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Him lord pronounc'd, and, O indignity!
Subjected to his service angel wings,
And flaming ministers to watch and tend
Their earthly charge: of these the vigilance
I dread, and to elude, thus wrapt in mist
Of midnight vapour glide obscure, and pry
In every bush and brake, where hap may find

The serpent sleeping, in whose mazy folds
To hide me, and the dark intent I bring.
O foul descent! that I who erst contended
With Gods to sit the high’est, am now constrain'd
Into a beast, and mix'd with bestial slime,
This essence to incarnate and imbrute,
That to the highth of deity aspir’d;
But what will not ambition and revenge
Descend to? who aspires must down as low


as low


156. And flaming ministers] 166. This essence to incarnate For He makeih his angels spirits, and imbrute,] So also in his and his ministers a flaming fire. Mask, Psalm civ. 4.

The soul grows clotted by contagion, 156. Compare the Ode on the

Imbodies and imbrutcs. Circumcision,

Thyer. Ye flaming powers, and winged warriors bright.

169. -nho uspires must down And P. L. vi. 102. xi. 101. T. Warton.

As high he soar'd,] 164. -am


Rather must sink as lou, (says &c.] The construction is, am

Dr. Bentley,) because it is better now forced into a beast, and to

to have some verb in the oppoincarnate, fic. The verb con

sition than the adverb down. strained governs both the mem

But yet this way of speaking is bers; and there are innumerable agreeable to what Milton says instances (as Mr. Richardson

in x. 503. observes) in Milton, Horace,

But up, and enter now into full bliss. and the best Latin and Greek poets, of the same verb govern- In both places the adverbs are ing in one member of the period used as verbs, or some verb of a noun &c. and in the other a motion is to be supplied in the verb &c.

sense. Pearce.




As high he soar'd, obnoxious first or last
To basest things. Revenge, at first though sweet,
Bitter ere long back on itself recoils ;
Let it; I reck not, so it light well aim'd,
Since higher I fall short, on him who next
Provokes my envy, this new favourite
Of heav'n, this man of clay, son of despite,
Whom us the more to spite his Maker rais'd
From dust : spite then with spite is best repaid.

So saying, through each thicket dank or dry,
Like a black mist low creeping, he held on



There is a most beautiful in- offspring of hatred and envy, stance of the use of such adverbs created to increase his punishfor verbs in Shakespeare, 2 ment, by seeing this man of clay Henry IV. act iv.

substituted into that glorious For now a time is come to mock

station of him forlorn, outcast of at form ;

heaven. Hume. Henry the Fifth is crown'd: up, I have often wondered that vanity!

this speech of Satan's escaped Down, royal state !

the particular observation of the 173. Let it ;] Let revenge ingenious Mr. Addison. There recoil on itself, I reck not, I is not in my opinion any one in value not, so it light well aimed, the whole book that is worked since higher I fall short, on him up with greater judgment, or who next provokes my envy, so it better suited to the character of light on man, since I cannot the speaker. There is all the accomplish my revenge on God. horror and malignity of a fiend

A truly diabolical sentiment like spirit expressed, and yet this. So he can but be


this is so artfully tempered with ways revenged, he does not Satan's sudden starts of recolvalue though his revenge recoil lection upon the meanness and on himself.

folly of what he was going to 176. -son of despite,] It undertake, as plainly shew the is a Hebraism by which wicked remains of the archangel, and men are termed sons of Belial, the ruins of a superior nature. Deut. xiii. 13. valiant men, sons

Thyer. of courage, 2 Sam. ii. 7. untame- 178. -spite then with spite is able beasts, sons of pride, Job best_repaid.] Æschylus Proxli. 24. the disciples, sons of meth. 944. light, Luke xvi. 8. So Satan

Ούτως υβριζειν της υβριζοντας χριων. calls man the son of despite, the

Richardson. 185

His midnight search, where soonest he might find
The serpent: him fast sleeping soon he found
In labyrinth of many a round self-roll’d,
His head the midst, well stor’d with subtle wiles :
Not yet in horrid shade or dismal den,
Nor nocent yet, but on the grassy herb
Fearless unfear'd he slept ; in at his mouth
The devil enter'd, and his brutal sense,
In heart or head, possessing soon inspir’d
With act intelligential; but his sleep
Disturb'd not, waiting close th' approach of morn.
Now when as sacred light began to dawn
In Eden on the humid flow'rs, that breath'd


186. Nor nocent yet,] Thus great part of the action lying it is in the second and in the out of the sphere of day. The subsequent editions ; in the first

first day we reckon that wherein edition it is Not nocent yet. Satan came to the earth; the

186. -the grassy herb] So space of seven days after that we have in Virgil, Ecl. v. 26. he was coasting round the earth; graminis herbam.

he comes into Paradise again by 192. Now when as sacred light night, and this is the beginning &c.] The author gives us a of the ninth day, and the last of description of the morning, man's innocence and happiness. which is wonderfully suitable And the morning often is called to a divine poem, and peculiar sacred by the poets, because that to that first season of nature: time is usually allotted to sacrihe represents the earth, beforefice and devotion, as Eustathius it was cursed, as a great altar, says in his remarks upon Hobreathing out its incense from all parts, and sending up a plea- 193. In Eden on the humid sant savour to the nostrils of its

flow’rs that breath'd Creator; to which he adds a Their morning incense, when noble idea of Adam and Eve, as all things that breathe,] offering their morning worship, Here Milton gives to the Engand filling up the universal con- lish word breathe, which is gesort of praise and adoration. nerally used in a more confined Addison.

sense, the extensive signification This is the morning of the of the Latin spirare, imitating ninth day, as far as we can perhaps Spenser, Faery Queen, reckon the time in this poem, a

b. i. cant. iv. st. 38.


Their morning incense, when all things that breathe,
From th' earth's great altar send up silent praise 195
To the Creator, and his nostrils fill
With grateful smell, forth came the human pair,
And join'd their vocal worship to the quire
Of creatures wanting voice; that done, partake
The season, prime for sweetest sents and airs :
Then commune how that day they best may ply
Their growing work; for much their work outgrew
The hands dispatch of two gard’ning so wide,
And Eve first to her husband thus began.


With pleasance of the breathing fields tinguish the one from the other. yfed.

And in like manner situation Thyer.

was formerly very absurdly 197. With grateful smell,] spelt with a c scituation : but This is in the style of the in this and all other instances eastern poetry. So it is said, the etymology best regulates Gen. viii. 21. The Lord smelled the spelling. And as Milton a sweet savour.

thus commends the morning, 199. -that done,]


The season, prime for sweetest sents author always supposes Adam and airs ; and Eve to employ their first and their last hours in devotion. so he was himself an early riser. And they are only would-be- See what he says of himself in wits, who do not believe and his Apology for Smectymnuus, worship a God. The greatest p. 109. vol. i. edit. 1738. “My geniuses in all ages, from Ho- morning haunts are where mer to Milton, appear plainly they should be, at home, not by their writings to have been sleeping, or concocting the men of piety and religion. “ surfeits of an irregular feast,

200. The season, prime for “ but up and stirring, in winter sweetest sents and airs :] Sents, “ often ere the sound of any So Milton spells it, doubtless “ bell awake men to labour, or from the Latin sentiendo. And “to devotion; in summer as so Skinner spells it, and this is “ oft with the bird that first the true way of spelling it. I rouses, or not much tardier, presume, it was first spelt with “ to read good authors, or cause a c scent, to distinguish it from “ them to be read, till the atthe participle sent missus; but “tention be weary, or memory the sense will sufficiently dis- “ have its full fraught."

Adam, well may we labour still to dress

205 This garden, still to tend plant, herb, and flower, Our pleasant task enjoin'd, but till more hands Aid us, the work under our labour grows, Luxurious by restraint; what we by day Lop overgrown, or prune, or prop, or bind,

210 One night or two with wanton growth derides Tending to wild. Thou therefore now advise, Or bear what to my mind first thoughts present ; Let us divide our labours, thou where choice Leads thee, or where most needs, whether to wind 215 The woodbine round this arbour, or direct The clasping ivy where to climb, while I In yonder spring of roses intermix'd With myrtle, find what to redress till noon: For while so near each other thus all day

220 Our task we choose, what wonder if so near Looks intervene and smiles, or object new Casual discourse draw on, which intermits Our day's work brought to little, though begun Early, and th' hour of supper comes unearn'd. 225

To whom mild answer Adam thus return'd.

213. Or bear what to my mind] passion, and is managed with So the second edition has it; in reason, not with heat: it is such the first it is Or hear. Either a dispute as we may suppose will do, and we find sometimes might have happened in Parathe one and sometimes the other dise, had man continued happy in the following editions. and innocent. There is a great

226. To whom mild answer delicacy in the moralities which Adam thus return'd.] The dis- are interspersed in Adam's dispute which follows between our course, and which the most ordi. two first parents is represented nary reader cannot but take with great art: it proceeds from notice of. That force of love, a difference of judgment, not of which the father of mankind so

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