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man, without being injured (Numb. xiii. 24. 25). The grapes of Palestine are mostly red or black; whence originated the phrase "blood of grapes," (Gen. xlix. 11; Deut. xxxii, 14 ; Isa. xxvii. 2). Some vines in eastern countries, when supported by trees, grow to a great height and magnitude ; of such are made the staves and sceptres of kings. The vine growing spontaneously, of which we have spoken, is not that which in 2 Kings iv. 39 is called the "wild vine," for that (as the Vulgate rightly translates) is the colocyntis, or wild gourd, which in Jer. ii. 21 is called the degenerate or strange vine. The vine of Sodom is the solanum melangenæ, the fruit of which, as was said above, is called the poisonous clusters.

Vineyards were generally planted on the declivity of hills and mountains, sometimes in places where the soil had been heaped by art upon the naked rocks, being supported there merely by a wall (Isa. v. 1; Jer. xxxi. 5; Joel iii. 18; Amos ix. 13; Micah i. 6). According to Strabo and Pliny, there were also very fine vineyards in moors and wet lands, in which the vines grew to a very great height.

Of the vines that grew upon such a kind of soil were fabricated the sceptres, etc., spoken of above; whilst the branches of other vines were destined to be fuel for the flames (Ezek. xvii. 1–8; xix. 10, 11, 12; xv. 1-5. Vines were commonly propagated by means of suckers. Pliny says, vines were of four kinds, viz., those that ran on the ground; those that grew upright of themselves; those that adhered to a single prop; and those that covered a square frame. It may suffice to mention, that Pliny is by no means correct, when he says, the custom prevailed in Syria and all Asia, of letting the vines run on the ground. This, indeed, accords with Ezekiel xvii. 6, 7; but that vines frequently grew to a great height, being supported by trees and props, or standing upright of themselves, the proverbial phrase, „which so often occurs, of sitting under one's own vine and fig-tree, i. e., enjoying a prosperous and happy life, is sufficient proof (Jer. v. 17, viii. 13; Hos. ii. 12; Micah iv. 4; Zech. iii. 10). The prohibition (Deut. xxii. 9) to sow vineyards with divers seeds, and the com. mand, that what was thus sown should be given to the priests, are not to be understood of the vines, but of herbs, which were sown in the intervals between them. Vineyards were defended by a hedge or wall (Numb. xxii. 24; Ps. lxxxviii. 12; Prov. xxiv. 31; Isa. v. 5; xxvii. 2, 3; Jer. xlix. 3; Neh. iv. 3; Matt. xxi. 33), and in them were erected towers (Isa. V. 2 ; Matt. xxi. 33), which, at the present time, in eastern countries, are thirty feet square, and eighty feet high. These towers were for keepers, who defended the vineyards from thieves, and from animals, especially dogs and foxes (Cant. i. 6; ii. 15). By the law in Deut. xxiii. 25, the keeper was commanded not to prohibit the passing traveller from plucking the grapes, which he wished to eat on his way, provided he did not carry them off in a vessel.

The manner of trimming the vine, and also the singular instrument of the vine-dresser, were well known even in the time of Moses (Lev. xxv. 3, 4; compare Isa. ii. 4, v. 6, xviii. 5; Micah iv. 3; Joel iii. 10). A vintage from new vineyards was forbidden for the first three years (Exod. xxxiv. 26, and Numb. xviii. 11), and the grapes also of the fourth year were consecrated to sacred purposes ; the vines, therefore, without doubt, during these first years, were so pruned as that few sprouts remained. On the fifth year, when they were first profaned, i.e. put to common use, they had become sturdy and exuberant. Pruning at three several times, viz., in March, April, and May, is mentioned not only by Bochart, but by Pliny; and Homer speaks of it as a thing well known. The Hebrews dug their vineyards, and gathered out the stones. The young vines, unless trees were at hand, were wound around stakes; and around those vines which ran on the ground were dug narrow trenches, in a circular form, to prevent the wandering shoots from mingling with each other. These practices in the cultivation of the vine are to be duly considered in those allegories which are drawn from vineyards (Isa. v. 1—7; xxvii. 2-6; Ps. lxxx. 9-13; Matt. xxi. 33—46).

The vintage in Syria commences about the middle of September, and continues till the middle of November. But grapes, we are informed, were ripe sometimes even in June and July; which arose, perhaps, from a triple pruning; in which case there was also a third vintage. The first vintage was in August, the second in September, the third in October. The grapes, when not gathered, were sometimes found on the vines until November and December. The Hebrews were required to leave gleanings for the poor (Lev. xix. 10). The season of vintage was a joyful one (Judges ix. 27; Isa. xvi. 10; Jer. xxv. 30; xlviii. 33). With shoutings on all sides, the grapes were plucked off, and carried to the winepress, which was in the vineyard (Isa. v. 2; Zech. xiv. 10; Hag. ii. 16; Matt. xxi. 33; Rev. xiv. 19, 20). The presses consisted of two receptacles, which were either built of stones and covered with

plaster, or hewn out of a large rock. The upper receptacle, called geth, as it is constructed at the present time in Persia, is nearly eight feet square and four feet high. Into this the grapes are thrown, and trodden out by five men. The juice flows out into the lower receptacle, called ikeb, through a grated aperture, which made in the side near the bottom of the upper one. The treading of the winepress was laborious, and not very favourable to cleanliness; the garments of the persons thus employed were stained with red juice, and yet the employment was a joyful one. It was performed with singing, accompanied with musical instruments; and the treaders, as they jumped, exclaimed, ho up (Isa. xvi. 9, 10; Jer. xxv. 30; xlviii. 32, 33). Figuratively, vintage, gleaning, and treading the wine-press, signified battles and great slaughters (Isa. xvii. 6; Ixiii. 1-3; Jer. xlix. 9; Lam. i. 15).

Culinary plants and fruit-trees were among the first objects of agriculture. Gardens, accordingly, were very ancient, and have always been numerous. By the Hebrews they were called genim, ginna, genuth, gen; afterwards, the Persian name, paradise, was introduced. The later Hebrews were invited the more to the cultivation of gardens by the example of the Syrians, whom Pliny extols for this species of agriculture, above all other nations. Trees were multiplied by seeds and shoots; they were transplanted, dug around, manured, and pruned (Job viii. 16; Isa. xvii. 10.) Grafting occurs figuratively in Rom. xi. 17–24. The gardens in Persia, at the present day, are disposed in good order; those in the Ottoman empire are very rude, displaying hardly any indications of art, except a fountain or receptacle of waters, which is never wanting. In the Scriptures, gardens are denominated from the prevalence of certain trees; as the garden of pomegranates (Cant. vi. 11.) The forest of palms, in the plain of Jericho, was only a large garden, in which other trees were interspersed among the palms. The modern Orientials are no less fond of gardens than were the ancient Hebrews; not only because they yield the richest fruits, but because the shade is very refreshing, and the air is cooled by the waters, of which their gardens are never allowed to be destitute (1 Kings xxi. 2; 2 Kings xxv. 4; Hos. ix. 13; Cant. iv. 13; vi. 11; Eccles. ii. 5; John xviii. 1; xix. 41; xx. 15). The Hebrews had an attachment to gardens as a place of burial; hence they frequently built sepulchres in them (2 Kings ix. 27 ; xxi. 11; Mark xv. 46; Matt. xxvi. 36; John xviii. 1, 2). A pleasant region is called “ a garden of God.” i.e. a region extremely pleasant. The trees which the gardens constantly displayed are often used figuratively for

Those which are flourishing and fruitful denote good men; the unfruitful and barren, wicked men; and lofty cedars in particular are the emblems of kings (Job xxix. 19; Ps. i. 3; xcii. 12–14; Hos. xiv. 6, 7; Jer. xvii. 8; Dan. iv. 10–16; Luke xxiii. 31; Matt. iii. 10; vii. 17–20; xii. 33; Ezek. xvii. 3, 4; xxxi. 3, 13). Indeed, an assembly of men is compared to a forest, and a multitude of wicked men to briars (Isa. ix. 10; x. 19, 33, 34; xi. 1).

Agriculture on every seventh year came to an end. Nothing was sown, and nothing reaped; the vines and the olives were not pruned; there was no vintage, and no gathering of fruits, even of what grew wild; but whatever spontaneous productions there were, were left to the poor, the traveller, and


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