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so true; yet if they profess only “ a simple belief of the siunple truth,” it is not a visible entering into covenant with God. It is not a covenanting transaction. Where there is no consent of the will professed, there is no covenant visibly made, in any case whatsoever. But if they profess not only to believe, but to love the truth, this is what no ungodly man can understandingly and honestly do. For to receive the truth in the love of it, is the scripture character of a true saint. 2 Thes. ii. 10. And so did Abraham, the father of all believers. So again,

4. “ To conform our practice to the rules of the christian religion,” is to be real christians. This therefore must not be professed. But without this, there is no compliance with the Gospel covenant. He who does conform his practice to the rules of the Gospel, does really comply with the Gospel. And he who doth not, does really reject it. The one will go to heaven, and the other will go to hell. In this we are all agreed.

5. But Mr. M.says, they must profess, that they “will endeavour" to conform their practice to the rules of the christian religion.-But, pray, how much must they endeavour ? Not so much as actually to conform : for in this real christianity consists. How much then? Can any man tell ? Will you say, “ as much as they can ?” What! quite as much? What, every day, every hour of their lives? This is what no ungodly man ever did, or ever will do. Will you say, “they must sincerely endeavour ?” But how sincere must, ungodly men be? “ As sincere as they can?” What, quite as sincere as they can, every day and every hour? This is what no uogodly man ever was, or ever will be.-Will you say, "they must endeavour so much, and so sincerely, as to keep from open scandal?” But is this enough? What if they live allowedly in secret sips, in enmity to God, in enmity to their neighbours, in stealing, in adultery, in sodomy? Will this do? Is this enough in the sight of God and conscience, that they are free from open scandal, while they live secretly in such and such like sins ? Will you say, “ no--they must endeavour to forsake all sin, and to conform their practice to all the rules of the christian religion?” But the question still returns, how

much must they endeavour ? Not so much as to get free from the dominion of sin. For this is peculiar to the godly. Rom. vi. 14. How much then? No son of Adam can ever tell !

It can be determined what that repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ is, which the Gospel requires; and a man may know when he complies with the Gospel covenant; but it cannot be determined what Mr. M.'s external covenant requires ; nor can any man know when he complies with it.

The lowest degree of-true grace is a real and saving compliance with the Gospel covenant. This is life eternal, to know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent. John xvii. 3. Where saving grace begins, it shall end in glory. Its special nature can be as certainly determined, as the nature of the Gospel-way of salvation can ; for it consists in a compliance with the Gospel. But this external covenant is neither law nor Gospel.

No man will say, that “the least degree of endeavour," which ever takes place in an ungodly man, is all that is required, to bring men into the external covenant. Nor will any man say, " that the greatest degree of endeavour” that ever takes place in an ungodly man, is necessary to this end. Nor can any man fix upon any certain degree, between the least and the greatest, that is the very degree necessary to bring a man into this covenant. It is a blind affair, and is adapted only to a blind conscience.

Every ungodly man, whose conscience is thoroughly awakened. io know the truth about himself, knows that he is dead in sin, an enemy to God, " utterly indisposed, disabled, and opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil ;" as Mr. M. will allow. And therefore, were such men to make a. profession of the truth, they would profess this ; and confess themselves to be altogether helpless and undone, under the wrath of God, the curse of the law, and condemned by the Gospel ; (John iii. 18. 36. Gal. iii. 10.) and incapable of entering into covenant with God, (Ps. 1. 16.) and coming into the kingdom of Christ, until they are born again. (John iii. 5.)–And how much soever pains such may ake, to escape

come

everlasting burnings, they can never think, that this labour of theirs brings them into covenant with the Holy One of Israel, so long as they find themselves dead in sin, enemies to God, and rejecters of Jesus Christ. But rather in the midst of all their diligence and endeavours, they do, as Mr. M. elsewhere observes ", " in their own apprehensions grow worse and worse,'

Yea, the best saint on earth would not dare, with his eyes open, to enter into covenant with the holy One of Israel, without a mediator; or in the neglect of him whom God has provided on the foot of his own righteousness. No saint can have impudence enough, with his eyes open, to offer such a thing to God. For such know no way to come to the Father but by the Son. John xiv. 6. But self-righteous sinners, with stupid consciences, are good enough' 10 nigh to God in their own names, and enter into covenant with God in their own strength, and in their own righteousness, while with their whole heart they reject the mediator and the sanctifier revealed in the Gospel. But that baptism and the Lord's supper should be so degraded and prostituted, as to become seals to this self-righteous graceless covenant of works, must be not a little shocking to many pious minds. Nor indeed can sinners under deep and genuine conviction come into this scheme. For,

This external covenant is not adapted to the state of a sinner under genuine and deep conviction. For it is with such agreeable to Rom. vii. 9. The commandment came, sin revived, and I died. Rather it is suited only to the hearts of secure, self-flattering, self-righteous sinners, of blind and stupid consciences; and is of no use but to build them up in their selfrighteous ways; to lead them to cry, “we have Abraham to our father, yea, we have one father, even God;" when, in the language of Christ, the meek and lowly Jesus, they are the children of the Devil, and the wrath of God abideth on them. Mat. iii. 9. John viii. 39-44. John iii. 36.

y Sermon on Rom. ix. 14, 15. p. 28.

SECTION VII.

Various distinctions stated, to render the subject more easy to

be understood by Christians of the weakest capacities, and to enable them to answer the usual objections, at least to their own satisfaction.

1. WE are to distinguish between objections, which are taken from the nature of the covenant, as contained in the written instrument, and those objections which are taken from the character of many that have sealed it. If there was not one untvoly graceless duty required of Abraham, in that covenant, Gen. xvii. ; with which he complied, and which he 'sealed, Mr. M. must lose his cause, although the names and seals of thousands of graceless hypocrites are found annexed to it. For the nature of a written covenant is to be determined from the contents of it, and not from the hypocrisy of the men that have signed and sealed it. As for exainple, suppose we have a bond of 1000 1. signed and sealed by a man not worth a groat ; it alters not the case, the bond is a bond of 1000 l. as much as if it was signed and sealed by a man ever so rich. For all mankind are agreed in this, that the nature of the bond is to be determined from the contents of the written instrument, and not from the poverty or knavery of the signers and sealers. If the covenant with Abraham was the covenant of

grace, yet possibly thousands of graceless men might be active in sealing it. Or if the covenant with Abraham required only freedom froni open scandal, yet possibly it inight be sealed by thousands who lived in open scandal. The ten tribes, for aught that appears, practised circumcision without one exception; and yet they lived in open idolatry from the time of their revolt to their captivity. That is, about 350 years. And if we are to determine the nature of the covenant from the character of the sealers; then from this, it will follow, that freedom from open idolatry was not required of the Israelites, in the covenant which they were under, and of which circumcision was a seal.

2. We ought to distinguish between fact and right, and to understand, that there is no conclusive arguing from the one to the other. As for instance : It is fact that there were tares sowed in the field; but it does not follow, that it was rigbt that the servants should sow them there: this was the work of the devil.-It is fact, that there was a man who came into the visible church without a wedding garinent; but it does not follow, that it was right for him so to do. It is fact, that there were false professors, who unawares crept into the apostolic churches; but it does not follow that it was right, that they should creep in thither.--It is fact, that the net gathered bad fishes as well as good; but it does not follow that the fishermen were employed to gather any but good fish. It is, fact, that in the apostolic age, some impenitent hypocrites made a profession of faith and repentance, and were baptised ; but it does not follow that it was right in them to make such a false profession.-It is fact, that the Israelites at Mount Sinai made a false profession, that they lied to God with their tongues, and flattered him with their lips; but it does not follow, either that it was right for them to do as theg did, or that it is right for us to imitate their wicked example.-It is fact, that there have been in all ages graceless men in the visible church; but it does not follow, either that they had a right to be there, or that we ought to lay aside the covenant of grace, and to introduce a graceless covenant merely in order to open a door for their regular admission.-It is fact, when the doctrines and discipline of the Gospel are brought down to the taste of carnal men, that they appear to be better pleased with both ; but it does not therefore follow, that it would be right for ministers to combine to set aside truth and strictness, and to introduce error and looseness, in order to please a wicked world.

3. There is a distinction to be made between an adult person's really entering into covenant, and visibly entering into covenant. He who complies with the covenant of grace, really entersi nto it: but he who professes to comply with it, visibly enters into it. The former is peculiar to the godly ; but ungodly men may do the latter; for none but the godly

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