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pients ; so that fire and brimstone, according to this metaphor, would appear to be the antithesis of gentle rain and dew.


Pitch.—This is, no doubt, the mineral tar known as asphaltum, or bitumen, in an indurated hardened state. It is found in abundance on the Asphaltic Lake, which has thence derived its name.

SALT.-This was to accompany all the sacrifices offered under the law (Lev. ii. 13); no doubt, because it possesses the quality of cleansing and preserving bodies from putrefaction. Hence it symbolised the purity and perfection that should be carried through all parts of the divine service, and through the hearts and lives of God's worshippers. The covenant of salt (Numb. xviii. 19 ; 2 Chron. xiii. 5) was probably a covenant or engagement in which salt was used as a token of sincerity and confirmation. Amongst the Turks, salt and bread are taken and eaten as symbolising a solemn contract between the parties. The Turk deems it the basest ingratitude to forget the man from whom he has received food, which is signified by the bread and salt so used.

SOAP.—It is by no means certain what the Hebrew berith signifies, whether the herb kali, as the Vulgate and Jerome render it, or the alkaline or lixivial salt procured from the ashes of that and other plants. The Salt Sea, familiar to the Israelites, furnished them with a proverb. Thus we read “ salt,” that is, in its genuine condition, “is good, but if it has lost its saltness, wherewith will ye season it? It is neither fit for the land, nor yet for the dunghill, but men cast it out” (Luke xiv. 34, 35 ) How restore it to any relish ? The surface of the salt lakes, and also the thinner crust of salts, next the edges of the lakes, after rain, and especially after long continued rain, lose the saline particles, which are washed away, and drained off, the surface still retaining the appearance of salt.

Hence, those who go to the lakes to procure salt, drive over this worthless matter, and thus trample it into mere mud and dirt. Matthew more distinctly refers to this than Luke does—“It is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men ” (ch. v. 13.) Salt, in small quantities, is useful as a manure, under some circumstances, but large quantities of it are destructive. Pliny says that all places where it is found is barren ; and Volney attributes the barren and desolate condition of the country around the Dead Sea to the acrid saltness of the waters, which loads the atmosphere, and thus affects the whole face of the country. Regions of this description furnish metaphors to those familiar with them. Thus, Jeremiah- “ He [the man who forsakes the Lord, and trusts in an arm of flesh) shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see when good cometh ; but shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness, in a salt land, and not inhabited ” (ch. xvii. 6.) And amongst the threatenings denounced upon the Israelites, in the event of forsaking Jehovah, and turning to idols, was that of rendering the land “flowing with milk and honey," a land of “brimstone and salt, and burning ; that is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrha, Admah, and Zeboim, which the Lord overthrew in his anger and in his wrath ” (Deut. xxix. 23.) It

was an ancient custom to sow an enemy's city with salt, in token of perpetual desolation (Judges ix. 45). Milan was burnt, rased, sown with salt, and ploughed by the exasperated emperor, Frederick Barbarossa.


Gold is the simplest, and therefore the purest of all metallic substances. It was in use in very early times, and David and Solomon obtained large quantities from Ophir. It was in use, as we have said, in very early times; and the mercy-seat and the vessels and utensils belonging to the tabernacle were made of it, as were also those of the house of the Lord, and the drinking vessels of Solomon. The ark of the covenant was overlaid with gold. In Job xxviii. 15–17 and 19, gold is mentioned five times, and the word is a different one in four of the places. (1.) Segor may mean gold in the mine, or shut up

as the root signifies) in the ore. (2.) Kethem, from catham, to sign, seal, or stamp-gold made current by being coined, standard gold ; exhibiting the stamp expressive of its value. (3.) Zahab, wrought, pure, highly polished gold. (4.) Paz, denoting solidity, compactness, and strength, probably gold formed into different kinds of plate, or vessels.

SILVER was in very early use as an instrument of exchange (Gen. xxiii. 13–16). Instead of“ weighed the silver, four hundred shekels,” we should probably read," shekeled the silver, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant.” It was therefore at that time current money. The

as Canon Townsend observes on the place, is alluded to in the antediluvian age ;

gold of Havilah,


but silver is not mentioned. The first allusions after the flood to silver, as a valuable metal, are found in the book of Job; and always in general terms, without reference to the shekel. This is an argument for the high antiquity of the book of Job, --that is, of the history it comprises-for if Job had lived after Abraham, it is probable that the shekel would have been mentioned in some of the passages in that book. Some think it is referred to in ch. xxvii. 15 : “ It [wisdom] cannot be gotten for gold, neither shall silver be weighed for the price thereof,” but if so, the expression would no doubt have been similar to that of Genesis. Job probably refers to silver in the mass, not in the smaller coin, as the reference is in Gen. xx. 16, where aleph keseph may be translated, not " a thousand pieces of silver,” for “pieces ” is not in the text; but a mass of silver, the word aleph signifying an aggregation, The inference drawn from these and other passages which occur in the book of Job is, that gold was the original money; that large heaps of silver were next brought into circulation, as substitutes for the more valuable, though smaller pieces of gold; and that the last and still remaining gradation was the division of silver into smaller portions, which might probably be about the value of a lamb; according to the well known theory that barter was the first kind of commerce, and that lambs, or cattle in general, were the first medium of exchange for the smaller commodities of life. In the antediluvian period, commerce was conducted by the exchange of gold, and probably of cattle. In the days of Job, by gold, cattle, jewels, and silver bullion. In the earlier days of Abraham, and in the time of Abimelech, by the same; and in the latter years of the

life of Abraham by gold, cattle, jewels, and larger or smaller portions of stamped or weighed silver.

AMBER.—The English version gives us this word two or three times in the prophecies of Ezekiel (ch. i. and viii.), in which places the Septuagint render electrum, a mixed metal of gold and silver, or gold and copper—a very brilliant composition. The prophet certainly did not mean what we understand by amber, which grows dim as soon as it reaches the fire, and exhibits itself as a resinous substance, and not such an one as that the prophet had in his eye when he spoke of chesmel, as coming out of the midst of the fire.

IRON.—That this was known to the antediluvian patriarchs is evident from Gen. iv. 22. Parkhurst remarks, that as iron requires the strongest fire of all metals to fuse it, there is a peculiar propriety in the expression “furnace of iron,” or “iron-furnace,” for violent and sharp afflictions (Deut. iv. 20.)

LEAD.—There is a singular passage in Jer. vi. 28–30 : “ They are all grievous revolters, walking with slanders: they are brass and iron; they are all corrupters. The bellows are burned, the lead is consumed of the fire : the founder melteth in vain ; for the wicked are not plucked away. Reprobate silver shall men call them, because the Lord hath rejected them.”

The lead was used to purify the ore, but was itself consumed, and of no purpose.

Tin was known in the time of Moses (Numb. xxxi. 22), and the circumstance of its being generally found in combination with silver, by which, of course,

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