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Gen. 1, 2. The earth was I. Metamorphic, or Non-Fossiliwithout form and void [invi- ferous. All hard and crystalline

Clay-slate.

Mica-schist. sible and unfurnished]. And rocks.

Gneiss and
the Spirit of God moved

Granitoid schists.
upon the face of the waters.
Ver. 3-5. FIRST DAY. II. Silurian.

Remains of pecu-
Earliest appearance of light liar lowly crustaceans, mollusca,) Upper Silurian.
and life.
radiata, and zoophytes.

Lower Silurian.
Ver. 6-8. SECOND DAY.

Cambrian (?)
The waters divided by the
firmament.

Ver. 9-13. THIRD DAY. III. Old Red Sandstone. Remains Yellow sandstones.
Land is created from the deep, of fishes abundant, of other animals ) Red conglomerates.
and is clothed with vegeta- none, and of plants very few and Grey fossil sandstones.
tion.
imperfect.

Great conglomerate (?)
Ver. 14-19. Fourth Day. IV. Carboniferous. Remains of
Large forests clothe the earth, plants and animals abundant—the Coal measures.
and supply the coal deposits. distinguishing features being excess Millstone grit.

of tropical vegetation in the coal Mountain limestone.
measures, and marine shells and zoo-

Lower coal measures.
phytes in the mountain limestone.
Ver. 20–23. FIFTH DAY. V. Permian. Remains of plants
Giant reptiles and colossal and animals very closely allied and
birds formed. They have left often identical with those of the Magnesian limestone.
their footprints in the Per- carboniferous strata.

Lower new red sandstone. mian sandstone.

PALÆOZOIC,
(ancient life.)

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VI. Triassic. Remains of plants
and animals more closely allied to
those of the oolite system than to
those of the carboniferous.

VII. Oolitic. Remains of plants
and animals (the most remarkable
being large reptilia) belonging to
genera now extinct.

VIII. Cretaceous, or Chalk. Re-
mains of plants and animals, chiefly
marine, and belonging to species now

extinct.
Ver. 24–31. Sixth Day. IX. Tertiary. Remains of plants
Beasts and cattle (the mam- and animals, for the most part ex-
mals) are formed, and cover tinct, but not differing widely from
the earth for ages before Man the existing species.
stepped forth in his Maker's
image on the earth prepared
for his abode.

X. Post Tertiary.

Remains of plants and animals belonging to species now existing.

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CHAPTER II.

GEOLOGICAL TERMS OF THE BIBLE.

ness.

as

The general name for a precious stone, in Hebrew, is aben ikre, a stone of value, and in Greek, similarly, lithos timios. The precious stones specifically mentioned in the Bible are many, twenty-five in all. A rock is called, in Hebrew, salo, from its craggi

Earthy and solid substances are described, in general, by the word aretz. Copper and iron, both in use among the antediluvians, are known rechsheth and berzel. Silver is called keseph and tin ebedil. Gold is called zeb, to denote its purity, phez, to denote its density, and cherutz, because of its being found or obtained in small pieces. It was called ophir, from the place where it was found in large quantities.

In the symbolic descriptions of the church, the heaven of the book of Revelation, its beauty, magnificence, strength, and solidity, are indicated by imagery, derived from the most precious and costly stones ; as in Isaiah liv. 11, 12 : “ O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold I will lay thy stones with fair colours, and lay thy foundations with sapphires ; and I will make thy windows of agates, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy borders of pleasant stones.” And similarly in Rev. xxi. 11, 18–21. Bishop Lowth suggests that these are general images to express beauty and the other qualities to which we have referred, and were not intended to be strictly scrutinised, or minutely and

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particularly explained, as if they had each of them some precise moral or spiritual meaning. Such images are common in the Eastern nations, and Tobit, in his prophecy of the final restoration of Israel, describes it very much as Isaiah had done :

For Jerusalem shall be built up with sapphires, and emeralds, and precious stones ; thy walls, and towers, and battlements, with pure gold, and the streets of Jerusalem shall be paved with beryl, and carbuncle, and stones of Ophir," (Tob. xiii. 16, 17.) To an Oriental there is scarcely a precious gem or beautiful flower but reminds him of some unseen quality or property of which he has been used to consider it the emblem; and it is not without reason that most commentators are of opinion, that much of what Lowth considers to be only beautiful imagery in the Bible, is really symbolical of certain qualities in the things to which it is applied. Thus, in the passage already referred to, the Revelation thus describes the new Jerusalem : And the building of the wall of it was jasper ; and the city was fine gold, like unto clear glass. And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper ; the second, sapphire ; the third, a chalcedony ; the fourth, an emerald ; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius ; the seventh, chrysolite ; the eighth, beryl ; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus ; the eleventh, a jacinth ; the twelfth, an amethyst ; and the twelve gates were twelve pearls ; every several gate was of one pearl, and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass” (Rev. xxi. 18—21.) Now, as this city, which is of “pure gold, like unto glass,” symbolises the purified Christian church-a church thoroughly Christian

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in its doctrine, discipline, and mode of worship“without spot or wrinkle,” so there is reason to believe that the stones enumerated symbolise the particular qualities by which it is characterised, for they have, no doubt, some allusion to the breast-plate of the Jewish high priest, each gem in which represented some peculiarity in one of the twelve tribes (probably its best and most noble or precious characteristic). If we can imagine the various and splendid colours which would be presented by such a collection of precious stones-green, purple, blue, bright green, blood-red, golden, yellow, violet, etc., we may then see in how far there is a symbolical representation of a spiritual fabric based upon all possible virtue and purity. It has a glory wherein all possible excellence centres and abounds.

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