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preaching to the Gentiles; but this was out of the ordinary course: Paul was to offer salvation to the Jews, but be was principally sent to the Gentiles; Peter was more especially sent to the Jews, and therefore could dot go to Rome, the principal seat of the Gentiles, to teach them. The Jews at Rome were few; and Peter could not leave so many myriads in Judea and in the East, to teach these few at a distance: and when Paul was brought to Rome, long after Peter is said to have been bishop of that place, be found the Jews deplorably ignorant of Christianity; which we cannot believe would have been the case, if Peter had been so long employed in instructing them.
But the object of St. Peter's visit to Rome deserves attention: it is indeed an uncommonly curious one. He did not take this journey to translate his seat from Antioch thither, to make the Pope the prince of prelates, and the Church of Rome the head of all churches,—no such thing; but he came thither for no other purpose than to oppose Simon M agus, who was broaching his heresies in that city. We are told of this Simon, that while resident in Judea he was prince of heretics, a great adversary of the apostles, and in a particular manner a malicious dealer against Peter; to avoid whom he.fled from Judea to Rome. The hook which contains this account gives to Peter the title of Prince of the Apostles; and this, which is contrary to hike xxii. 25, 26. is sufficient to render the story suspected by all Protestants. Neither do we read that Simon opposed St. Peter; rather he was struck with fear, requesting Peter and John to pray for him; and with regard to the flight of Simon to Rome to avoid Peter, it is rendered very improbable by the consideration, that the apostles did not continue at Samaria, where Simon was; but went to Jerusalem, leaving the magician behind them: and after that time the Scripture says nothing more concerning bim.
We have already mentioned the ignorance of the Jews at Rome concerning Jesus Christ, as a reason for refusing our belief to the story of St. Peter's being resident in that city when Paul was first carried thither; and snrely we must be led to entertain a very humble opinion of the zeal and
j power of the last-named apostle, if he was incapable of stopping the mouth of this heretic. Simon is describee! as deceiving and seducing the people: and though Paul must have been there before, Peter must be sent for from Jerusalem or Antioch to do this work; and this notwithstanding that Paul was more particularly sent to preach to the Romans.
The manner of Simon's travelling to Rome is variously described by authors; but all these accounts are sufficiently curious to deserve mention: Eusebius says he went by sea; this Egesippus denies, asserting that he Hew through the air; to which Clement adds, that he was lifted up of devils; and Sulpitius confirms the account of Clement, saying that he was borne along by two evil spirits. It is most commonly reported that the contest was between Simon and Peter; but Cyril, Sulpitius, Ambrose, and Gregory Turoncnsis, say he was overcome by Peter and Paul. Egesippus and Clement describing the event say, that in the conflict he fell down and broke his legs and joints; of which he some time after died. Eusebius reports that the conflict was in the reigri of Claudius; but Egesippus makes it to be towards the end of the reign of Nero, who on account of the death of Simon put Peter to death: so that by this reckoning the apostle was 25 years in conquering this sorceror, though he came post to Rome for this express purpose, by the inspiration of God> and fenced with divine armour. Bellarmine, indeed, endeavours to save the credit of the apostle's power; but at the same time involves himself in A confusion from which there is no retracting: he asserts, that though the apostle came to the imperial city for the purpose of putting down the prince of heresies, yet he quitted it again without having accomplished his purpose; and that Simon continued to flourish until Peter came again.
But what we have already related forms but a small part of the contra' dictions in which Popish writers involve themselves to support a fable. Bellarmine says, that Peter continued in Judea but five years after Christ's passion; but Onuphrius sajs nine: Bellarmine reports, that the apostle went to Rome in the second of Claudius; which Cajetane denies, affirming that he was at Jerusalem iu the
sixth or seventh year of that emperor. Some Popish authors believe that he went from Jerusalem to Rome; but Anacletus will have it that Antioch was his seat before he went to Rome; this Onuphrius denies, placing him first at Rome, then at Antioch, and afterwards at Rome again; and Anterius the Pope, according to Nicephorus, speaks also of bis seat at Alexandria. Bellarmine and other authors place the apostle at Antioch for seven years; which the Cardinal Cortesius reduces to five, adding these words, "Nullum gravcm authorem septeniiium illud approbare;" and these are but a part of the stories which have been invented to uphold this prolific belief.
The contradictions between them, regarding Peter's abode in Rome, are as great as those respecting his arrival there. Some make him resident at bis bishopric 25 years; but Onuphrius reports that he kept both that and Antioch at the same time. Bellarmine says he was absent for a few years, and Cortesius 16 years, from the 11th of Claudius to the 30th of Nero, the year before he died, according to the same accounts. But if a true chronology be made of St. Paul's travels, from the time of his conversion to his death, it will appear that St. Peter was not at Rome during the first-named apostle's life; and, consequently, as they are supposed to have died nearly about the same period, St. Peter could never have resided at Rome.
St. Paul was converted in the year after our Lord's passion, in the year of Christ 35, and 19th of Tiberius. Baronius affirms that Peter and Paul suffered in the 13th of Nero; and Epiphanius refers this event to the 12th of that emperor, which will be the 33rd or 34th after our Lord's death; and this is more likely to be correct than what Bellarmine advances, that Paul suffered in the 37th year after his conversion: for from the 19th of Tiberius, the year of Paul's conversion, to the beginning of the 12th of Nero, are 33 years, one month, three weeks, and 12 days. It is granted by Bellarmine, and not denied by any, that Peter was, during the first five years of Paul's conversion, in Judea and its neighbourhood, as is concluded from Acts *x. 32 to 43. x. 24 to 48, and xi. 2. 1.18. Then, after seven years
more, when Paul went from Jerusalem to Tarsus, Acts ix. 30. Gal. ii. 11, and then to Antioch, where he abode with Barnabas a whole year, Acts xi. 26. and then both were sent to Jerusalem with relief to the saints, Acts xi. 30. which was in the 13th of Paul's conversion, Peter was not at Rome, neither had been there; for Bellarmine allows these seven years to be spent at Antioch; at which place he supposes Peter to have been bishop at this time. But that this supposition, and his planting a church there, at least at this time, is incorrect, appears from this: that no apostle taught first at Antioch, Acts viii. 1. andxi. 19,20. The first person of note was Barnabas, who brought Paul from Tarsus, Acts xi. 25, 26. which needed not to have been done if Peter had been there before. Besides, before Paul went to Antioch, Peter was at Jerusalem, Acts xi. 2.; and when Paul came with Barnabas to Antioch, Peter was in prison at Jerusalem, Acts xii. 3. so that for 12 years of Paul's conversion, Peter not having been at Antioch, could not have beea at Rome.
[To be concluded in our nftrf.]
CHEMICAL ESSAYS, BY H. B.
Essay I.—On Caloric.
Caloric is that principle which has been termed heat, fire, matter of heat, and igneous fluid. It pervades all nature, and is contained in all bodies. It is that principle which supports animal and vegetable life; for when an animal or vegetable is deprived of it to a certain extent, it inevitably perishes. When a sufficient quantity of it is accumulated in our bodies, it produces a peculiar sensation, which we term beat; the abstraction of which by other bodies, containing a smaller quantity, produces the sensation to which we give the name of cold. We are not to suppose, ho"'" ever, that a frigorific principle actually exists: the sensation of cold which we experience, is to be attributed entirely to the abstraction of caloric. This principle has a continual tendency to promote equilibrium of temperature in all bodies: for if a body which contains a small quantity »i caloric be brought near to, or in contact with, a body which contains a
large quantity, the latter will impart its excess to the former, until an equilibrium is established.
In prosecuting this important subject, we shall consider first the nature of caloric; secondly, its effects upon different bodies; thirdly, the laws by which it is regulated; fourthly, the quantities which different substances contain; and lastly, the sources of the variations of temperature, and the application of these to practical chemistry.
1. The Nature of Caloric.
Different opinions have been entertained with regard to the nature of caloric: some have supposed that it is not a material agent, but that it arises from violent motion in the internal parts of bodies; whilst others conceive it to be a subtile, active fluid, which pervades all bodies. Bacon, Boyle, Newton, and Macquer, entertained the former opinion; whilst Homberg, Lundey, and Boerhaave, together with the greater number of chemists, advocated the latter. Bacon, finding that motion and percussion increased the temperature of bodies, concluded that heat arose from the vibration of their particles: he says, heat is an expansive motion, tending to dilate the body in which it happens; although, however, there is a tendency in tbe smaller particles to expand, this motion is restrained, and a kind of vibration is produced: his words are," Calor est motus expansions, cohibitus et nitens per partes minores." The following facts appear to confirm this opinion.
If a piece of iron be placed upon an anvil, and forcibly struck for a length of time, it becomes heated; and if the beating be continued, the iron arrives at a state of ignition. If a solid body rapidly revolves round another body, considerable heat is produced; and if the motion be very rapid, ignition takes place. Two pieces of hard wood "lay be kindled by friction; and it is well known that caloric is generated by the collision of flint and steel.
Those who favoured the opinion that caloric was material, supposed that in these instances- the caloric contained in the body was driven out by the efforts of the motion and percussion, which forced the particles into a state of greater aggregation. Some modern chemists, however,
have endeavoured to shew that this explanation is insufficient, and have adopted the opinion of Bacon. Rumford had observed, that in the boring1 of cannon much heat is rendered sensible by the friction of the borer. To ascertain its quantity, he fixed a solid cylinder of brass in a trough filled with water; and having adapted the borer to it, it was made to revolve at the rate of 32 times in a minute. Heat was soon excited: in an hour the temperature had risen from 60° to 107°; and in two hours and a half the water was brought to boil, the quantity of the water being 18lbs: the apparatus itself, which weighed I51bs. was raised to the same temperature: the source of this caloric, he conceives, could not arise from a diminution of capacity for caloric, since the capacity of the borings of the metal he found to be the same as that of the solid metal; that the atmospheric air had no share in producing the heat, was evident from the circumstance of the apparatus being surrounded with water; nor could it be produced by the water, since that underwent no chemical change; and the other surrounding bodies, instead of communicating, received the heat that was generated; He concludes, that any thing which any insulated body or bodies can furnish without limitation, " cannot possibly be a material substance;" and he adds, " it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to form any distinct idea of any thing capable of being excited and communicated, in the manner the heat was excited and communicated in these experiments, except it be motion."
Boyle made two pieces of brass to rub against each other in the exhausted receiver of an air-pump; by which means he guarded against any deception which might be supposed to arise from the communication of caloric by surrounding bodies; still, however, a sensible degree of heat was soon excited. Pictet and Mr. Davy made some similar experiments; the effects of which were the same; and they were led to draw similar conclusions. Mr. Davy, by rubbing together two pieces of ice, caused a sufficient degree of heat to melt them. In this experiment, he did not conceive that the heat arose from a diminution of capacity; for water has a greater capacity for caloric than ice; nor
could it have arisen from any chemical action of the atmospheric air, since ice is not acted on by air or any of its principles. In other experiments, caloric was evolved when the friction was excited in vacuo. From these experiments, Mr. Davy inferred, that caloric must be derived from the motion and vibration of the particles of bodies, since he conceived it impossible to account for its production in any other way.
The opinion which other chemists maintain, namely, that caloric is a material substance, is also supported by a number of facts; if, for example, caloric be applied to a body, whether solid, fluid, or aerial, the bulk of that body is very much enlarged: thus, when caloric is applied to water, it increases its volume 1800 times; and when it is applied to atmospheric air, or any gas, a very considerable expansion takes place: .now upon the supposition that caloric is a mere vibratory motion, consisting of an alternate contraction and dilatation of the minute particles of bodies, it is impossible to account tor the permanent increase of ■volume wbioh (takes place. Again, Pictet found that a thermometer introduced into the exhausted receiver of an air-pump, indicated both an increase and decrease of temperature; and Count iUrmfard shewed, that this takes place when the thermometer is introduced into the Torricellian vacuum. On immersing the apparatus wiili the thermometer into a quantity of warm water, an increase of temperature was indicated; when introduced into gold water, the temperature was decreased: these experiments are very .much relied on by the advocates of the;juateriality of caloric; for in these cases there is no medium by which the vibratory motion can be produced.
The radiation of caloric is regarded as another proof of its materiality. Something is thrown out in straight lines from heated bodies, which can bercdected and condensed ; and which falling upon oilier bodies, increases .their temperature,: now it is difficult to conceive of a vibratory motion obeying these laws, and producing these effects. Lastly, the.rays of the sun, which are:prowed,to,contain caloric, apartifrom the rays of,light, are in favour of the opinion, that.caloric is a material substance. She only diffi
culty which remains, therefore, in establishing this opinion is, to account for the fact of caloric being produced by friction and percussion.
Independent of the conclusions which have been drawn by those who consider caloric to be a vibratory motion of the particles of bodies; those who have adopted the opposite opinion have come to different conclusions, by explaining, in a different manner, the experiments of their opponents: thus, for instance, they rer gard the caloric arising from percussion, as an effect of the condensation of the particles of that body which is submitted to percussion: the particles, they maintain, are forced into a more intimate union; and the caloric which they contain is evolved. Dr. Murray says, "It is far from being improbable, that the part of the body submitted to friction, and giving out the caloric in consequence of it, may receive caloric from the rest of the mass; owing to the elasticity of that agent, or its tendency to exist every where in a state of equilibrium. In the separation of the particles, caloric may flow from every side; the layer of matter immediately in contact with the surface, in a state of friction, may afford a quantity, which may be supplied from the matter contiguous to it; and thus a constant evolution may be /kept up. Nor is it impossible, but that this may extend to a considerable distance from the surface to which the friction is applied; and even thro' different kinds of matter, if they are in contact." He conceives, that there is an analogy in these cases between caloric and electricity, as it regards their production, tending to establish his position. By friction, electricity is excited and forced out, while anew portion is received from the matter in contact with the electric substance, and ultimately from the earth itselfc By this means a constant evolution is kept up. In the same manner, he contends that caloric may follow the same laws.
There certainly appears to be an analogy in this instance; still, however, it may be -very much doubted whether this can,explain, in a satisfactory manner, the evolution and supply of caloric, which take place upon percussion. It is difficult to conceive in what way caloric is accumulated in such a large quantity,
a piece of iron is beat by a hammer for a length of time.
Berthollet has shewn, by some experiments, that the caloric which is produced by percussion, is entirely owing to the reduction of volume, or condensation, which takes place. He subjected different metals, gold, silver, copper, and iron, of the same size, to the stroke of the press, by which the impression is made on coin, and ascertained the heat produced, by throwing the piece of metal into water, immediately after the percussion, liavisg previously ascertained by experiment the relation existing between a certain temperature produced in the water, and the temperature of the metal plunged into it, so as to draw the conclusion to what temperature it was raised by percussion. At the first stroke, the greatest degree of heat was produced; at the second, less heat was evolved; and at the third, still less.
Berthollet farther discovered, that condensation takes place, when bodies are subjected to percussion, and this he was convinced of from the difference of specific gravity which occurs after bodies have been struck: the specific gravity of copper before it was struck was 8.8529, after the first stroke it was 8.8898, and after the second 8.9081: that of silver previous to percussion, was 10.4667; after being struck it was 10.4838. The different metals, too, gave more heat, as they suffered a greater condensation, copper having its temperature more raised than silver or gold, and its density being more increased by the operation. From these experiments, theref°re, it is presumed that heat arises from condensation.
Some have attempted to discover whether caloric is material, by ascertaining whether there is any difference in the weight of those bodies which nave been exposed to it. Buffon, and others, made experiments of this nature; and although the results were favourable to the opinion that caloric u material, inasmuch as bodies exposed to heat indicated an increase 01 their absolute weight; still it was observed, that the sources of fallacy *ete numerous, and that the trifling increase of gravity might be ascribed to other circumstances.
Dr. Fordyce, Count Rumford, and "wet chemists, have made several exNo. 27,-vol. III.
periments, with a view to determine whether caloric is subject to gravitation. The result of their experiments has been, that caloric produces no augmentation of weight in those bodies in which it is accumulated; on the contrary, some of their experiments seemed to indicate a diminution rather than an increase. We may suppose, however, that caloric, although it may be material, is such a subtile fluid, that its gravity cannot be ascertained by experiment. Its existence in a radiant state, in the solar beam, seems to be the only conclusive argument in favour of its materiality. A decided opinion, however, cannot be given; the presumption, perhaps, is in favour of its actual existence.
(To be continued.)
ODE TO THE GENIUS OF COLLINS.
By R. T.
Hark! I hear my breathing lyre,
Beyond the faint and shadowy forms
Thro' fancied realms, that lie
Who now shall breathe, with lips of fire,