from daily experience (and the fifth division of this book will instruct us further)

that there are much larger compositions than movements-compositions which consist of many passages, phrases, and subjects, combined together. What preserves order among them? In the first place again-rhythm. Then, or next in authority or governing influence (as we shall learn later in the description of artistic forms), the arrangements of modulation and the several chief subjects of the composition.

For the study and performance of a composition, it is highly profitable to understand clearly its entire construction and arrangement. We must not therefore remain satisfied with our development so far, but must pursue these rhythmic combinations into their most comprehensive formations. This we can do nowhere better than here.

What was the first object of rhythm? Equal measure-and then? variety combined with symmetry-Equilibrium. So rhythmical order began by notes of equal value, and proceeded thence to notes of the most diversified description but which are easily arranged (being minims, crotchets, &c.*) in proportionate relation to each other. It began with two-fold order, but thence unfolded many and various kinds of measure. The bars of a musical theme were equal, but they could contain notes and rests of the most varied nature, all of which could be comprised in parts of a bar of equal length and measure.

So now, rhythm continues to labour in its double capacity for a single object.

Equal members combined together throughout a whole movement, constitute

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or, which is rare, of three and three bars, as in this Swiss popular song:


Gang mer nit über mis Mät-te-li, gang mer nit

geng dur mis Gras, gang mer nit geng zue mim Schätze-li,

0 - der i prügle di ab.

That rhythms also of six and six, and even of five and five bars, are possible-nay, even of seven and seven, can be easily perceived; but the wider the single rhythms become, the more both they and the whole composition lose in apprehension and mobility.

Now, however, the four-part, six-part, &c. rhythmic combinations, are known to be nothing more than annexations or groupings of the simple two and three-part unities. We can therefore change the

phrase, No. 202, into a phrase of sixteen bars, by merely halving the bars, or at least with very slight alteration; for example:



as here for an opening phrase of eight bars in time, or of four and four bars :



or vice versa, we might revert this phrase into a phrase, or group the above 3 phrase into a g phrase.

Hence it is clear, that we can place not only equal or similar rhythms together, but also


Thus, for example, a section of four bars may follow two sections of two bars each, and vice versa; and this may be taken advantage of in every variety of manner. As examples from extensive compositions occupy too much room, we give one, in few notes, of our own construction.—


Allegro assai. 1


Here the point of the Author's observation is lost, by translating the German names of the notes, namely (literally), halves, fourths, eighths, &c., into the English names, minims, crotchets, &c., which have no self-evident relation to each other.-TRANSLATOR.

+ This and most of the other examples are set too high and too meagrely,

for the sake of brevity and space, to produce their attainable effect when carried out at length.

In the second number (Hefte) of the extremely rich and attractive collection of German popular songs, with their manner of singing, by L. Erk and W. Irmer. Berlin, at Plahn's.

This represents to us the following rhythmic quantities:

1, 1 Bar-2, 2 Bars-1, 1 Bar-2 Bars

1, 1 Bar - 1, 1 Bar.

and may be compared together. We would call these rhythms


In fine, in large compositions, particularly when

If we add together the members of each single bar, descriptive of passionate, vehement feelings, single we shall have nothing but equal sections

2-2, 2-2-2-2-2 Bars*

which are as comprehensible and easy of inspection as bars with parts and members of a bar. Many similar combinations can be found. An attentive observer will perceive them easily in extensive and richly elaborated compositions. Numeration by two, as the most simple partitive number, is predominant most assuredly; as for example, rhythms of 1, 1 and 2—or 2, 2 and 4—or 4, 4 and 8 bars. Rarely do we find numeration by three, during a whole composition: as for example, 3, 3 and 6.† Still less frequently by five, as we have already found among the like-formed rhythms. But we find in large compositions, after a series of two or four bar rhythms, two or more sections of three, six, or five bars each in such an arrangement as this, for example,

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sections may very well be introduced, larger or smaller than those preceding or following them; for example, a five bar section, amid sections of two and four bars only. Such a construction should be called IRREGULAR RHYTHм.

No blame, however, should be attached to such an expression. On the contrary, it should be considered as a case of exemption from the governing rule. In the proper place, that is, for the expression of passion, the irregular rhythm may probably be the only right one.

As we have formed sections by the union of single bars, so by combining sections, two and two, three and three, and so forth, we may produce larger divisions. If we divide, for instance, No. 193 into bars of, the following fundamental rhythmic sections would appear :

1, 1, 2 Bars, 1, 1, 2 Bars.

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with under and upper parts, or all the parts together. At times the entrance of the phrase is concealed by its beginning too late or too early. Here for example,―


* Therefore this is again a subject of several phrases, only not formed so regularly, nor so easily to be recognized as the former No. 196.

but its second section appears half a bar too soon, with a longer and repeated beginning. Nevertheless, its beginning. and the order which presides in the groundwork of the whole (No. 207), remain perceptible in all the deviations.

Finally, the close of a section or of a phrase may be effected by the beginning of another, or by the recommencement of the first; in such a manner, that the closing tone of the one becomes the first tone of the other. We give as an example, a phrase contracted as much as possible :

+ In Beethoven's ninth symphony, the triform enumeration a whole part of the Scherzo.



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