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have passed, Nemesis will overtake the great world-power at present victorious.

b. Vv. 15-29. Too great importance cannot be attached to the new turn of things. The prophet pictures its gravity by narrating to how many nations he has given the cup of wrath at God's bidding. This wine of wrath being an ideal drink, the incident is not to be conceived as outwardly transacted, as if the prophet had journeyed to these countries, or had symbolically offered a cup of common wine to their ambassadors at Jerusalem, of which nothing is said. He discharges here the office conferred on him in i. 10, administering a deadly drink to those nations by his effective preaching. The sword, by which they will fall, is merely the outward medium; in reality they perish, intoxicated with the wine of God's wrath. All are mentioned who suffer in the same way through the unexpected elevation of Babylon to world-wide power. They are enumerated at length, with an evident anxiety that none may be passed over. The specific oracles respecting the several heathen nations (ch. xlvi. ff.) are an expansion of this summary review. They nearly all had a place in the original book of the fourth year of Jehoiakim (xxxvi. 2), perhaps there following upon ch. xxv. There is no specific oracle respecting the kingdom of the Medes, which was far distant from the seer. It is more singular that Damascus and Syria are not mentioned (cf. xlix. 2 3 ff.) in the present survey of the nations. Jerusalem and Judah lying nearest to the prophet, on which the heaviest judgment is to fall, of course come first in the list (ver. 18, cf. ver. 9). Then follows (ver. 19) the great power in the south which is first conquered, Egypt (see ch. xlvi.), then the smaller, southern tribes bordering on Judah: Uz, Philistia (ch. xlvii.), Edom (xlix. 7 ff.); then the eastern neighbours Moab (see ch. xlviii.) and Ammon (xlix. 1 ff.); then the Phoenicians in the north-west with their colonies (xlvii. 4); next, as the circle enlarges, the Arab desert-tribes dwelling in

the farther south and south-east (cf. xlix. 28 ff.), and the great kingdoms to the north of Babylon: Elam (xlix. 34 ff. of a later date) and Media; finally, the vast northern lands in a mass. But after all these comes, last in order, Babylon in a closing act, where it is no longer an avenging conqueror, but the object of vengeance (cf. vv. 12-14 and ch. iv. f.). With the mention of this imperial power, which at present leads the wny in inflicting judgment, the survey comes to a conclusion. The reasons of the judgment on the heathen follow here, as in xvi. 10 f., v. 19, in this form: those devoted to doom refuse to accept the divine decrees, whereupon they hear its vindication. Of course the refusal to drink, like this action itself, belongs to the ideal prophetic sphere. The vindication of the judgment on the nations is, that if God deals so severely with His own people, putting them at the head of those to be punished, how should the more godless heathen escape without punishment! Cf. 1 Pet. iv. 17 f.

Vv. 30-38. The retribution is universal; it will smite all nations without exception. What Joel foretold of a wholesale judgment of the nations, in which God thunders on high, and a terrible vintage-cry announces his blood-red harvest on the whole earth, will be fulfilled. It is not merely a conflict of the nations among themselves which now opens, but a judicial proceeding which the Lord Himself carries out with all nations. As frequently in the prophetic visions, here also a judgment—in itself affecting nearly the whole known world —enlarges into the general and final judgment, of which, indeed, it is one act. Vv. 32 ff. disclose a sad spectacle on the earth. After the storm of judgment has roared past, the earth will be a vast field of corpses, on which kings and peoples, high and low, lie slain without distinction. This is the work of God's wrath, which sent the destroyer.


Persecution Of Jeremiah On Occasion Of The TempleDiscourse UNDER JEHOIAKIM, CH. XXVI.

XXVI. 1. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, the son of Josiah, king of Judah, this word came from Yahveh, saying: 2. Thus has Yahveh said: Take thy stand in the court of Yahveh's house and speak to all the cities of Judah, who come to worship in Yahveh's house, all the words which I have commanded thee to speak to them; thou mayest not omit a word. 3. Perhaps they will hear, and turn every one from his evil way; then will I repent me of the evil which I intend to do them because of the wickedness of their deeds. 4. And thou shalt say to them: Thus has Yahveh said: Unless you hearken to me to walk in my law, which I have laid before you, 5. to hearken to the words of my servants the prophets, whom I send to you, and sent to you early and diligently, but you hearkened not,—6. I make this house like

Chapter XXVI.

Ver. 1. n?n imn rrn, sc. VW btt. Vv. 2-6 gives a summary of the temple - discourse, ch. vii. ff., that passage in it being emphasized which gave occasion to the judicial prosecution. Cf. especially xxvi. 6, 9 with vii. 12,14, xxvi. 13 with vii. 3, xxvi. 4 with ix. 12. That the prophet received and delivered a longer communication than is given here is intimated in xxvi. 2, 8. The present heading thus gives the date of the temple-discourse, which is quite confirmed by the contents. Ch. xxvi. comes so long afterwards, because historical in matter. It did not stand in the book of his discourses first dictated by Jeremiah. Such historical additions are found only from chs. xix., xx. onwards. Ver. 2. Thou shalt not remove one word, i e. suppress from pity (cf. Deut. iv. 2, xiii. 1), which injunction had here special reasons. Ver. 3. Dru with instead of the more frequent by, as in xlii. 10. See there. Ver. 4. The law, see on ix. 12. Ver. 6. Shiloh, see on vii. 12. In nnKTn, Kethib n is a copyist's


Shiloh, and I make this city a curse to all the nations of the earth.

7. Then the priests, and the prophets, and the whole people heard Jeremiah speak these words in the house of Yahveh; 8. and it came to pass, when Jeremiah had finished saying everything which Yahveh commanded him to say to the whole people, that the priests, and the prophets, and the whole people seized him, saying: Thou shalt die! 9. Wherefore hast thou prophesied in Yahveh's name, saying: "This house shall be made like Shiloh, and this city lie waste, without inhabitants"? Then the whole people gathered together against Jeremiah in the house of Yahveh. 10. And the princes of Judah heard these things, and they came up from the house of the king to the house of Yahveh, and sat at the entrance of the new gate of Yahveh. 11. And the priests and the prophets spake to the princes and to the whole people, saying: This man is worthy of death; for he has prophesied against this city, as you have heard with your eais. 12. Then spake Jeremiah to all the princes and to the whole people, saying: Yahveh sent me to prophesy against this house and against this city all the words which you have heard. 13. And now amend your ways and your works and hearken to the voice of Yahveh your God; then will Yahveh repent him concerning the evil which he has spoken respecting you. 14. But I— behold, I am in your hand; do to me as is good and right in your eyes. 15. Only know ye distinctly that, if you kill me,

error. For the Masoretic text requires here exceptionally % Ges. § 8. 4. Ver. 9. rV3J like n'*', Ges. § 75. a. 21c; Eng. § 74. Ver. 10. The princes of Judah are those who in xvii. 20 are also called kings; in xxi. 11 f. the house of the king or house of David is addressed and summoned to faithful dispensing of justice. They came up from the palace, see on xxii. 1. They sat to judge in the new gate of Yahveh, supposed by many to be identical with the "upper Benjamin gate," xx. 2, called new because first built under Jotham (2 Kings xv. 35). But this identity is by no means certain, considering the different name. This "door of Yahveh " led to the inner court, xxxvi. 10. Ver. 11. BBcD here and ver. 16, the sentence due to one by right; thus properly, a capital sentence is due to him. Ct*. Deut. xix. 6, xxi. 22, as you have heard, only to avoid repeating you lay innocent blood on you, and on this city, and on its inhabitants; for Yahveh has truly sent me to speak all these words in your ears. 16. Then said the princes and the whole people to the priests and to the prophets: This man is not worthy of death; for he has spoken to us in Yahveh's name.—17. Then men of the elders of the land stood up and spake to the whole assembly of the people, saying: 18. Micah, the Morasthite, prophesied in the days of Hezekiah, king of Judah, and spake to the whole people of Judah, saying: "Thus says Yahveh of hosts: Zion shall be ploughed as a field, and Jerusalem be made heaps of ruins, and the mountain of the house forest-hills." 19. Did Hezekiah, king of Judah, and all Judah, put him to death at all? Did he not fear Yahveh, and appease the face of Yahveh, that Yahveh might repent of the evil which he spoke respecting them? And should we commit a great crime against our own souls?

20. And there was again a man who prophesied in Yahveh's name, Uriah, son of Shemaiah of Kirjath-Jearim, and he prophesied against this city and against this land in agreement with the words of Jeremiah. 21. And king Jehoiakim, and all his mighty men, and all the princes heard his words; and the king sought to kill him. And Uriah heard it and was afraid, and fled, and came to Egypt. 22. Then King Jehoia

the narrative (Graf), since the people had heard, but not the princes, to whom without doubt the points of accusation were again exactly stated. Ver. 18. Instead of rv3'D, Kethib, Keri gives the briefer form usual in that prophet, n3'D (Micah i. 1); Kethib as in 2 Kings xxii. 12; Neh. xii. 35. partic. not 3 perf., cf. xxxii. 3. Ver. 19. 'n "OB r&n, properly, to smooth, stroke the face of the Lord; hence to appease, as in Ex. xxxii. 11 and often; and we, on the other hand, are about to commit a great evil against our own souls (cf. xvii. 21), i.e. to incur a deadly sin. The sentence is easily recognised as interrogative. Ver. 20. Uriah, son of Shemaiah, not mentioned elsewhere, of Kirjath-Jearim, the well-known Judamn town, 1 Sam. vii. 1; according to Robinson, the present Abu Gosh, formerly Karieth el Enab, three hours north-west of Jerusalem. Converniwj this city and this land, is said in allusion to what precedes (ver. 12), while what is here said is scarcely meant as a continuation of the elders' words. Ver. 21. The mighty men, leaders in war, as in 2 Kings xxiv. 16, men of war. Ver. 22. Jehoiakim was

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