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To enter into particulars would be tedious. Your imagination will guggest ■what passed among familiar friends, unanimous in their pursuit of mirth. This day was assuredly a happy one; and it is especially to be deemed so, since, in such a state of confusion is the pontifical court, that every employment is welcome which can in any way enliven the gloominess of our thoughts.—Lucca, June 10."*

The forebodings which Leonardo seems to have entertained of the state of turbulence in which the court of the Pontift" was likely to be involved, were speedily verified. In the following letter to Pedrillo, a Neapolitan, who in all probability was one of his colleagues in the papal secretaryship, and who had withdrawn from the disgusting scenes of ecclesiastical intrigue, he thus expressed his feelings of honest indignation:—

"Our conjectures have been proved by the event, to be but too well founded. The storm, which has of late been gathering by degrees, has at length burst with sudden fury. The cardinals, who have for some time past regarded the conduct of the Pontiff with sentiments of indignation and resentment, have left him and departed. Nothing can be imagined more tempestuous or turbulent than' the ;day ,of their departure. Greatly do I commend the wisdom and foresight which you evinced in quitting this scene of strife, and retiring to Naples; and I blame myself for not following the dictates of my better judgment, and imitating your example.

"I will give you a history of this affair. I presume, that you are desirous of knowing the truth; and many falsehoods are circulated by those who are ignorant of the facts of the case. I will recur, then, to the period of your departure, in order that you may have a more perfect idea of the causes and the progress of the late events. The Pontiff, after he had quitted Rome, had stopped for some months at Siena. In the mean time the period had arrived, at which he had engaged to repair to Savona. But this period, to the great displeasure of all good men, and in neglect and contempt of his promise, he suffered to pass by. The Antipope, however, according to bis agreement, came on

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the prescribed day to Savona, and was every hour triumphantly upbraiding his Holiness for his absence. A bitter circumstance this, and a disgrace to the Italians both of the present and of future times! For what could have happened to us more shameful or more ignominious, than that the Pontiff should refuse ,to repair to the spot which he had himself selected for the effecting of that union of Christendom, for which all men are looking with such earnest expectation? Methinks, some one will here say, Dare you write such things—you, who are in the service of his Holiness? Yes, truly! For why should I flatter him, and disguise my sentiments as to the nature of his conduct? I am a Christian, and an Italian, and I am irritated at the thought that Christians should be deprived of the blessing of unity and peace, and that my countrymen should be impeached as faithless covenant-breakers. Do I not then love the Pontiff? Yes! much more than they who by lying and flattering have persuaded him to adopt wrong measures. I do, indeed, study to promote the true glory of the Pontiff, which consists in a spirit of unity, and in bestowing upon Christendom that peace which he bad promised—a line of conduct than which nothing can be more conducive to immortal glory. But his evil counsellors have advised him to retain his see by any means, however disgusting to the Christian community at large. They who deemed this a glorious act are mad, especially since the consequences of such a step were easy to be foreseen. But I return to the course of my narrative.

"The Pontiff not having repaired to Savona, and news having arrived that the Antipope, who had come thither on the day appointed, was accusing us for absenting ourselves; in consequence of the general ferment which took place in men's minds, another proposal was made, namely, that the Antipope should go to Porto Venere, and his Holiness to Lucca. We accordingly left Siena in the month of January, in the midst of a heavy shower of snow, and repaired to Lucca, where, notwithstanding the constant interchange of messengers, the affair seemed to make no pro* gress.

( To be continued.)

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Literary Institution recommended to tie Inhabitants of Liverpool.

Mr. Editor. Sir,—It is much to be lamented, that amongst the many associations, formed by young people in this town, there have not been some for the promotion of science and literature. The Philosophical Society is a public institution, and beyond the efforts of juvenile genius. However excellent it may be for the purposes intended, its establishment we think cannot in the least promote the early emulation, or foster the clever but crude attempts which private societies would be enabled to do. Now, a Literary Club, composed of young men, from the ages of 1C or 17, to 25, or upwards, would be a great advantage. Several little societies of this kind might be formed among friends and acquaintances, which, without interfering with more important avocations, would give a spirit to the society, and a tone to the pursuits of our young men, which would completely raise the character of our town. A year or two since, indeed, we believe it was in one instance attempted, and a plan adopted of meeting together, at their respective houses. But it was of no long continuance, while a Chess club established about the same time has long survived it. This is certainly an agreeable and innocent recreation, and as far as it engages the attention of the mind, may be called useful. In exercising the faculties of man, and promoting habits of patient thought, as an amusement it is unequalled,—but why are literature and science to be excluded! Frequently, through societies like the latter, great minds have been produced, and latent talents called into action. But where this is not the case, they at all events improve and refine the taste, and give a stimulus to the ambition of the members, which is sure to produce a beneficial influence on their future lives. Elevated. with such views, and such pure and delightful amusements, consecrating the hours of leisure to the cultivation of talent, and the pursuits of literature, there can be no character more noble and estimable, than that of a British merchant.

, r Atvro.

Lwsrpool, June 4, 1821.

Answer to a Question, on the Re-union of Married Persons who had separated.

"Mr. Editor. "Sir,—1 think there can be no doubt that the characters described in the question inserted col. 374, are at liberty to return; for while they remain by their second engagement, they are in a state of adultery, (Matthew xix. 9.) But by a re-union, they return to perform their first marriage vow. Such act may also be considered the fruit of repentance, if their moral deportment admit such construction. And referring to John vi. 37. we find our Saviour will not on any account reject the coming sinner; therefore, no religious society has a right to do so.

"With reference to the four first verses of the 24th chapter of Deuteronomy ;—the separation there, is the result of a lawful determination on the part of the husband alone, and put in force before the wife found favour. Whereas, according to the present query, we may suppose the agreement to separate was mutual, by each choosing a new spouse; and moreover, prior to the first separation, we may also suppose the parties to have cohabited; from both of which particulars I conclude, the chapter of Deuteronomy, referred to, is not applicable to the characters in question. Besides, the second marriage, as in Deuteronomy, is lawful, and not the first: but with the case in band, it is the first marriage that is lawful, and not the second; see 19th of Matthew, just quoted.

"I am Sir,
"Your's,most respectfully,

"Joseph Williams."

"Bridge-End, Cornwall."

Reply to a Query on Ringworms. In col. 374, a Question was inserted respecting this singular complaint, to which two replies were given in col. 477. Since the above appeared, we have been favoured with the following, which we also insert, from a hope that they may likewise prove beneficial.

Mr. Editor. Sir,—In your Magazine for Apnl. 1821, a Correspondent inquire* fur •»

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efficacious care of the Ringworm. I am induced to offer the following, because I have experienced its value. When a child, of about 10 years of age, I had the complaint, and by a persevered application of the following prescription, was completely cured, and have never since had any return of the disorder. The trial has proved equally successful in several other instances, to my own knowledge, of which two or three have taken place among my own brothers and sisters.

One admonition will be necessary, before I state the recipe, and that is, to persevere in the application; for the Ringworm, like the Wart, requires a considerable time to remove.

Recipe.—Let the head be shaved, and that every week. Wash the head morning and evening with soap and water, after which, apply the following ointment, by rubbing a small quantity into the part affected.

Ointment.—two Scruples of White Precipitate;—eight Grains of Sublimate;—mixed up in two ounces of Hog's-la'rd.

As the particles of this ointment are a rank poison, I beg to caution persons against leaving it in the way of children or servants.

Your's, &c. B. B.
Lo*»h>, 3% 15, 1821.

Mr. Joseph Williams, master of the Free School, Bridge-End, Cornwall, observes, that about three years since, the above disorder appeared •TMong a few of his pupils. Fearing me complaint would prove infectious, toe lads were taken home by their Parents respectively, where they regained until they were cured, which *as effected in a few months. Among TM* different applications which Were »ade, he knows of none that proved jwe speedily efficacious than, first, "lack Ink without any other mixture;

A1' ,fondly, a preparation made from

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If the person that W. Smith has heard make the assertion concerning Screw-drivers, means only to say, that a screw-driver with a long handle, to which you can apply both your hands, will turn a screw with greater ease than one with a short handle, to which you can only apply one hand, I grant the assertion is true. But if he intends to have the same wood handle to each iron screw-driver, the experiment will prove that both the screw-drivers are powerful alike; and like powers produce like effects in common levers. When the screwdriver is reduced to a common lever, and we make an experiment with one, say 21 inches long, placed horizontally, and resting upon a circular step, and a weight applied to a lever" upon the handle of the screw-driver, it will raise a certain weight upon the extremity of the flat part of the screwdriver. Now if you make an experiment with a screw-driver, say 15 inches long, you will have the same result, admitting you make the experiment with the same handle, lever, and weight; which is demonstrable to every intelligent mind. But if you apply your hand to the wood handle of a screw-driver, and cause it to pass through a much larger circle, most certainly it will have more power than the screw-driver with a small handle, because the radius of the large circle is greater than the radius of the small circle; therefore the ratio of the power will be ad the difference of the radius of these circles. Yours, &c. A Subscriber.

Low Moor Iron Works,
April nth, 1821.

To the preceding Question we have received two other answers; one from Mr. Joseph Williams of Bridge-End, Cornwall, the other from Mr. Robt. Hall, junr. Colchester. Both the reply we have given, and that transmitted by Mr. Williams, were accompanied with figures; but we conceive that what we have inserted will be sufficiently clear without a diagram.

The following Epitaph in Hollesley Church-yard, is curious for the number of metaphors it contains. A Man is born—alas! and what is man? A scuttle full of dust—a breath—a span— A vale of tears—a vessel ton'd with breath, By sickness broach'd, and then drawn off by death. 2S

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Not only as a reformer of the church doctrine, and religious discipline, but likewise as a German writer, has Luther acquired immortal honour. He wrote his mother tongue more perfectly and elegantly than any other author of his time. In his translation of the Bible, he has left a pattern of a proper, just, and clear, nay of an harmonious, expression. He translated with true feelings of its great and noble contents, and learned to exchange many of the peculiarities of the Scripture language with the German. Nevertheless he let many remain, and not without reason; and so incessantly improved his work, that, with the exception of some particular passages, it has not since his day received any improvement. In his spiritual songs, he was not so much engaged in narrowly observing the rules of language and art of poetry, as to express free and lively Christian feelings; and we perceive at the present how well he succeeded. The fine, and the exalted sentiments, with which many of them are composed, express his mind, his heart, and representations, more naturally than all which history can add upon the subject.

The man who could compose that hymn "Euiefeste Burg ist unsa Gall," and treat it in such a manner, must be far exalted above the common sort of men of his day. In his controversial writings, there reigned much solidity, strong wit, and genuine humour, notwithstanding the bitterness and passion, which must be forgiven in a man of his stormy and fiery soul. In his sermons, Luther shews himself as the great, thinking, honest, and candid man, which he was in all his enterprises; and his religious expositions were entirely different from the then common way, in substance, form, dress, and expression. Even here he pursued his own path, which he considered the most proper to promote in the best manner the result of preaching, instruction, and improvement. The ancient, and, in the first days of Christianity, usual form, of homilies, appeared to him the most natural and useful. Without exordium, theme, or division, he delayed not by one sub

ject matter, but went through or over his text, and formed as many considerations upon it as he found occasion, and his fruitful genius pointed out to him. The usual application had no particular place, as all his moral representations were brought forward in immediate application to all the hearers. All this, and the spirit which pervades his sermons, and the often unexpected and lively thoughts, the affecting representations, the candid and powerful tone with which he speaks, combined with the great simplicity, popularity and artless manly eloquence, give his sermons a particularly original value. The common and low expressions will be readily pardoned, if viewed according to those times when they were not then, what they are now.

Luther belongs to those rare men, who with proportionately small means to effect great matters, are able to produce incredible changes. He was, and became, every thing through himself; and humanity, debased under the yoke of superstition and spiritual despotism, has to thank him for ennobling and reinstating her in her, through many centuries, disallowed and oppressed rights. In an age when no one was accustomed to think or to inquire, he profited of the fragments of budding literature, which with unwearied diligence he collected, partly at school, and partly in his academic years, for a solid exposition of holy Scripture, and for a regular improvement of the entire religious instruction in the pulpit, as also upon the spiritual teacher's rostrum. Possessing too great a mind to feel the sensations of envy or jealousy, he willingly did justice to others' merit, yet pursued his own path; and the happy ideas of the best heads of his age, of an Erasmus and a Melancthon, were only instruments in his hands, and not the sources of his farther progress in the elucidation. He exalted particularly (in his translation of the Bible) the German language from its former neglect and barbarousness: he taught princes and citizens their matual rights and privileges, more solidly and justly than the most penetrating lawyers, long before, or until his time, had done; in short, he seized and made use of every opportunity to overcome prejudices, to spread usetui truths, and would certainly have pro

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ceeded much farther, if various theological controversies, and other avocations, had not robbed him of the greatest part of his leisure.

If Luther be viewed on the side of his comprehensive mind, he deserves oar wonder; he likewise becomes amiable through his character, and an object of just veneration: He was content, temperate, bold, undaunted, disinterested, and beneficent, magnanimous and discreet, a zealous worshipper of God, and an active friend of mankind. The contentment to which he had accustomed himself from early youth, and during his severe life in the cloister, may be considered as the foundation of the great part of his other virtues. It was this which made him moderate with respect to every kind of enjoyment, and also created that serenity of the soul, which is the daughter of temperance, and the parent of great ideas and actions. Confined to a small circle of wants, he was an enemy to all excess; and the voice of revengeful calumny alone, and which he sufficiently confuted by his simple manner of life, could ever accuse him of intemperance. Far removed from permitting his body to usurp dominion over the nobler part of the man, he often renounced the reasonable enjoyment of proffered comforts, and appeared at times, for whole days together, quite to forget all bodily wants. Equally removed from a complaining humour, and proud contempt, of the extended invitations to enjoyment spread through all creation, he was animated and lively in the companiable circle of friends and acquaintances, and he taught by his example the great art to forbear the innocent comforts of life, as also to use them to the collecting of new powers, and to the awakening of joyful thanksgivings to the over all apparent goodness of the great Creator.

Even this art of forbearance, which in so great a degree he made his own, raised him above all fear of man, and pver the mean necessity of conceal"ig his sentiments under jthe complaisant garb of flattery. Free from the reproaches of an accusing conscience, and unacquainted with the seducing charms of excessive desires, he enjoyed that exalted tranquillity °f soul, which accompanies the consoling consciousness of the exact

fulfilment of our duties, and which no accidental change of our external circumstances can add to or diminish. In himself alone he sought and found the sources of true happiness, the possession of which his ever active mind, as well as heart full of sentiments for general good, assured him. He therefore set no value on the advantages or gifts of fortune, the possession or loss of which depend upon the temper of human favour, or human hatred. From hence arose his unmoveable stedfastness, his heroic undauntedness in threatening dangers, his incorruptible love of truth, in his bold judgment of others' failings, the baneful influence of which he remarked on the welfare of man, and the interest of religion. No eminence of person was available to soften or turn aside his loud and severe reproaches, and which he sufficiently evinced in his often-repeated declarations against two of the mos.t open enemies of the Reformation— Albreckt of Brandenburg, cardinal and elector of Mainz, and George Duke of Saxony. With equally impartial boldness he reproved the failings of those persons, whom he otherwise loved and esteemed on account of their virtues, and their favourable sentiments of the unadulterated doctrine. Thus he reproached the Elector Frederick the Wise, with his shy lukevvarmness at the commencenientof the Church reformation, and his very extreme carefulness; the Elector John the Constant, with his too great mildness and his too yielding goodness to the" pride of the nobles; the Elector John Frederick, with his obstinacy and the boundless confidence placed in his council, and with his love for hunting, pursued without proper moderation, at the expense of the poor country people.

The noble disinterestedness of Luther, as well as his beneficence, was the effect of that satisfied contentment, by which he so favourably distinguished himself. He never submitted to immoderate desires after riches and greatness, and, accustomed to a happy mediocrity, he deigned no attention to a possible and shining beautifying of his natural situation. The Roman court, as well before as after the excommunicating bulls directed against him, offered him considerable sums; and, if some not im

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