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Jeremiah's Book Of Consolation, Chs. Xxx.-xxxiil
L Comforting Oracles, Chs. Xxx., Xxxi.

XXX. 1. The word which came to Jeremiah from Yahveh, saying: 2. Thus said Yahveh, the God of Israel: Write thee all the words, which I have spoken to thee, in a book. 3. For behold, days come, is Yahveh's oracle, that I will turn again the captivity of my people Israel and Judah, Yahveh said, and will make them return to the land which I gave to their fathers, and they shall occupy it.

4. And these are the words which Yahveh spoke concerning Israel and Judah. 5. Thus said Yahveh: We have heard a cry of dismay, terror, and a state of ruin. 6. Ask now and see, whether a man brings forth! Wherefore then do I see every man with (his) hands on his loins like a travailing woman, and (wherefore) have all faces turned to deathly

Chapter XXX

Ver. 2. This direction, couched in general terms, refers, according to ver. 3, to sayings respecting the return from exile. The sayings meant are those of chs. xxx. and xxxi. as in ver. 4. On the other hand, in ch. xxxii. there is a new heading as in xxx. 1. Ver. 3. nuC 3iC as in xxix. 14. That deliverance will come is both the reason and the substance of what is said and written. Both notions are included in 'a. Ver. 5 f. applies not to the impending conquest of Jerusalem, but, according to ver. 7, to the day of Yahveh, when Babylon's yoke is broken; even to Jacob this will be a time of tribulation (ver. 7), but freedom or salvation will be born to it from the throes of judgment. Cf. Isa. xiii. 4 ff. The tumult of war arising will be fearful. Ver. 6. They will see all men behaving like terrified women when the hour of travail is approaching. Corpse-like pallor, properly, a greenish yellow hue, terror freezpallor? 7. Alas, for that day is great beyond comparison; and it is a time of tribulation for Jacob, but he shall be delivered from it. 8. And it shall come to pass on that day, is the oracle of Yahveh of hosts, that I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and I will burst thy bonds, and strangers shall no more make him their servant. 9. But they shall serve Yahveh their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them. 10. But as for thee, be not afraid, my servant Jacob, is Yahveh's oracle, and despair not, O Israel; for behold I deliver thee from afar off, and thy seed from the land where they are captive, and Jacob shall return and rest, cheerful and undisturbed. 11. For I am with thee, is Yahveh's oracle, to save thee. For I will make an end of all the nations whither I have scattered thee; only I will not make an end of thee, but chastise thee in measure, and by no means leave thee unpunished.

12. For thus says Yahveh: Grievous is thy wound, grievous thy bruise. 13. No one maintains thy right; thou hast no medicine for thy wounds to heal them. 14. All thy lovers have forgotten thee; they ask not after thee. For I

ing the blood, cf. Joel ii . 6. Ver. 7. Cf. Joel ii. 11. In pKD the p, as in ii. 15. Ver. 8. Yoke and bands, see xxvii. 2; his yoke refers to Jacob. Ver. 9. The rightful king of the days of deliverance is called David, as in Hos. iii. 5; not that the ancient king David would rise from the dead; D'pn, so common in Jeremiah, nowhere has this sense, but means in this connection to raise to power, as in 2 Sam. vii. 12. On the contrary, this David is, of course, identical with the "righteous sprout," xxiii. 5, xxxiii. 15. Ver. 10. pKc, quadriliteral verb. Ver. 11. rr?3 nB'y (iv. 27, v. 10, 18), the second time with accusative.—vsmb, by the measure of right, fairness, cf. x. 24, —npJ, cf. Ex. xxxiv. 7; to declare the sinner altogether guiltless, without satisfaction being made to justice, would be against God s love of right; cf. xlvi. 27 f., a repetition of the passage. Hitzig regards it as an interpolation of Deutero-Isaiah. On the contrary, the latter adopts Jeremiah's style. Ver. 12. Evil obtains in regard to thy wound, i.e. it is ill therewith. Cf. x. 19, and see on iv. 6. Ver. 13. "MD^.to be joined to the after-clause, against the accents. nbyn, see on viii. 22. niKBi, means of cure, as in xlvi. 11. Ver. 14. Thy lovers, neighbouring peoples who once paid thee court, not from quite unselfish motives, as it have smitten thee with hostile stroke in cruel chastisement because of the multitude of thy guilt, for thy sins have become great. 15. Why criest thou on account of thy wound, thy smarting pain? Because of the multitude of thy guilt, for thy sins are great, I have done this to thee. 16. Therefore all they who devour thee shall be devoured, and all thy oppressors shall go into captivity together. And all thy plunderers shall be for plunder, and I give all them that have preyed on thee for a prey. 17. For I restore health to thee, and heal thee of thy wounds, is Yahveh's oracle; for they call thee "outcast one," " Zion, for whom no one asks."

18. Thus says Yahveh: Behold, I turn the captivity of the tents of Jacob, and I have compassion on his dwellings; and the city is built on its hill, and the palace stands in its right place. 19. And praise shall go forth from them, and the sound of them that keep jubilee, and I make them numerous so that they shall not be few, and bring them to honour so that they shall not be small. 20. And his sons shall be as before, and his congregation be established before me, and I will visit all them that annoy them. 21. And his prince shall spring from him, and his ruler go forth from his

now appears; cf. xxii . 20. depends here and in ver. 15

on the preceding causal by. Ver. 16. Therefore, namely, because it was the righteous God who allowed Israel's foes a long time to inflict on it terrible outrages because of its sins, these foes must suffer retribution. Cf. ii. 3.—D^E>, Kethib, is a Syriasm for Dpb"; on the other hand, Keri derives from npC, Ges. § 67. a. 4; Eng. § 66. Ver. 17. nnK, see on viii. 22. The base treachery of old friends moves the Lord to show Himself a genuine friend; cf. on ver. 16. Zion, she of whom it is said: no one asks for her. Ver. 18. The city is most naturally (ver. 17) identified with Jerusalem. The palace will stand in the spot belonging to it, in its right place, or as Hebrews say of buildings and cities: sit. Ver. 20. As formerly, properly, in the foretime, by which is meant here not the patriarchal age, but the most flourishing age of the kingdom under David and Solomon. As, then, the sons of the nation will be numerous and famous, its congregation will stand erect, i.e. have firm standing before God. Ver. 21. The suffix in vn3ipm refers not to the nation, but to the ruler or king in Israel, who is the subject in this verse. 3npn is taken midst, and I make him approach that he may draw near to me; for who is he that will pledge his heart to draw near to me? is Yahveh's oracle. 22. And you shall be my people, and I will be your God. 2 3. Behold, the tempest of Yahveh, fierce wrath shall go forth, a driving whirlwind shall sweep round the head of the wicked. 24. Yahveh's wrath shall not return until it executes and until it brings to pass the purposes of his heart; at the end of the days you shall perceive it.

XXXI. 1. At that time, is Yahveh's oracle, I will be a God to all the families of Israel, and they shall be to me a people. 2. Thus says Yahveh: the nation of those escaped from the sword found favour in the wilderness; up then, to

designedly from the priestly phraseology, in which Kal and Hiphil are used for drawing near to God with sacrificial gifts. fJJ asserts still more: a drawing nigh so as to touch. It is used, e.g., of Moses, Ex. xxiv. 2. It is true the whole nation is to bear the priestly character (Ex. xix. 6), and is therefore called uip Dy, Ps. cxlviii. 14; but the question also points to one entering into the closest fellowship with God: who is there that would pledge his heart to draw near to me? To offer the heart — the seat not of life, but of conscience, and the courage which a good conscience gives—as a pledge = to draw near to God, relying on his own conscience, on the confidence of his heart. This no man will venture to do who is acquainted with God's holiness. The opposite to this is: I will cause him to draw near to me, so that he does not do it uncalled. Ver. 23 f. Almost like xxiii. 19 f. nunn is synonymous with W>innn; TU, akin to bbl, to roll. The genuineness of these verses is not to be questioned. Even the work of redemption is brought about by the going forth of God's judicial might (cf. v. 5 ff.), whose final goal is the completion of the plan of salvation.

Chapter XXXI.

Ver. 2. Found favour—perfect, which will be fulfilled in the future. For the nation of those escaped from the sword are the exiles, li. 50.—infin. abs. to give emphasis: he verily goes, cf. Ex. xxxiii. 14, or God's challenge to Himself: let me go, let us go! The wilderness is named as the place of the meeting of God and the exiles, after the analogy of the Sinaitic bring him to rest, Israel! 3. From afar Yahveh appeared to me—and with everlasting love I loved thee; therefore I continued favour long to thee. 4. Again I will build thee that thou mayest be built, O virgin of Israel; again thou shalt ply thy timbrels and go forth in the dance of those that make merry; 5. again thou shalt plant vineyards on the mountains of Samaria; they who do so shall plant and also enjoy. 6. For there is a day when watchers cry on the mountains of Ephraim: Arise ye, and let us go up to Zion, to Yahveh our God!

7. For thus says Yahveh: Raise ye a joyous song for Jacob, and exult for the head of the nations! Publish praise, and say: Give salvation, O Yahveh, to thy nation, the remnant of Israel! 8. Behold, I bring them from the north country and gather them from the corners of the earth, blind

march. Ver. 3. From afar, namely, from Jerusalem, cf. li. 50. The speakers here change rapidly. God affirms that, despite the removal of the nation and the long time that has elapsed since the first love, He has remained faithful to the covenant of grace; cf. ii. 2. ~pTOVn='fa visCD, after Ps. xxxvi. 10; cf. Ges. § 121. 4; Eng. § 119. Ver. 4. To build = to make grow on firm ground, to give position and prosperity. The small hand-drums were fastened on girls' fingers, hence " put on." Ver. 5. Isa. xxviii. 1 alludes to the abundance of wine in the vicinity of Samaria. Planters will plant and enjoy, properly = profane. The first produce was hallowed, according to Lev. xix. 23 ff., that of the fourth year in fruit-trees (that of the first three was unclean), so that the fruit was first available for profane use in the fifth year. By God's blessing the planter will have this enjoyment, which was not often the case (Deut. xxviii. 30). Cf. on the idiom, Deut. xx. 6. Ver. 6. Watchers, who, posted on high positions, here proclaim the feasts, whose beginning had been signalled to them from Judah, i.e. newmoon observances and feasts dependent on the moon. Ver. 7. The head, the first, most distinguished of the nations (cf. on ii. 3), by reason of its theocratic dignity, in which it is again installed. Israel's position of honour, towering above all nations, is prominent also in Deut. iv. 7 f., xxvi. 19. nrics?, adverbially, exults because of the first of the nations; congratulations and good wishes will be brought it on its newly-acquired dignity. yBnn is used by preference for this, Ps. xx. 9, cxviii. 25 (Matt. xxi. 9). Ver. 8. The northern country is in a general way the

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