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right hand, I would yet pluck thee thence. 25. And I deliver thee into the hand of those who seek after thy life, and into the hand of those at whom thou art terrified, and into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and into the hand of the Chaldeans. 26. And I fling thee, and thy mother who bare thee, to the strange land, where thou wast not born, and there you shall die. 27. And they shall not return to the land whither they long to return. 28. Is then this man Coniah a despicable, broken vessel, or a vessel in which one has no pleasure? Wherefore were they flung away, he and his seed, and cast to a land which they know not? 29. O land, land, land, hear Yah veh's word. 30. Thus says Yahveh: Write ye down this man childless, a man who prospers not in his life; for no one of his seed shall prosper, sitting on David's throne and ruling any longer in Judab.
chin's name before he came to the throne (cf. on ver. 11). The signet-ring on the right hand is the ornament which one does not put off and holds in honour, cf. Hag. ii. 23. pru, to tear off; see on the form, Ges. § 58. 4; Eng. § 57. Ver. 25 ff. See the fulfilment in 2 Kings xxiv. 12, 15, xxv. 27-30; Jer. xxiv. 1, xxix. 2, lii. 31 ff. Cf. also the prophecy contemporary with the present one, xiii. 18 ff. "W, verbal adjective, as in xxxix. 17. Ver. 26. mnK pKn, the single use of the article is strange. Ver. 27. CB3 KBO, Piel, properly, to raise the desire after, i.e. to long for something, as in xliv. 14. Ver. 28. A despised earthen vessel, i.e. one deemed useless, is thrown away, as this ruler was cast away, cf. xix. 11. Ver. 30. Write him down, i.e. in the register of citizens (Isa. iv. 3), childless. In ver. 28, indeed, "his seed" also was named (which LXX omit to avoid the contradiction); but our verse does not say that he is to be absolutely childless, but only that he is to be legally counted so, no son or descendant succeeding to him. Instead of r\br (6 we should say: None of his posterity will have the good fortune to sit on David's throne and rule over Judah. It is doubtful whether Jehoiachin, who, according to 2 Kings xxiv. 8, was only eighteen years old (according to 2 Chron. xxxvi. 9, only eight), had children during his reign. Ver. 28 does not require this, since his posterity may be spoken of proleptically. Wives of the king are mentioned, 2 Kings xxiv. 15.
XXIII. 1. Woe to shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture, is Yahveh's oracle. 2. Therefore thus has Yahveh, the God of Israel, spoken respecting the shepherds who feed my people: You have scattered my sheep and driven them away, and not sought after them; so do I seek in you after the wickedness of your doings, is Yahveh's oracle.
3. And I will gather the remnant of my sheep from all the lands whither I have scattered them, and bring them again into their pasture, and they shall be fruitful and multiply.
4. And I set up shepherds over them, which feed them; and they shall no longer be afraid, nor hopeless, nor missing, is Yahveh's oracle. 5. Behold, days come, is Yahveh's oracle, that I cause a righteous sprout to arise to David, and he shall reign as king, and deal wisely and practise justice and righteousness in the land. 6. In his days Judah shall enjoy
Ver. 1. Shepherds = rulers, as in xxii. 22. The reference is not merely to kings proper, so that the plural would only apply to a succession of rulers, but here as in iii. 15, xxii. 22, above all, to contemporary rulers and leaders, who are addressed as kings in xvii. 20 also; see on xvii. 20,xxi. 12. The flock of my pasture = the flock feeding on my land, which, of course, implies that the flock itself is the Lord's property, cf. xiii. 17. The LXX have vofir,; alruv less suitably, and then omit 'n DS3. Ver. 3. Here the scattering, ascribed to the shepherds in ver. 2, appears as God's act. God has scattered it, because under the guidance of its rulers it has proved unfaithful to Him. n3n mB, see on iii. 16. Ver. 4. LXX omit npB' t6l; Ewald would rather read VinB' • both without reason in the context, since the word well suits a herd in the sense "to miss" (cf. 1 Sam. xxv. 7), and after the climax Virr another climax is natural. Ver. 5 f. nDv used in Isa. iv. 2 already of the divine salvation of the days of consummation, but there not yet in a definite personal form as here and similar designations, Isa. xi. 1. Afterwards (Zech. iii. 8, vi. 12) this nDv became a prophetic proper name of the Messiah. pnv is the cardinal virtue of a ruler (Ps. lxxii. 1 ff.), which will be seen perfectly in the future Messiah, according to Zech. ix. 9 and other prophetic passages. It is exercised in religious attention to justice and righteousness in the land, the protection of the friendless and helpless especially being thought of; cf. Jer. xxi. 12, xxii . 3. Ver. 6. itop, the deliverance, and Israel dwell securely. And this (is) bis name with which he shall be called: "Yahveh our righteousness." 7. For this reason days shall come, is Yahveh's oracle, that one shall no longer say, "As truly as Yahveh lives, who brought up the children of Israel from the land of Egypt," but: 8. As truly as Yahveh lives, who brought up and led the seed of the house of Israel from the land of the nortb, and from all the lands whither I drove them, and they shall dwell on their own soil.
rare contraction of the suffix (as in Hos. viii. 3) has produced the parallel reading NOP, which, however, would make the clause defective. The erroneous rendering of the LXX also confirms the correctness of the current reading, and the changes of the text by Ewald and Cheyne are arbitrary. The only question is, to whom the suffix applies, whether to Israel or the Messiah. Ewald, Graf, Nagelsbach prefer the former, appealing to xxxiii. 16. But if Jerusalem (not Israel) there bears this auspicious name, this by no means decides the present passage, considering Jeremiah's fondness for giving new turns to words already in use. Here the whole context favours the reference to the Messiah, of whom ver. 5 speaks with such emphasis, and who still rules in ver. 6: in His days the state of salvation begins; His name, then, is also to he referred to Him. The name Immanuel, Isa. vii . 4, proves undeniably that an individual, specifically the Messiah, may bear a name expressive of God's relation to the whole Church. Yahveh our righteousness. These two words are not in apposition to each other, as the ancient interpretation supposed, as if thereby the Messiah were described as Yahveh Himself, who is our righteousness; but after the analogy of Immanuel the name expresses the relation of God to the Church having its ground and security in the Messiah. pTNf, properly, right attitude, right character (cf. Kautzsch, Derirate des Stammes pIv), then justification, must not be simply reduced to safety, welfare, etc., giving up the ethical character lying in the nature of the word and specifically secured in the present context by pHv, ver. 5, as well as by the exposition in xxxi. 31-34; cf. also Ezek. xxxvi. 25 ff. The word piv embraces two things, right attitude and the right condition following from it; here, inner justification by the Lord and the divine evidence of righteousness outwardly, consisting in open benefits and blessings. Ver. 7 f. Almost literally like xvi. 14 f. On the form ruBv, see on i. 13. The LXX wrongly put these two verses at the end of the chapter. Exposition.
Contents of xxi. 1-xxiii. 8: The King - Oracles. This section contains a series of oracles occupied with the kings of Jttdah and arranged in accordance with this common matter, not in chronological sequence. The series is opened by a. an oracle delivered to King Zedekiah on the outbreak of the Babylonian war: a. Consultation of the prophet and his answer (xxi. 1-7), followed by ft. his Counsel to the people (vv. 8-10). b. On the other hand, the independent monition to the royal house springs from an earlier time, perhaps that of Jehoiakim, xxi. 11-14. c. Ch. xxii. contains a chain of kingoracles reaching probably to Zedekiah (xxiii. 1-8), of which the first (xxii. 1-19) may belong to a discourse delivered under Jehoiakim: a. general Introduction (vv. 1-9); j8. message respecting Shallum-Jehoahaz (vv. 10-12); 7. respecting Jehoiakim, vv. 13-19; 8. the oracle respecting Jehoiachin, vv. 20-30, conies somewhat farther down. d. Encouraging contrast to the many preceding Bad Shepherds: the good government of the future Shepherd of David's house, xxiii. 1-8. Since a connection exists between the name of King Zedekiah and the name Messiah, xxiii. 6, we may conjecture that this last oracle was spoken under that king. It is not probable that Zedekiah chose his name in accordance with Jeremiah's prophecy (cf. 2 Kings xxi v. 17). The repetition xxxiii. 14 ff. shows that xxiii. 1 ff. was spoken some time before the tenth year of Zedekiah.
a. XXI. 1-10. When, after Zedekiah's revolt against Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings xxiv. 20), the latter ruler in the ninth year of the Judoean king advanced in strength against Jerusalem (2 Kings xxv. 1), Zedekiah sent a deputation, consisting of leaders of the priesthood, to Jeremiah to request an oracle from the prophet, and intimating the king's hope that God, the Lord, who had so wondrously succoured his city of old, would not leave him without help. In a position of similar danger in outward respects, Hezekiah had sent a deputation to the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings xix. 2 ff.; Isa. xxxvii. 2 ff.), and then received a comforting assurance which turned out wonderfully true. But how different the divine answer this time, ver. 3 ff. See the reason of this different course on God's part, Jer. xxxvii. 1 f.; 2 Kings xxiv. 19 f. The Lord announces utter failure in the impending conflicts in the open field: the Lord Himself will drive the martial forces of the Judaeans into the city; He will prove that it is He who refuses victory to their weapons by allying Himself with the foe outside, and sending pestilence on the besieged city (ver. 6). Observe the terrible declaration of war on God's part, ver. 5. Instead of saving His people, the Lord will be their angriest foe. Finally, after long suffering (as the result showed, two years in length, 2 Kings xxv. 1, 2), He will give up those who have escaped the sword, famine, and plague altogether into the hands of the hostile monarch, who will show them no mercy.
How earnest the prophet was in his insistence that the defence will utterly fail, is shown by the urgent, nay, solemn counsel, which, following up his answer, he gives to the people, perhaps in the hearing of the king's deputies, ver. 8 f. Only he that forsakes the city and gives himself up to the foe will at least bear off his life as a prey. The prophet gave similar counsel to King Zedekiah himself, xxxviii. 17 f., and often to the people during the long investment, xxxviii. 2 f.; a not inconsiderable portion of them followed the counsel (xxxviii. 19, xxxix. 9, lii. 15). This discouraging counsel naturally enraged the defenders (xxxviii. 4). But the prophet showed that he was not lacking in personal courage and sacrifice by staying himself in the city, of whose destruction he was assured by God's word.
b. XXI. 11-14. This oracle is only found here because in this section of the book messages to and respecting the kings are collected. The message cannot be joined to the preceding