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densum, lucens, & crispuiu; Flatstalked Poudweed, P. coinpressum; Mouse-ear Scorpion Grass, Myosotis scorpioides; Common Alkanet, Anchusa officinalis; Common and greenleaved Hound's-tongue, Cynoglossurn officinale & sylvaticum; Borage, Borago officinalis; Blue Viper's Bugloss, Echiuni vulgare; Small Bugloss, Lycopsis arvensis; Bird's-eye Primrose, Primula farinosa; Buckbean, Menyanthes trifoliata ; Featherfoil, Hottonia palustris; Moneywort, Lysimackia nurnniularia; Scarlet Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis; Small Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis; Jacob's Ladder, Polemonium coeruleuni; Ivy-leaved Bellllower, Campanula hetleracea; Sheep's Bit, Jasione monlana; Deadly Nightshade, Atropa belladonna; Woody Nightshade, Solanum dulcamara; Garden Nightshade, S. nigrum; Woodbine, Lonicera periclymenum; Black Saltwort, Glaux maritima; Small and Great Hartwort, Tordylium officinale & maximum; Small Bur Parsley, Caucalis daucoides; Wild Carrot, Daucus carota; Hemlock, Conium maculatum; Sea Sulphurwort, Peucedanum officinale; Sulphur wort Water Dropwort, ffinanthe pe«cedanifolia; Coriander, Coriandrum sativum; Water Hemlock, Phellandriuin aquaticum; Shepherd's Needle, Scandix pecten veneris; Garden Chervil, S. cerefolium; Rough Chervil, Choerophyllum temulcutum; Masterwort, Imperatoria Ostruthium; Carraway, Carum carui; Water Elder, Viburnum opulus; Common Elder, Sambucus nigra; Bladdernut Tree, Staphylea pinnata; Blue Flax, Linum perenne; Purging Hax, L. catharticum; Chive Garlic, Allium schaenoprasum; Spiked Star of Bethlehem, Ornithogalum pyrcnaicum; Mountain Spiderwort, Anthericum serotinum; Narrow-leaved Solomon's Seal, Convallaria verticillata; Sweet Flag, Acorus calamus; Curled Dock, Rumex crispus; Mountain Sorrel, R. digynus: Common Sorrel, R. acetosa; Sheep's Sorrel, K. acetosella; Star-headed Water Wantain, Alisma damasonium; Alpine Willow Herb, Epilobium alpinutn; Whortleberry and Cranberry, Hccioium vitis idaea & oxycoccus; Heatb, Erica vulgaris; Irish Heath, »• dabeoci; Snakeweed, Polygonum b|slorta; Mpiue Bistort, P. vivifaiuju; Black Bindweed, P, convolvu

lus; Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus; YeMow Bird's Nest, Monotrapa hypopitys; Marsh Andromeda, A. polifolia; Red-berried trailing Arbutus, A. uva ursi; Hairy Saxifrage, Saxifraga stellaris; London Pride, S. umbrosa; Alpine Brook Saxifrage, S. rivularis; Tufted Alpine Saxifrage, S. casspitosa; Musky Alpine Saxifrage, S. Moschata; Mountain Pink, Dianthuscaesins; Berry-bearingChickweed, Cucubalus vaccil'cr; Variegated Catchtly, Silene quinque vulnera; Nottingham Catchlly, S. nutans ; Moss Campion, S.acaulis ; Glaucous Marsh Stitchwort, Stellaria glauca; Bog Stitchwort, S. uliginosa; Alpine Stitchwort, S. cerastoides; Sea Sandwort, Arenaria peploidcs; Thyme-leaved Sandwort, A. serpyllifolia; Sea Spurrey Sandwort, A. marina; Fine-leaved Sandwort, A. teiraifolia; Common Navelwort, Cotyledon umbilicus; Greater Yellow Navelwort, C. lutea; Thick-leaved Stonecrop, Sedum dasyphyllum; Wallpepper, S. acre; Insipid Stonecrop, S. sexangulare; Hairy Stonecrop, S. villosum; Corn Cockle, Agrostemma githago; Rugged Robin, Lychnis floscuculi; Alpine ChickweedjCerastium ulpiniini; Broad leaved rough Chickviccd, C. ratifolium; Common AgrimomEXgrimonia eupatoria; Irish Spurge',1 Euphorbia hyberna; Meadow Sweet, Spira-a ulinaria; White Dog Rose, Apple Rose, Downy-leaved Dog Rose, and Sweet Briar, Rosa arvensis, villosa, tomentosa, & rubiginosa; Hiptrec, R. canina; Dewberry, Stonebramble, and Cloudberry, Rubus rivsiiis, saxatilis, & chamaemorus; Shrubby Cinquefoil, Silverweed, Strawberry-flowered Cinquefoil, Hoary Cinquefoil, and common Creeping Cinquefoil, Potentilla fruticosa, anserina, rupestris, argentea, & reptans; Common and trailing Tormentil, Tormentilla officinalis & reptans; Water Avens, Geum rivalc; Marsh Cinquefoil, Comarum palustre; Long rough-headed, and smooth-headed Poppy, Papavcr argcmone &. dubium; Corn Poppy, P. Rlueas; Yellow Poppy, P. Cambrieum; Ledum-lcaved Cistus, C. ledifolius; White Mountain Cistus, C. polifolius; Field Larkspur, Delphinum consolida; Alpine and Lesser Meadow Rue, Greater Meadow Rue, Thalictrum alpinum, minus, &majns; Lesser Spearwort, Ranunculus flaminula; Pule Hairy Crawfoot, R. hirsu

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tus; Creeping Cro.wfoot, R. repens; Upright Meadow Crowfoot, R. acris; Corn Crowfoot, R. arvensis; Corn Mint, Mentha arvensis; Yellow Rattle, Rhinanthus crista galli; Marsh Lousewort,Pedicularis palustris ; Pasture Lousewort, P. sylvatica; Yellow Toadflax, Antirrhinum linaria; Least Snapdragon, A. minus; Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea; Greater Broomrape, Orobanche major; Cress Rocket, Vella annua; Gold of Pleasure, Alyssum sativum; Narrow-leav'd Pepperwort, Lepidium ruderale; Penny Cress, Thlaspi arvense; Common Hairy Mithridate Mustard, T. campestre & hirtum; Alpine Shepherd's Purse, T. alpestre; Swine's Cress, Coronopus ruellii; Lesser Wart-cress, C. didyma; Sea Rocket, Bunias cakile; Water Cress, Sisymbrium nasturtium; Creeping Water Rocket, S. sylvestre; Anuual Water Rocket, S. terrestre; Great Water Rocket, S. amphibium; Dwarf Sea Rocket, S. immense; Hedge Mustard, Erysimum officinale; Alpine Rock Cress, Arabis hispida; Perfoliate Cabbage, Brassica orientalis; Field Cabbage, B. campestris ; White and Common Mustard, Sinapis alba & nigra; Wild Radish,^^taphanus raphanistrum; Hemloc|^Hkk's Bill, Erodium cicutarium ;'*^Pp8covy, E. moschatum; Wood Geranium,G. sylvaticum; Crowfoot-leaved Geranium, G. pratense; Small-flowered Geranium, G. pusillum; Round-leaved Geranium, G. rotundifolium; Long-stalked Geranium, G. columbinum ; Dwarf Mallow, Malvia rotundifolia; Ramping Fumitory, Fumaria capreolata; Whiteclimbing Fumitory, F. claviculata; Milkwort, Polygala vulgaris; Restharrow, Ononis arvensis; Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis vulneraria; Yellow Lathyrus, L. aphaca; Hairy-flowered Yellow Vetch, Vicia hybrida; Smooth Tare, Ervum tetraspermum; Hairy Tare, E. birsutum; Saintfoin, Hedysarum onobrychis; Sweet-milk Vetch, Astragalus glycyphyllos; Purple Mountain Milk Vetch, A. hypoglottis ; Sulphur-coloured Trefoil, Triiblium ochroleucum; and six other species; Lucerne, Medicago saliva; Hairy St. John's Wort, Hypericum birsutum; Yellow Goat's Beard, Tragopogon pratensis; Bristly Oxtongue, Picris echioides; Marsh Dandelion, Lcontodonpalustrc; StinkingHawk'sbcard, Crepis fuctida; Smooth Hawk's

beard, C. tectorum; Rough Hawk'sbeard, C. biennis; Swine's Succory, Hyoseiis minima; Smooth Cat's-Ear, Hypocha;ris glabra; Long-rooted Cat's-Ear, H. radicata; Nipplewort, Lapsana communis; Spear Thistle, Carduus lanceolatus; and three other kinds; Carline, Carlina vulgaris; Mountain Cudweed, Gnaphalium dioicum; Inelegant Ragwort, Senecio squalidus ; Marsh Groundsel, S. aludosus; Marsh Fleawort, Cineraria palustris; White Oxeye, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum; Yellow Oxeye, C. scgetum; Common Feverfew, Pyrethrum parthenium; Corn and Stinking Chamomile, Anthemis arvensis & cotula; Milfoil, Achillea millefolium; Black Knapweed, Centaurea nigra; Butterfly Orchis, O. bifolia; Dwarf Orchis, O. ustulata; Spotted Palmate Orchis, O. inaculata; Aromatic Orchis, O. conopsea; Frog Satyrion, Satyrium viride; White Satyrion, S. albidum; Coral-rooted Ophrys, O. corallorbiza; Ovate Ophrys, O. ovata; Musk Ophrys, O. monorcbis; Greenman Ophrys, O. anthropophora; Fly Ophrys, O. muscifera; Ladies' Slipper, Cypripedium calceolus; While Hellebore, Serapias grandiflora; Narrow-leaved Helleborine, S. ensifolia; Purple Helleborine, S. rubra; Three species of Duckweed, Lemna; Lesser Reedmace, Typha angustifolia; Flea Carex, C. pulicaris; and iifteen other species; Plantain Shorewecd, Littorella lacustris; Roman Nettle, Urtica pilulifera; and small and great Nettle, U. urens & dioica; Bryony, Tamus communis; Spreading halberd-leaved and narrow-leaved Orache, Atriplex patula & angustifolia; Forty species of Grass, (Phalaris, Panicum, Phleum, Alopecurus, Milium, Agrostis, Aira, Holcus, Melica, Poa, Dactylis, Festuca, Bromus, Avena, Lagurus, Elymus, Hordeum, & Triticum genera) come into blossom in June.

MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OF LEONARDO ARETINO. ( Continued from col. 42/6.) In these circumstances, the cardinals experienced great difficulty, in determining what steps it would lie most advisable to take. If they declined the election, they had reason to dread sedition on the part of the Roman populace, and deceit on the part of Benedict; and if they proceeded

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to nominate a pontiff, they were painfully uncertain as to his future determinations. At length, they adopted the opinion of that party who advised tliem to elect a pontiff, but to bind liim, by a most weighty obligation, to vacate the pontifical chair in case of the abdication of his rival. When they had entered the conclave with this intention, there arrived in Rome Giovanni dei Dominici, the ambassador of the Florentine republic. At his request, the window of the conclave was opened, contrary to all precedent, and he was permitted to address the fathers. The substance of his speech was, that he was sent by the Florentine people to exhort the cardinals to forbear from proceeding to the election, as such forbearance was the most certain way of effecting an union. This practised orator, enlarging upon the above-mentioned topic with great eloquence, appeared to make a considerable impression upon the fathers, who were of themselves much inclined to his opinion. They, however, answered, that as they had entered the conclave, they would proceed to the election, but would make sufficient provision, that whosoever should be elected, he should understand that he was not appointed as pontiff, but merely as a procurator to abdicate the papal dignity.

The conference between these learned dignitaries being thus terminated, the fathers returned to their business, and adopted the following precaution: Bach of them solemnly promised and vowed to God, and took a sacred oath, that if he should be nominated to the vacant chair, he would write to invite the Antipope to concur with him in abdicating the pontifical dignity; that he would use his utmost endeavours to promote the unity of the church; and that he would in honest truth, and without fraud, as soon as possible, communicate by letter to all Christian kings and princes, this his solemn promise, vow, and oath, to the end that they might be witnesses of the serious obligation which he had imposed upon himself. When they had iully and particularly entered these proceedings in a register, and had individually signed them, they next began to consider whom it would be advisable to elect. They stood in need of a man, not so much qualified by his skill in business, as by his

honour and integrity. On weighing the merits of each member of the sacred college with these views, their choice, at length, unanimously fell on Angelo Corrario, a Venetian, and a man of ancient strictness and sanctity, who had been a little time before, by the influence of the late Pontiff, promoted from the patriarchate of Constantinople to the dignity of Cardinal. On leaving the conclave, Angelo, who had adopted the name of Gregory XII. renewed, in his pontifical capacity, the promise, vow, and oath, which he had uttered, when but a private ecclesiastic, and spoke upon the subject of union in such terms, as to induce his auditors to believe that he would spare no pains to obtain so desirable an end.*

This important occasion, presented Leonardo with another opportunity of distinguishing himself as a scholar, and a man of business. The task of drawing up the letter, inviting Benedict to concur in the proposed abdication, being assigned to several of the most learned and able members of the Roman chancery, each of whom was desired to draw up an epistle to that purport; the composition of Leonardo was unanimousMSkcknowledgcd to be the bestjM id it was accordingly adopted by tlRicw Pontiff. The satisfaction which he experienced, in the flattering testimony thus paid to his merits, induced him to listen with indifference to a proposal which was about this time made to him by Nicolo Nicoli, to stand candidate for the office of Secretary to the Florentine republic, which was then vacant in consequence of the death of the successor to Colucio SaIutati. To obviate certain suspicions which Nicolo seems to have intimated, that his official engagements would preclude him from the cultivation of literature; he adverted, in his reply, to the above-mentioned triumph, and at the same time communicated to him a translation of one of the Philippics of Demosthenes, promising that this should soon be followed by a version of the famous Oration for Ctesiphon.f

Leonardo was confirmed in his preference of the pontifical secretaryship to that of the Florentine republic, by

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his sanguine hopes, that, in consequence of the steps taken by the sacred college in the late election, an end would be put to the schism which had so long distracted the Christian community.* But these hopes were soon frustrated. A very satisfactory answer to the letter of the Roman Pontiff was indeed received from Benedict; and Savona was appointed as a proper place for the definitive meeting of the rival Popes, and of the Cardinals, who, by a new election, were to restore peace to the church. But the relations of Gregory, looking with eager eyes upon places of power and emolument, endeavoured to divert him from his resolution to abdicate the papal chair. Their entreaties and insinuations were powerfully seconded by the intrigues of Ladislaus, king of Hungary, who was apprehensive, that should the choice of the conclave fail upon a Frenchman, his claims upon the kingdom of Naples would be invalidated in favour of the duke of Anjou. The proposed meeting at Savona was therefore declined, to the great disgrace of Gregory^ who began still more to suffer in the public estimation, in consequence pf'* sudden and unprovoked attack ulMh was made by the troops of the klJJg of Hungary, upon the city of Rome, as it was thought not without bis connivance. During the tumults occasioned by this act of violence, the Pontiff took refuge in the castle of St. Angelo; and the Hungarian troops being at length repulsed, with considerable loss, by Odo Colonna, he soon found himself so obnoxious to the public resentment, that he determined to quit his capital, and repair to Siena. §

During the residence of the pontifical court in that city, Leonardo was happily enabled to testify his grateful remembrance of the kindness of his old preceptor Colucio Salutati, by conferring an important benefit upon one of his sons. Colucio had left several children, concerning whose future destiny he was little anxious, from the cheerful confidence that they would be able to provide for themselves, by the exercise of their respective talents. But, as he felt his

* Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. ii. en. 4. t Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. ii. ep. 7. $ Ibid Epist. a..

strength decline, he was distressed by the reflection that his son Salutati was precluded, by a weakness of sight, from promoting his own success in the world by any active occupation. He had therefore recommended him to the particular attention of Leonardo, at the time when he took his last leave of him, on his departure to the Roman court. Nor had Leonardo been unmindful of the interest of his young ward. He had frequently solicited both Innocent and Gregory to appoint him to some eligible ecclesiastical living; but so great was the number and so vigilant the eagerness of expectants, that he had hitherto been disappointed. At length, finding his wishes constantly frustrated, when he petitioned in the name of another, tie determined to solicit on his own behalf two vacant benefices; namely, a Canonicate of Florence, and the Priorship of the monastery of Fiessole. Having obtained these gifts from the liberality of his master, he took an early opportunity of resigning them in favour of his youthful friend. ||

About this time, Leonardo appears to have employed, or rather abused, bis leisure hours, in composing an oration, supposed to be spoken by Blagabalus to the common strumpets of Koine.*j' This composition was published by Aldus Manutius, in an edition of the minor writers of the Augustan History, printed at Venice, A. D. 1516, and 1519.

|] Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. ii. ep. 11. 11 Ibid. ep. 16.

(To be continued.)

THE BENEFIT DERIVED FROM LEARN-
ING, THE ARTS, &C—BY A. H.

Ingenuas dedicisse lideliter artes
Emolet mores, nee sinit esse feros.

It is a great truth, that man is left to get acquirements by his own industry; and that he is not replete with knowledge, when fresh from the hand of Nature. He has not inward wisdom to foresee difficulties, or to construct methods of escape; he is destitute of prudence to direct, and of knowledge to assist. But when mankind learn the arts of civilization, and study and reflect on their necesssities, they devise means by the exercise of reason, and regulate their affairs by the help of ingenuity. In proportion asleaxo

501

Benefit derived from Learning, the Arts, fyc.

502

ing increases, so ranch the better will be their condition.

In the first place, it adorns human nature. Man, although inferior in this state of being, is capable of grasping high attainments. We have had many instances of this, both in our own country, and in other regions. We are compelled to admire the searching talents of a Locke: and we are thunderstruck, but at the same time proud, at the almost super- human abilities of a Newton. Thomson singing of Britain's worthies, says of the great philosopher,— "Let Newton, pure Intelligence! whom God "To mortals lent, to trace his boundless works "From laws sublimely simple, speak thy fame "In all philosophy."

The man, whose attainments are vast and useful, carries with him a kind of nobility. The barren waste which overspreads his mind, is cultivated and become fruitful; the rewards of his labour and industry fully satisfy him. "He that can comprehend the regulations by which the heavenly bodies are held, who can philosophically search out the works of Nature, not only enjoys and realizes a pleasure unknown to the ignorant, but is enabled with more rapture and admiration to adore the Author of all those wondrous works."

When the Arts and Sciences are to be seen in a nation, what a difference do they cause, if properly directed, between that nation and one which is overwhelmed by the darkness of ignorance, by luxury and folly? They render mankind sensible of their situation: they exhibit to their view an extensive surface, on which is depicted their real circumstances, and the point upon which their prosperity depends. They order their affairs, provide for the different conveniences of life, and in a great measure bestow happiness. Even those arts which are not absolutely necessary to society, but which are ornamental and ingenious, ought to be praised and countenanced.

In public life, what advantages do good oratory and public speaking possess! of what vast importance are expertness in the art of government and learning, and great information in a minister of the State! There is reason to differ from the ancient Romans 'n this respect. They separated the

art of government from any ornament

which it might derive from other studies, except, indeed, oratory, which was almost necessarily connected with the senate: despising other civil arts as unworthy their attention, they regarded study as unmanly. Virgil chooses to call the art of government and war, the distinguishing excellencies of his countrymen:—

Excudent alii spirantia raollius ;rra,

Credo equidem : vivos ducent de marraore vul

tus; Orabunt cansas melius: coelique meatus Describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: Tu regere imperio popnlos, Roraane, memento: 11 a- tibi eruni artes; pacisque imponere

morem, Parcere subjectis, ct debellare snperbos.

JEwid vi.

What an ornament to the nation; are the fine arts! What utility do the mechanical arts yield! When a nation is replete with learning and learned men, it is indeed an incalculable blessing'; she rises in the scale of dignity, and is better able to accomplish the great ends of civil society.

If then a nation is so much benefited by learning, ought it not to be encouraged? Undoubtedly. First, then, a free circulation ought to be given to books. The people of England enjoy this privilege. Undue restraint creates fear; and learned persons could hardly venture on the task of publication, if attempts to check knowledge by this method existed. A full circulation ought to second every attempt to do good; and when a man is released from fear, he will tear off reserve in his literary endeavours.

Learning ought to be encouraged by patronage. Literary societies ought to be supported. Confidence and perseverance in the pursuit of an object, are the effects of support, especially if it come from high authority. Learned and ingenious men ought to be stimulated by rewards, to further labour in their praiseworthy occupation; and rewards should not be bestowed indiscriminately. There must be a scale of merit; and the recompense ought to correspond with the situation an individual holds in that scale. This will cause emulation; —a great assistant to excellence.

Such men should be looked up to, and consulted on difficult subjects. They have, as it were, a legislative authority in matters of learning and science. They possess something

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