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Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.

ing up of vessels during the inclemencies of winter, and a quay had also been found for the shipping and unshipping of their cargoes. The increase of trade, however, rendered this mole and this quay insufficient for all the purposes of commerce. An act was therefore procured in 1710, empowering the inhabitants to construct a wet dock, in which vessels might enter, and lie continually afloat. This was at a time when all the shipping belonging to the port amounted only to eighty-four sail, averaging less than 70 tons each, and navigated by no more than eleven men at a medium.

The dock thus provided, and which from the period of its construction, is denominated the Old Dock, runs in an eastwardly direction, considerably into the town. It is Surrounded with houses, shops, and merchant's warehouses; and several of the most populous and busy streets open immediately on its wharfs. The customhouse stands at its eastern extremity. This dock is 195 yards long; in its broadest part it is 92 yards, and in its narrowest 78. The whole area is 17,070 square yards, and the extent of the quay with which it is encircled is 652 yards. The gates are 33 feet wide, and 25 feet deep. A handsome castiron bridge is thrown over the entrance, which opens as necessity requires. West India ships, Irish traders, and vessels from the Mediterranean, generally frequent this dock. The site which it occupies, is that where the Pool originally stood; and it is worthy of remark, that in the act which was granted for its formation, the land is described as being " in or near a certain Pool, on the south side of the said town of Liverpool."

Without the gates is a dry Dock, in which sloops from various parts of the coast,importing corn, provisions,slates, and other articles of a similar description, generally lie. These having discharged their respective cargoes, take back West India produce, and goods that had been imported from the Baltic and the Mediterranean. The quays which surround this Dock, occupy an extent of about 360 yards.

The Docks of Liverpool are of three kinds; the wet, the dry, and the graving Docks. The wet Docks are those in which ships are continually afloat,

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the water being retained by the gates during the recess of the tides. The dry Docks are those into which the water flows, and from which it retires without any obstruction. The graving Docks are those into which the tide is permitted to enter, or from which it is excluded, as conveniency requires: in these docks the ships enter for the purpose of caulking, or to undergo repairs. These are connected with the other docks, and there is an entrance into three from the dry Dock, which we noticed in the preceding paragraph.

The second wet dock that was constructed in Liverpool, is denominated Salt/iouse Dock, from its being contiguous to a salt work formerly established there, but which has since been removed up the river to Garston. The form of this dock is not quite regular. Its area includes 22,420 square yards, and its quay nearly 640. Its gates are 34 feet wide, and 35 feet deep. The upper end is chiefly occupied by ships that are laid up, and the lower by corn and timber vessels.

George's Dock extends from the corner of St. Nicholas's church-yard, to Moor-street. It was completed at an expense of £21,000. The act for its construction was obtained in the 11th of George II. Its dimensions are 246 yards in length, and 100 in breadth, enclosing an area of 26,068 square yards. The gates are 38 feet wide, and 26 deep. Ships from the West Indies generally frequent this dock, the quay of which is about 700 square yards. The Old Dock, Salthouse Dock, and George's Dock, have a communication with each other, so that vessels can remove from one to the other, or to the graving docks, without being exposed to the inconvenience of going into the river.

A small dock belonging to the Duke of Bridgewater, and thence denominated The Duke's Dock, lies between Salthouse Dock, and the King's Dock. This is chiefly appropriated to the accommodation of his flats and barges, but many other vessels arriving from the neighbouring coasts, occasionally enter, and find security. This also is a wet dock. An extensive warehouse stands on the margin, in which are deposited the various kinds of merchandise, with which these vessels are freighted.

The King's Dock lies at the south

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of the Duke of Bridgewater's. This capacious receptacle is 270 yards in length, and 95 in breadth, forming an area of 25,650 square yards. The gates of this dock are 42 feet wide, and 26 feet deep. An elegant castiron bridge, which turns on a pivot, is thrown across its entrance. Contiguous to this dock is a vast range of buildings called the King's Tobacco warehouse. Into this dock all vessels laden with this commodity are obliged to enter, it being the only place in which they are permitted to discharge their cargoes. Ships from the Baltic, from America, and from the East Indies, likewise enter here, but those of the latter description can only unload on the western side.

The Dry Dock, or basin, which lies between King's Dock and Queen's Dock, communicates with both.— Queen's Dock is 470 yards long, and 227 broad, forming an area of about 54,025 square yards, thus constituting the largest dock in the harbour. The dimensions of its gates correspond with those of King's Dock. It is frequented by ships from various parts, and its extensive wharfs and quays furnish every facility that commercial transactions can require. On its eastern side near the centre, an extensive shed of cast-iron is supported by pillars of the same materials. This affords shelter to such merchandise as is taken on shore when the weather is inclement, and that cannot instantly be removed. Its quay is remarkably spacious; and two graving docks with which it can command a communication, adds to its general commodiousness.

The Prifice's Dock, though nearly finished, has not yet been opened for the reception of ships. This it is expected will take place during the ensuing summer, 1821. It is the northernmost of all the docks, and is very capacious, extending in length 500 yards, and in breadth 106, covering an area of 53,000 square yards. This Dock has gates at each end, with locks jso constructed, that vessels may have ingress and egress at half tide. Those on the south open into the basin of George's Dock, and those on the north into a basin of its own. Its strength seems to be adapted to its peculiar situation. The whole length on the eastern side is enclosed with a lofty brick wall, and on the west, strongly se- I

cured from the tides, a spacious parade will be formed, from which an extensive survey may be taken of the harbour, and also of the shipping either lying at anchor, or entering and departing from the port.

The extensive range of wharfs and quays connected with these Docks, when taken in the aggregate, scarcely admits a rival in any sea-port in England. Extended in one continued line, they might have presented a more imposing aspect to the eye of the spectator, but in this case, what they would have gained in magnificence, they would have lost in accommodation and utility. In constructing the draw-bridges which cross the entrance to George's and Salthouse Docks, the Dutch plan has been adopted. The contrivance is admirable; as they can be lifted from, and restored to their proper positions with the greatest facility. The gates also are furnished with sluices and apertures, by means of which the water within, may be regulated according to the state of the tides without, and men are appointed to open and close them as circumstances may require.

To remove the mud which would otherwise accumulate, to the great annoyance of the shipping, a curious contrivance has lately been called into operation, through which, by means of a steam engine of ten-horse power, about fifty tons of mud can be raised per hour. This, while the machine is afloat, is taken up from the bottom, on the principle of dredging, and immediately thrown by the same machine into mud barges built for the purpose, and carried to a place beyond the reach of the tides.

To prevent disorder and confusion, Dock-masters, and a Harbour-master, are appointed, to whose management the regulation of the shipping and the docks is consigned. These have their respective departments, and to these, such as want situations for their vessels, either to discharge or receive cargoes, must apply.

To prevent the dreadful calamities which must ensue, should a fire take place in any ship, every precaution is adopted. No ship, while lying in any of the docks, is suffered to have fire on board, not even a lighted candle, unless secured in a lantern; nor is the smoking of tobacco allowed, under a penalty of forty shillings for each

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offence. The same fine is levied on every vessel that has gunpowder on board; and combustible matter left by night either on the quay or on deck, is visited with a penalty of ten pounds. Scarcely a week elapses in which some fines are not levied either on the careless or the obstinate. Under certain regulations, steam vessels have recently been permitted to enter the Docks.

The revenues arising from the Docks are considerable; and as the commerce of Liverpool becomes more and more extended, those revenues must regularly increase. In 1724 the Dock duties amounted only to £810. \\s.6d.: in 1752, to £1776. 8*. 2d.: in 1800, to £23,379.13s.6d. in 1810, to£65,782.1*.: and in 1819, to £117,962.14*. 6rf. The Docks are vested in the corporation as trustees; and the accounts arc examined and settled annually by seven commissioners, not belonging to the body corporate, who are appointed for this purpose.

But large and numerous as these Docks are, they seem to be inadequate to the multitudes of ships that frequent the port. Hence Brunswick Dock, lying at the south oi Queen's Dock, has been begun; but some considerable time must elapse before this can be completed. This will be 430 yards in length, and 120 in breadth. It has also been in contemplation to make an addition to George's Dock of 241 yards in length, and 214 in breadth. Should these works be completed, it has been proposed to fill up the old Dock entirely, and to establish on the lite, a custom house, excise office, dock and police office ; to devote a part to commercial purposes; and to appropriate another portion to a marketplace. But the accomplishment of these plans must be the work of future years.

[To be continued.]

EXTRAORDINARY PRESERVATION.

Sir,—Reading, a few days ago, the journal of that ingenious and enterprising traveller, Mr. Wm. Bartram, 1 was forcibly struck with the following account of his singular preservation from the jaws of a rapacious Wolf; which, I think, strikingly illustrates the watchful care and superintending providence that our Father "who it fa heaven" exercises towards No. 24.—Vol. III.

all his creatures. Should yon deem it

worthy a place in your interesting

publication, its insertion will oblige,

Yours, respectfully,

A Constant Reader.

"In the evening, I made a safe harbour, in a little lagoon, on the sea shore. I drew up my light vessel on the sloping coast, that she might be safe from the beating waves in case of a sudden storm of wind in the night. Having collected a sufficiency of dry wood to keep up a light during the night, and to roast some trout which afforded me a wholesome supper, I hung the remainder of my broiled fish on the snags of some shrubs over my head. I at last, after reconnoitering my habitation, returned, spread abroad my skins and blanket upon the clean sands by my fire-side, and betook myself to repose.

"All now being silent and peaceable, I suddenly fell asleep. At midnight I awoke; when, raising my head erect, I found myself alone in the wilderness of Florida, on the shores of Lake George: alone indeed, but under the care of the Almighty, and protected by the invisible hand of my guardian angel. When quite awake, I started at the heavy tread of some animal; the dry limbs of trees upon the ground cracked under his feet; the close shrubby thickets parted and bent under him as he rushed off. I rekindled my sleepy fire. The bright flame ascended, and illuminated the ground and groves around me; when looking up, I found my fish carried off, though I had thought them safe on the shrubs, just over my head; but their scent, carried to a great distance by the damp nocturnal breezes, I suppose were too powerful attractions to resist.

"Perhaps, it may not be time lost, to rest awhile here, and reflect on the unexpected and unaccountable incident; which however pointed out to me an extraordinary deliverance or protection of my life, from the rapacious wolf that stole my fish from over my head.

"How much easier and more eligible might it have been for him to have leaped upon my breast in the dead of sleep, and tom my throat, which would have instantly deprived me of life, and then glutted his stomach for the present with my warm blood, and dragged oft" my body, which would

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The representation which accompanies this brief description, is connected with a Church of correspondent elegance, ereeted in Kent-street, Liverpool. The work was undertaken about two years since; and, through persevering industry, the exterior of this magnificent structure received its completion in the autumn of 1820.

The entire height of the steeple from the pavement to its summit is 223 feet. It consists of an ample, but plain basement, which supports a solid Ionic order with its entablature. This is surmounted by a beautiful Corinthin order with its entablature. Over this rises a beautiful octagonal spire, which is terminated with a gilt ball and cross, resembling those of St. Paul's in London. The point thus decorated, when glittering in the sun, exhibits a pleasing spectacle. Being conspicuous at a considerable distance, it greatly augments the ornamental appearance of the town, and invites the observer to a nearer inspection, without fearing to sufler any disadvantage from the most minute examination.

The houses indeed, which are extended before its front, approximate so nearly, as, in a partial manner, to obstruct the view. Several of these, we hear, are to be taken down. Should this be accomplished, a survey of the whole may be taken at a convenient distance, which will exhibit its magniScence, without diminishing the effect.

Although it is placed at no great distance from St. Thomas's Steeple, which exhibits one of the most beautiful spires in this country, being 240 feet, which is 17 feet more than St. Michael's, yet the latter, from its elevated situation, preserves an apparent superiority. And independently of all comparison, it is a fabric which for lightness, elegance, and harmonious proportion of parts, has not been surpassed, if equalled, by any erection in England, during many years.

15? Solutions to Mathematical Questions. 15|

SOLUTIONS OF MATHEMATICAL QUERJE8.

Solutions to the three Questions of G. D. (R. N.) Portchester, inserted in
No. 21, Col. 959. By H. Perkins of Liverpool.
Question lit.—Let a, b, c, d, and e, represent respectively the number of days,

in which each man would perform the work alone: -1, 1, 1, JL and 1, the

abed e

work done by each man in one day, and 1, JL, 1, 1, and 1, the work

20 22 24 26 28

done by each company per day, from which, together with the Question, we derive the following equations.

« * c *1" rf 20 6060

1 -4- ' j. l L. l - 1

T + 7+d- + 7-22= 5460-
T + 7 + 7+7-2i= <***■

1 . * i l J- l - l

+ + + = = ^n.

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Let these equations be all added together, and we have
4 4,4,44 25381

T + X + -+ T+-

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