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III. The earth's crust having been penetrated to a depth of about six miles, is found to consist, in great part, of stratified rocks, that is, rocks whose component parts are laid in level strata, showing that they were deposited at different intervals out of water, and afterwards hardened into stone.

(1.) The number of strata proves a succession of inundations, and the thickness of them argues a long continuance of the flood during their deposit. The strata have, each in its turn, been at the surface of the earth, and being there submerged under the waters of the ocean, have gradually received the materials which they held in suspension; so that, on the retiring of the sea, or the elevation of the land, they have, in turn, been hardened into a new surface, superimposed upon a former one. Below all the strata, are found rocks not stratified, the materials of which show no trace of having been ever suspended in water, and which are consequently assumed to have formed the original crust, before the first of the inundations by which the several strata were deposited. While such, however, is the normal arrangement, the strata are by no means universally found in the levels on which they were originally deposited. Disturbances, more or less extensive, have occurred in various places, effected, apparently, by volcanic agency, which, breaking through the strata with prodigious force, has thrown large masses into a perpendicular in place of their original horizontal position, and upheaving the unstratified granite from below, forced it through the superincumbent rocks, to exhibit its peaked eminences above the present surface. These disturbances have been as evidently produced by the action of fire as the strata themselves by the action of water. Tho results therefore

attest, (1) a succession of inundations, continuing for vast periods of time; and (2) a variety of fiery convulsions powerful enough to rend and shatter the rocks from their foundations, and change the whole face of nature where they prevailed.

(2.) In examining more closely the composition of the rocks, stratified and unstratified, the latter are found to contain no fossilsno remains of plants, fishes, or animals of any kind ; nothing that bears the semblance of ever having been anything else but stone, with the exception of the metals fused and run into their crannies and chinks. The stratified rocks, on the contrary, are almost wholly composed of materials that have once formed portions of other organisations. Plants, fishes, shells, reptiles, birds, and animals, are found in them in profusion, converted into stone, but so little altered as to demonstrate that these forms were once endued with vegetable and animal life. They flourished when the strata on which they now rest formed the surface of the earth; were destroyed in the inundation that ensued; and were deposited, along with the other materials held in suspension by the superincumbent waters, to form, in their turn, the floor of another set of inhabitants.

(3.) Further, these fossil remains prove to be of creatures of which the whole species have now become extinct; and, again, the species in the lower strata are different from those in the higher. Hence, not only has the globe undergone several successive changes of its material surface, but the plants and animals have changed also. Each time the surface was renewed, a new system of vegetable and animal life was called into existence, suited to the new condition of the soil. In one period, the fossils are all


of marine plants and fishes, indicating that dry land had not, as yet, emerged from the all-embracing

At another, we have large monsters of the lizard or saurian kind, suggestive of vast marshes and low banks, suited to their amphibious formation. At another, the scaly lizard is found lifted into an unwieldly quadruped, roaming the earth, now hard enough for its tread, and eating down the vegetation that grew thick and rank in the reeking atmosphere. Then we find birds, vast as dragons, and hideous as harpies, all apparently belonging to their several dates or periods, and all anterior to the existing creation, no fossil remains of man having yet been found amongst the fossils of extinct plants and animals.

(4.) Such, briefly stated, are some of the wellascertained facts of geology, and they are in strict accordance with the sacred records in two important respects. (i.) They go to the root of the notion in which atheism has always originated, and to which it is recurring-the eternity of the world. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth;" so that, as Paul says,“ we understand that the worlds were framed by the power of God”—“so that things which are seen were not made of things that do appear.” Natural philosophy has argued for a creating mind from the proofs of design impressed upon all creation. Geology more directly proves it by producing evidence of the pre-existing state of things. It does not present us with a single piece of mechanism, but with a succession of creations, occupying each its distinct period of time, and for that time possessing the whole earth. This evidence is not moral, but physical and complete. The theory of “development” is here wholly inapplicable, inasmuch as the successive races were manifestly not developed out of their predecessors, but brought to a violent end, and their habitations prepared for successors of another species. Such revolutions can be ascribed only to the hand of a Superior Being, existing before and after the formations. He moulded the subject matter with the power of the potter over the clay. This is the first and decisive testimony which geological science bears to the truths of revelation. The next is

(5.) That man is found in geology as he is exhibited in Genesis—the latest in time, but the highest in order, of all the creatures that have, as yet, appeared upon this earth. Geology demonstrates that the Scriptural account of man's position upon earth is the true one that while among

the extinct species of the pre-Adamite periods there can be traced the idea of the human organisation, rudely stamped on the first living creatures, preserved amid the destruction of races, and reproduced on a higher scale in their successors, man himself was wanting, till, after several successive creations, the earth was again reorganised for his use. Approximations towards man's material organism are found throughout the geologic periods; but a distinct line separates the head and capital from the lower members. And this line is drawn in geology (as it is in anatomy also), precisely where it is in Genesis—with the creation of Adam. It was after all the preliminary periods of creation-- after the formation of the present surface of the earth, and its being stocked with all other existing creatures,—that this one superior rational species was introduced, as the crown and perfection of the whole. This testimony not only sustains the very letter of the Mosaic records, but leads directly to the conclusion, that the being so exceptionally endowed may well be reserved for the exalted destiny there assigned to him. The voice of science is attuned to that of revelation

“ Through all the compass of the notes it ran,

The diapason ending full in man.”

A new impulse has lately been given to the question of man's antiquity in relation to the earth; and Science has been exulting in the triumphs she fancies she is winning over the records of Revelation. The tendency of modern science is painfully manifest in its constant and ever-watchful attitude of hostility to everything that connects itself with the evidences of a spiritual world; and above all things, of course, to the Bible. The stump of a fossil tree, the bones of an extinct animal, a broken skull found in some inexplicable place, but requiring a solution equally from our assailants; nay, a potsherd, a sea-shell, the piles of a lake-village, the rudiments of stone instruments—all things—anything--are heavy enough to turn the scale in favour of what is called reason. And we are ridiculed as fearing or opposed to science, as narrow-minded and hood-winked, for not at once adopting this confused mass of immature geognosy, and sacrificing, in honour of our acceptance, whatsoever has been to us venerable, whatsoever holy, whatsoever lovely, whatsoever of good fame, whatsoever true and just, whatsoever has been hitherto to us the light of our eyes or the joy of our hearts, that has made us and kept us virtuous, hopeful, consoled, happy through our dark or rugged way on earth, and has sustained our heads above the billows, and our souls above the troubles, the anxieties, and the anguishes of life. We have before us a prescriptive authority in records of several thousand years

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