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Now not, though sin, not time, first wrought the change, Where Tigris at the foot of Paradise

71 Into a gulf shot under ground, till part Rose up a fountain by the tree of life; In with the river sunk, and with it rose Satan involv'd in rising mist, then sought Where to lie hid ; sea he had search'd and land From Eden over Pontus, and the pool Mæotis, up beyond the river Ob; Downward as far antarctic: and in length West from Orontes to the ocean barr'd At Darien, thence to the land where flows Ganges and Indus: thus the orb he roam'd With narrow search, and with inspection deep Consider'd every creature, which of all


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75. -----involv'd in rising mist,) aqxtos the bear, the most conHomer, Iliad. i. 359.

spicuous constellation near the

north pole; but no particular -αναδυ πολιης αλος ηϋτ' ομιχλη.

place is mentioned near the 77. From Eden orer Pontus, south pole, there being all sea or &c.] As we had before an land unknown. And in length, astronomical, so here we have a as north is up and south is down, geographical, account of Satan's so in length is east or west; peregrinations. He searched both west from Orontes, à river of sea and land, northward from Syria, westward of Eden, runEden over Pontus, Portus Euxi- ning into the Mediterranean, to nus, the Euxine Sea, now the the ocean barred at Darien, the Black Sea, above Constantino- isthmus of Darien in the Westple, and the pool Mæotis, Palus Indies, a neck of land that joins Mæotis above the Black Sea, up North and South America tobeyond the river Ob, Ob or Oby, gether, and hinders the ocean as a great river of Muscovy near it were with a bar from flowing the northern pole. Downward between them; and the metaas far antarctic, as far south- phor of the ocean barred is an ward; the northern hemisphere allusion to Job xxxviii. 10. and being elevated on our globes, set bars to the sea. Thence to the north is called up and the the land where flows Ganges and south downwards; antarctic south Indus, thence to the East-Indies: the contrary to arctic north from thus the orb he roamed.




Most opportune might serve his wiles, and found
The serpent subtlest beast of all the field.
Him after long debate, irresolute
Of thoughts revolv’d, his final sentence chose
Fit vessel, fittest imp of fraud, in whom
To enter, and his dark suggestions hide
From sharpest sight: for in the wily snake,
Whatever sleights none would suspicious mark,
As from his wit and native subtlety
Proceeding, which in other beasts observ'd
Doubt might beget of diabolic power
Active within beyond the sense of brute.
Thus he resolv'd, but first from inward grief
His bursting passion into plaints thus pour'd.

O earth, how like to heav'n, if not preferr'd


86. The serpent subllest beast imitating all they see and hear. of all the field.) So Moscs says, Hume. Gen. iii. 1. Now the serpent was


-if not preferr'd more subtle than any beast of the More justly, &c.] field: the subtlety of the ser- I reckon this panegyric upon pent is commended likewise by the earth among the less perfect Aristotle and other naturalists: parts of the poem. The beginand therefore he was the fitter ning is extravagant, and what instrument for Satan, because follows is not consistent with (as Milton says agreeably with what the author had said before the doctrine of the best divines) in his description of Satan's pasany sleights in him might be sage among the stars and plathought to proceed from his nets, which are said then to native wit and subtlety, but ob- appear to hiin as other worlds served in other creatures might inhabited. See iii. 566. The the easier beget a suspicion of a imagination that all the headiabolical power acting within venly bodies were created for them beyond their natural sense.

the sake of the earth was na89. --fittest imp of fraud,] tural to human ignorance, and Fittest stock to graft his devil- human vanity might find its ish fraud upon. Imp of the account in it: but neither of Saxon impan, to put into, to these could influence Satan. graft upon. Thus children are Heylin. called "lillle imps, from their Äs it is common with people



More justly, seat worthier of Gods, as built
With second thoughts, reforming what was old!
For what God after better worse would build ?
Terrestrial heav'n, danc'd round by other heavens
That shine, yet bear their bright officious lamps,
Light above light, for thee alone, as seems,
In thee concentring all their precious beams
Of sacred influence! As God in heaven
Is centre, yet extends to all, so thou
Centring receiv’st from all those orbs; in thee,
Not in themselves, all their known virtue' appears 110
Productive in herb, plant, and nobler birth
Of creatures animate with gradual life
Of growth, sense, reason, all summ’d up in man.

to undervalue what they have must be best, because it was forfeited and lost by their folly created last; and wickedness, and to over

For what God after better worse value any good that they hope

would build ? to attain; so Satan is here maile to question whether earth be A sophistical argument worthy not preferable to heaven: but of Satan, and for the same reathis is spoken of earth in its

son man would be better than primitive and original beauty angels. But Satan was willing before the fall. As Mr. Thyer to insinuate imperfection in observes, Spenser has the very God, as if he had mended his same thought upon a like occa- hand by creation, and as if all sion, for describing the gardens the works of God were not persurrounding the temple of Ve- fect in their kinds, and in their nus, he says,

degrees, and for the ends for That if the happy souls which do which they were intended. possess

113. Of growth, sense, reason, Th' Élysian fields, and live in lasting all summ'd up in man.] The bliss,

three kinds of life rising as it Should happen this with living eye to see,

were by steps, the vegetable, They soon would loath their lesser animal, and rational ; of all happiness.

which man partakes, and he Faery Queen, b. v. c. 10. st. 23. only; he grows as plants, miBut Satan concludes that earth nerals, and

all things inanimate;

With what delight could I have walk'd thee round,
If I could joy in ought, sweet interchange

Of hill, and valley, rivers, woods, and plains,
Now land, now sea, and shores with forest crown'd,
Rocks, dens, and caves! but I in none of these
Find place or refuge; and the more I see
Pleasures about me, so much more I feel

120 Torment within me', as from the hateful siege Of contraries ; all good to me becomes Bane, and in heav'n much worse would be my state. But neither here seek I, no nor in heaven To dwell, unless by mast'ring heav'n's Supreme; 125 Nor hope to be myself less miserable By what I seek, but others to make such he lives as all other animated When the pause is made upon creatures, but is over and above the first syllable of the verse, it endued with reason. Richardson. is commonly upon a verb, to

119. Find place or refuge ;] mark the action more strongly. Dr. Bentley believes that the I think it is always so in Hoauthor gave it Find place of mer. But Milton makes the refuge : another learned gentle- pauses as well upon a substanman proposes to read Find peace tive, as here, and in vi. 837. or refuge: but it may be under

-such as in their souls infix'd stood thus, but I in none of these

Plagues; find place to dwell in or refuge from divine vengeance. And

and in the preceding book we this sense seems to be confirmed have it upon an adjective, viii. by what follows.

472. But neither here seek I, no nor in

That what seem'd fair in all the

world, seem'd now To dwell, Nor hope to be myself less mise- 127. but others to make such

As 1,] that is, (as Dr. Greenwood adds) It is true (as Dr. Bentley reI find no place to dwell here, for marks) that the syntax requires I do not seek or desire it; and to make such as me : but may I expect no refuge, because I not the verb substantive am be cannot hope to be less miserable. understood, to make others such

122. —all good to me becomes as I am ? and is such an abbreBane,-)

viation uncommon?



Table :




As I, though thereby worse to me redound:
For only in destroying I find ease

relentless thoughts; and him destroyed,
Or won to what may work his utter loss,
For whom all this was made, all this will soon
Follow, as to him link'd in weal or woe,
In woe then ; that destruction wide may range:

To me shall be the glory sole among
Th’infernal pow'rs, in one day to have marr'd
What he Almighty styl’d, six nights and days
Continued making, and who knows how long
Before had been contriving, though perhaps
Not longer than since I in one night freed
From servitude inglorious well nigh half
Th' angelic name, and thinner left the throng
Of his adorers : he to be aveng’d,
And to repair his numbers thus impair’d,
Whether such virtue spent of old now fail'd
More angels to create, if they at least
Are his created, or to spite us more,
Determin’d to advance into our room
A creature form'd of earth, and him endow,
Exalted from so base original,
With heav'nly spoils, our spoils : what he decreed
He'effected ; man he made, and for him built
Magnificent this world, and earth his seat,




146. —if they at least

Are his created,) He questions whether the angels were created by God; he had before asserted that they were not, to the angels themselves, v. 859.

We know no time when we

not as now: Know none before us, self-begol,

self-rais d By our own quick’ning pow'r.

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