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ground I Her images are put to shame, her idols dashed to the ground! 3. For a nation comes up against her from the north, which will lay waste her land, so that no one shall again dwell therein; from man to beast — they are fled, gone away! 4. In those days and at that time, is Yahveh's oracle, the sons of Israel shall come, they and the sons of Judah together; they shall go on weeping and seek Yahveh their God. 5. They shall ask after Zion, setting their face the way hither: "Come and let us join ourselves to Yahveh in an eternal covenant which shall not be forgotten." 6. They were lost sheep, my people; their shepherds caused them to err on tempting mountains; from mountain to hill

Greeks, belonging also according to the Babylonian accounts to the supreme divine triad, had a gigantic temple at Babylon, described by Herod. i. 181-183; Diod. ii. 9. Merodach, in the inscriptions Marduk, was the specific tutelary deity of the city of Babylon; rose to the head of the system of gods after Babylon became a capital with wide-stretching dominion; has also the surname Bel. Among the planets Merodach answers to Jupiter. ohbi, Lev. xxvi. 30, Deut. xxix. 16, here only in Jeremiah, often in Ezekiel, properly perhaps logs, stumps, contemptuous name for images (according to others, stercorei). Ver. 3. As once the avenger who was to visit Jerusalem was long described indefinitely by Jeremiah as a foe from the north, so now the avenger coming on Babylon is described; so in vv. 9, 41; on the other hand, li. 11; cf. the definite mention of the foe in ver. 27. Cf. iv. 25. Ver. 4. Cf. iii. 18, 21, xxxi. 8. Go on, go farther and farther weeping, Ges. § 131. 36; Eng. § 128. Ver. 5. bxV, here with accusative, to ask, inquire after something, cf. xxxi. 21. xbi\ scarcely imper., as also iV3pJ, Joel iii. 11; rather transition to the third person (cf. ver. 8): and let them join themselves . . . in a perpetual covenant (accusative, Ges. § 138. a. 3; Eng. § 135. Cf. xxxi. 31 ff., xxxiii . 14 ff.), which falls not into oblivion, and so is indestructible (cf. xx. 11, xxiii. 40). Ver. 6. Cf. x. 21, xxiii. 1 ff.; "12$, originally used of a sheep separated from the flock and lost. Kethib, to be read with Nagelsbach, Keil, in

the sense which the verb has in Isa. xlvii. 10, not D'33ic; the Keri to be rendered: the mountains have led them astray, or they have been led astray to the mountains—less in place. There may be an allusion to the worship of the heights, and also to the backsliding to the proud earthly powers, which were they went; they forgot their camping-place. 7. All they who found them consumed them, and their oppressors said: We do no wrong, because they have sinned against Yahveh, the habitation of righteousness and the hope of their fathers, Yahveh. 8. Flee ye from the midst of Babylon, and depart from the land of the Chaldaeans, and be like he-goats before the flock. 9. For behold, I set on and lead up against Babylon a multitude of great nations from the land of the north, who array themselves against her; from thence she is taken; their arrows are like a fortunate hero, who returns not without gain. 10. Thus Chaldaea becomes a prey; all who plunder her shall be satisfied, is Yahveh's oracle. 11. Yea, rejoice, yea exult, thou plunderer of my inheritance, yea frolic like a heifer treading out corn, and neigh like strong horses. 12. Your mother is sorely put to shame, she that bare you will be ashamed; behold, the last of the nations! Wilderness, drought, and desert! 13. Because of Yahveh's fury it shall not be inhabited, and shall become

alluring but inhospitable mountains, where the flock perished, wandering from one height to another. Camping-place, cf. Ps. xxiii. 2. Ver. 7. Cf. ii. 3. Because the nation had forgotten its god, the heathen powers regarded it as good prey, which might be consumed with impunity. Ick nnn, cf. xxix. 19. Pasture of righteousness, Jerusalem is called in xxxi. 23; here the Lord Himself is so called as the true home of His people, from which they derived safety and success. He is also called the hope of their fathers, xiv. 8, xvii. 13. Ver. 8. Kethib is preferable, cf. with ver. 5. As the he-goats pushed to the front on the opening of the fold, so those addressed (the captive Judaeans) are to be the first to flee; the others will follow the example, ver. 16. Ver. 9. DcD, from there it is taken by these nations. His (the enemy's) arrows, which miss not the mark aimed at, are compared to a warrior who does not return from an attack disappointed. Ver. 11. Properly, for thou makest thyself rejoice—do thou rejoice (Kethib sing. to be preferred); the fatal apodosis follows in ver. 12. Threshing is more play than toil to a frisky heifer, Hos. x. 11. KBH for nun. Neighing is a sign of excessive wantonness in horses, see on viii. 16. Ver. 12. The persons addressed are the individual Chaldaeans, of whose mother, the nation, it shall be said: Behold the last of the nations! (cf. the opposite JVBtn), and so far as it is country, fatherland: wilderness, etc. Ver. 13. 3B'n, see on an utter desolation; every one that passes by Babylon shall be astonished, and hiss for all her plagues. 14. Set yourselves against Babylon round about, all ye archers! Shoot at her, spare not arrows, for she has sinned against Yahveh. 15. Exult over her round about; she has offered her hand, her pillars are fallen, her walls broken down; for this is Yahveh's vengeance. Revenge yourselves on her! Like as she did, do to her! 16. Extirpate the husbaudman from Babylon, and him that handles the sickle at harvest-time.' They turn before the violent sword, every one to his people; and they flee every one to his land. 17. A scattered sheep is Israel, lions have chased it away; first the king of Assyria devoured it, and now at the last Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, has gnawed its bones. 18. Therefore thus says Yahveh of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I visit the king of Babylon and his land, as I visited the king of Assyria; 19. and I bring Israel home to his pasture, that it may feed on Carmel and in Bashan; and on Mount Ephraim and in Gilead his soul shall be satisfied. 20. In those days and at that time, is Yahveh's oracle, one shall inquire after the guilt of Israel, and it no longer exists, and the sins of

xvii. 6; cf. xlix. 17. Ver. 14. Spare not the arrows = be not sparing of them. Ver. 15. The exulting is not the war-cry, but the cry of triumph, as appears from what follows; she has given her hand, as in vowing, here in surrender (cf. Lam. v. 6; 2 Chron. xxx. 8), applies here perhaps not to real joining of hands on capitulation, but to the hoisting of the flag of surrender.—rprfaCK or nTi'iBw, Kethib (nWBta, Keri), from nB!K, here only; according to the Arabic asijat, support, pillars, the fortified towers especially are suggested (LXX t?raXgi/c, turrets). Ver. 16. Within the far-extending walls of Babylon there were cultivated fields, Diod. Sic. ii. 9; Curt. v. 4; Pliny, Hist. Nat.

xviii. 17; still the menace is not limited to them, but applies to the entire vicinity of the city and the country of Babylon. The many strangers will forsake it, Isa. xiii. 14. Puvn 3m, as in xxv. 38, xlvl 16. Ver. 17. Dvy, denom. from My. Ver. 19. TO.ym, elsewhere Hiphil, xxiii. 3, and often. njn, with accusative of the pasture, as in Ezek. xxxiv. 14, 18, 19. The richly-wooded Carmel in the west of the country and the luxuriously green Bashan in the east stand first as the finest pasture-grounds. Ver. 20. py nK, accusative, as often with Judah cannot be found. For I will forgive those whom I leave over.

21. Upon the land of twofold rebellion—go up upon it! And against the inhabitants of vengeance—kill and publish the ban after them, is Yahveh's oracle, and accomplish all that I have commanded thee. 22. A cry of war in the land and great overthrow! 2 3. How is the hammer of the whole earth beaten and broken in pieces! How is Babylon become a horrible waste among the nations! 24. I have set a snare for thee, and thou also art taken, Babylon, and thou sawest it not; thou art caught and also seized; for thou didst begin war with Yahveh. 25. Yahveh has opened his armoury and brought forth the weapons of his fury; for it is a work which the Lord, Yahveh of hosts, has in the land of the Chaldaeans. 26. Come ye upon her from every quarter, open her granaries, pour her out like sheaves and put her under the ban; no remnant shall be left her.

passive, Ges. § 143. la; Eng. § 140; cf. xxxi. 34. WlWDn, with ' like n"5>. Ver. 21. DTO; the singular rnD does not occur; on the other hand, 'iD more frequently in this sense and in Ezekiel as a surname of rebellious Israel, Ezek. ii. 5, 7, and often. The dual was suggested by names of countries like Aram Naharaim, Mizraim, but expresses intensity (cf. Judg. xv. 16; Ps. lxviii . 18), without two rebellions of Babylon being necessarily supposed. The allusion is to rebellious defiance of the Lord, cf. ver. 24. The summons is addressed to the avenger described in ver. 3. HpB, likewise symbolical name of Chaldaea-Babylon.—3in, here denom. from 3in; so in ver. 27; 2 Kings iii . 23; the meaning to kill frequent in Syriac.—Ban, pronounce the exterminating ban (Din), by which every living thing is doomed to death, and even the property is destroyed; cf. ver. 26. Ver. 22. "Oc, see on iv. 6. Ver. 23. The hammer, breaking in pieces the whole earth, is now itself shattered. Ver. 24. mJ, Hithpael, properly, to let oneself be stirred up, hence to engage in conflict with any one. Ver. 25. Weapons of his fury, cf. Isa. xiii . 5.—ravba, cf. xlviii. 10. Ver. 26. J'pD (similarly li. 31) from the extreme end, i.e. the farthest corners, all, even the last, without exception. Open their granaries; the word (from D3S, here only) signifies properly feeding-stall. The rich stores of the city are to be opened by violence, everything heaped up like sheaves and then destroyed, 2 7. Kill all her bullocks, they shall go down to the slaughter. Alas for them! For their day is come, the time of their visitation! 28. Hark! Fugitives and escapers from the land of Babylon, to publish in Zion the vengeance of Yahveh our God, vengeance for his temple! 29. Summon archers against Babylon! All ye that stretch the bow, encamp against her round about! Let there be no escaping! Recompense her according to her work; altogether as she has done, do to her, for she is insolent against Yahveh, against the Holy One of Israel. 30. Therefore shall her youths fall in her streets, and all her men of war be blotted out on that day, is Yahveh's oracle. 31. Behold, I will (come) to thee, thou Insolence, is the oracle of the Lord, Yahveh of hosts; for thy day is come, the time when I visit thee. 32. And the insolence totters and falls, no one raises her up; and I kindle fire in her cities that it may consume all her surroundings.

33. Thus says Yahveh of hosts: The children of Israel and the children of Judah are oppressed together, and all they that led them captive held them fast, they refused to release them. 34. Their deliverer is strong, Yahveh of hosts His name. Eight earnestly He will maintain their cause to give the earth rest and to disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon. 35. Sword upon the Chaldaeans! is Yahveh's oracle, and upon the inhabitants of Babylon, and upon her princes, and

burnt as accursed property. Ver. 27. 3in, see on ver. 21. The bullocks, according to the figurative style of Isa. xxxiv. 6, 7, the nobles towering above the people (Nagelsbach), or here better, the martial youth, cf. xlviii. 15. Ver. 28. Eevenge for His temple, as in li. 11. Its destruction, not merely plunder (Graf), is implied; but this was certain to Jeremiah long before. Ver. 29. Summon, as in li. 27, properly, make them hear, namely, the summons; cf. 1 Kings xv. 22.—not multos (so the ancient translations), but as in Job xvi. 13, arehers, from 33i (Gen. xlix. 23) = rm. — Keri needlessly supplies ri? from ver. 26. Ver. 30 like xlix. 26. Ver. 31. Insolence, new appellation of Babylon. Ver. 32. LXX read h r$ dpuftp aurijf, after xxi. 14, mjr3. Ver. 34 from Pro v. xxiii. 11. jrrin (for jmn, Ges. § 53. a. 2; Eng. § 52), as in Jer. xxxl 2, in antithesis to the following verb similar in sound, with which

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