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detraction the conscientious hardihood of our prede- even by the Schoolmen in subtlety, agility and logic cessors, or even to condemn in them that vehemence, wit, and unrivalled by the most rhetorical of the to which the blessings it won for us leave us now fathers in the copiousness and vividness of his exneither temptation or pretext. We antedate the pressions and illustrations. Ilere words that confeelings, in order to criminate the authors, of our pres-vey feelings, and words that fiash images, and words ent Liberty, Light and Toleration.” (THE FRIEND, of abstract notion, flow together, and at once whirl

and rush onward like a stream, at once rapid and If ever two great men might seem, during their full of eddies; and yet still interfused here and there whole lives, to have moved in direct opposition, though we see a longue or isle of smooth water, wiih some neither of them has at any time introduced the picture in it of earth or sky, landscape or living name of the other, Milton and Jeremy Taylor were group of quiet beauty. they. The former commenced his career by attack Differing, then, so widely, and almost contrarianting the Church-Liturgy and all set forms of prayer. ly, wherein did these great men agree? wherein The latter, but far more successfully, by defending did they resemble each other? In Genius, in both. Milton's next work was then against the Pre-Learning, in unfeigned Piety, in blameless Purity lacy and the then existing Church-Government of Life, and in benevolent aspirations and purposes Taylor's in vindication and support of them. Milton for the moral and temporal improvement of their fel. became more and more a stern republican, or rather low-creatures! Both of them wrote a Latin Acci. an advocate for that religious and moral aristocracy dence, to render education more easy and less pain. which, in his day, was called republicanisin, and ful to children; both of them composed hymns and which, even more than royalism itself, is the direct psalms proportioned to the capacity of common conantipode of modern jacobinism. Taylor, as more and gregations; both, nearly at the same time, set the more sceptical concerning the fitness of men in general glorious example of publicly recommending and supfor power, became more and more attached to the porting general Toleration, and the Liberty both of prerogatives of monarchy. From Calvinism, with a the Pulpit and the Press! In the writings of neither still decreasing respect for Fathers, Councils, and for shall we find a single sentence, like those meek Church-Antiquity in general, Milton seems to have deliverances to God's mercy, with which Laud acended in an indifference, if not a dislike, to all forms companied his votes for the mutilations and lotheof ecclesiastic government, and to have retreated some dungeoning of Leighton and others !—nowhere wholly into the inward and spiritual church-commu- such a pious prayer as we find in Bishop Hall's nion of his own spirit with the Light, that lighteth memoranda of his own Life, concerning the subtle every man that cometh into the world. Taylor, with and witty Atheist that so grievously perplexed and a growing reverence for authority, an increasing gravelled him at Sir Robert Drury's, till he prayed to sense of the insufficiency of the Scriptures without the Lord to remove him, and behold! his prayers the aids of tradition and the consent of authorized were heard; for shortly afterward this Philistine interpreters, advanced as far in his approaches (not combatant went to London, and there perished of indeed to Popery, bui) to Catholicism, as a conscien- the plague in great misery! In short, nowhere shall tious minister of the English Church could well ven- we find the least approach, in the lives and writings ilre. Milton would be, and would utter the same, of John Milton or Jeremy Taylor, to that guarded to all, on all occasions: he would tell the truth, the gentleness, to that sighing reluctance, with which whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Taylor the holy Brethren of the Inquisition deliver over a would become all things to all men, is by any condemned heretic to ihe civil magistrate, recommeans he might benefit any; hence he availed him- mending him 10 mercy, and hoping that the magis. self. in his popular writings, of opinions and repre- trate will treat the erring brother wiih all possible sentations which stand often in striking contrast with mildness!-the magistrate, who too well knows what the doubts and convictions expressed in his more would be his own fate, if he dared oflend them by philosophical works. He appears, indeed, not too acting on their recommendation. Kterdy to have blamed that management of truth The opportunity of diverting the reader from myistom falsilalem dispensalivam) authorized and ex- self to characters more worthy of his attention, has eroplified by almost all the fathers: Integrum omnino led me far beyond my first intention ; but it is not Datoribus et cælus Christiani antislibus esse, ut dolos unimporiant to expose the false zeal which has occame een!, falsa veris intermisceant et impriinis religionis sioned these attacks on our elder patriots. It has hostes fallant, dummolo veritatis commodis el utilitati been 100 much the fashion, first to personify the inserciant.

|Church of England, and then to speak of different The same antithesis might be carried on with the individuals, who in different ages have been rulers elements of their several intellectual powers. Mil- in that church, as if in some strange way they conton, austere, condensed, imaginative, supporting his stituted its personal identity. Why should a clergytruth by direct enunciations of losiy moral senti-man of the present day feel interested in the defence ment and by distinct visual representations, and in of Laud or Sheldon? Surely it is sufficient for the the same spirit overwhelming what he deemed false- warmest partisan of our establishment, that he can hood by moral denunciation and a succession of pic- assert with truth,—when our Church persecuted, it tures appalling or repulsive. In his prose, so many was on mistaken principles held in common by all metaphors, so many allegorical miniatures. Taylor, Christendom; and, at all events, far less culpablo eminently discursive, accumulative, and (to use one was this intolerance in the Bishops, who were mainof his own words) agglomerative ; still more rich in taining the existing laws, than the persecuting spirit images than Milton himself, but images of Fancy, afterwards shown by their successful opponents, who and presented to the common and passive eye, rather had no such excuse, and who should have been than to the eye of the imagination. Whether sup- taught mercy by their own sufferings, and wisdom by porting or assailing, he makes his way either by ar- the utter failure of the experiment in their own case. gument or by appeals to the affections, unsurpassed We can say, that our Church, apostolical in its faith,

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primitive in its ceremonies, unequalled in its liturgical England, in a tolerating age, has shown herself emi forms; that our Church, which has kindled and dis- nently tolerant, and far more so, both in Spirit and in 1 played more bright and burning lights of Genius and fact, that many of her most bitter opponents, who Learning, than all other Protestant churches since profess 10 deem toleration itself an insult on the the Reformation, was (with the single exception of rights of mankind! As to myself, who not only know the times of Laud and Sheldon) least intolerant, the Church-Establishment to be tolerant, but who when all Christians unhappily deemed a species of see in it the greatest, if not the sole safe bulvark of intolerance their religious duty; that Bishops of our Toleration, I feel no necessity of defending or pal. church were among the first that contended against liating oppressions under the two Charleses, in order this error; and finally, that since the Reformation, to exclaim with a full and fervent heart, ESTO PER when tolerance became a fashion, the Church of | PETUA!

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Facile credo, plures esse Naturas invisibiles quam visibiles in rerum universitate. Sed horum omnium familiam quis nobis éparrabit ? et gradus et cognationes et discrimina et singulorum munera ? Quid agunt ? quæ loca habitant ? Harum rerum notitiam semper ambivit ingenium humanum, nunquam attigit. Juvat, interea, non diffiteor, quandoque in animo, tanquam in tabulâ, majoris et melioris mundi inaginem contemplari: ne mens assuefacta hodiernæ vitæ minutiis se contrabat nimis, et tota subsidat in pusillas cogitationes. Sed veritati interea invigilandum est, modusque servandus, ut certa ab incertis, diem a nocte, distinguamus.-T. BURNET: Archæol. Phil.

P. 68.


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The bride hath paced into the hall, The wedding-
Red as a rose is she;

guest heareth the An ancient Mari- It is an ancient Mariner,

bridal music; but ner meeteth three And he stoppeth one of three :

Nodding their heads before her goes the Mariner congallants bidden to

tinueth his tale. By thy long gray beard and glitter- The merry minstrelsy. a wedding-feast, and detaineth ing eye,

The Wedding-Guest he beat his
Now wherefore stopp’st thou me? breast,

Yet he cannot choose but hear;
“ The Bridegroom's doors are open'dAnd thus spake on that ancient man,

The bright-eyed Mariner.
And I am next of kin ;

And now the storm-BLAST came, and the ship drawn
The guests are met, the feast is set :


by a storm toward Mayst hear the merry din." Was tyrannous and strong:

the south pole
He holds him with his skinny hand : He struck with his o'ertaking wings,
“ There was a ship," quoth he. And chased us south along.
· Hold off! unhand me, gray-beard with sloping masts and dripping prow,

As who pursued with yell and blow
Eftsoons his hand dropt he.

Still treads the shadow of his foe,
The wedding-

He holds him with his glittering eye- And forward bends his head, guest is spellThe Wedding-Guest stood still,

The ship drove fast, loud roard the bound by the eye And listens like a three-years' child ;

blast, of the old seafaring man, and con- The Mariner hath his will.

And south ward aye we fled.
strained to hear
his tale.
The Wedding-Guest sat on a stone,

And now there came both mist and
He cannot choose but hear;

And thus spake on that ancient man,

Aud it grew wondrous cold;
The bright-eyed mariner.

And ice, mast-high, came floating by,

As green as emerald.
The ship was cheer'd, the harbor And through the drifts the snowy clists The land of ice,
Did send a dismal sheen:

and of fearful
Merrily did we drop
Nor shapes of men nor beasts we living thing was

sounds, where no Below the kirk, below the hill,


to be seen. Below the light-house top.

The ice was all between. The Mariner tells The Sun came up upon the left, The ice was here, the ice was there, how the ship sail- Out of the sea came he!

The ice was all around : ed south ward

And he shone bright, and on the right It crack'd and growl’d, and roar'd ang with a good wind and fair weather, Went down into tne sea.

howla, ile it reached the

Like noises in a swound ! lino Higher and higher every day,

Till a great sen.

bird, called the Till over the mast at noonAt length did cross an Albatross :

Albatross, came The Wedding-Guest here beat his Thorough the sog it came;

through the snow breast,

As if it had been a Christian soul, fog, and was re For he heard the loud bassoon. We hail'd it in God's name.

ceived with gres

joy and buspital 70


It ate the food it ne'er had eat, Day after day, day after day,
And round and round it flew. We stuck, nor breath nor motion;
The ice did split with a thunder-fit; As idle as a painted ship
The helmsman steer'd us through! Upon a painted ocean.


one or more.

And lo! the Al. And a good south-wind sprung up Water, water, everywhere,

And the Albabatross proveth behind;

And all the boards did shrink :

tross begins to be a bud of good The Albatross did follow, Water, water, everywhere,

avenged. omen, and followeth the ship as it And every day, for food or play, Nor any drop to drink. returned porth Came to the mariner's hollo! ward through fog

The very deep did rot: 0 Christ! and floating ice. In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud, That ever this should be !

It perch'd for vespers nine ; Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs
Whiles all the night, through fog. Upon the slimy sea.

smoke white,
Glimmer'd the white moon-shine. About, about, in reel and rout

The death-fires danced at night;
The ancient Mari- “God save thee, ancient Mariner! The water, like a witch's oils,
per inhospitably From the fiends, that plague thee Burnt green, and blue and white.
killeth the pious thus !
bird of good

A spicit had folWhy look'st thou so ?"—With my And some in dreams assured were

lowed them: one cross-bow

of the spirit that plagued us so ; of the invisible inI shot the ALBATROSS.

Nine fathom deep he had follow'd us habitants of this
From the land of mist and snow.

planet,-neither PART IT.

departed souls

nor angels; conThe Sun now rose upon the right: cerning whom the learned Jew. Josephus, and the Platonic Out of the sea came he,

Constantinopolitan, Michael Psellus, may be consulted. They Still hid in mist, and on the left

are very numerous, and there is no climate or element without Went down into the sea. And the good south-wind still blew And every tongue, through utter behind,

But no sweet bird did follow,

Was wither'd at the root;
Nor any day for food or play

We could not speak, no more than if
Came to the mariner's hollo!
We had been choked with soot.

The shipmates,

their sore distre His xhipmates cry And I had done an hellish thing,

Ah! well-a-day! what evil looks

would fain thro out against the And it would work 'em woe :

Had I from old and young!

the whole guilt on

the ancient Mar For killing the bird For all averr'd, I had kill'd the bird Instead of the cross, the Albatross That made the breeze to blow.

About my neck was hung. of good-luck.

iner :-in siga

whereof they Ah wretch ! said they, the bird to

hang the dead slay,

sea-bird round That made the breeze to blow !


his neck. But when the fog Nor dim nor red, like God's own THERE pass'd a weary time. Each eleared off, they head,

throat justify the same, The glorious Sun uprist:

Was parch'd, and glazed each eye. and thus make themselves ac

Then all averr’d, I had kill'd the bird A weary time! a weary time! complices in the That brought the fog and mist.

How glazed each weary eye, crime.

The ancient Ma’T was right, said they, such birds to When looking westward, i beheld

riner beholdeth a slay A something in the sky.

sign in the eleThat bring the fog and mist.

ment afar off

At first it seem'd a little speck, The fair breeze The fair breeze blew, the white foam And then it seem'd a mist; continues; the

flew, ship enters the

It moved and moved, and took at last Pacific Ocean and The furrow follow'd free; A certain shape, I wist. rails northward, We were the first that ever burst even till it reach- Into that silent sea.

A speck, a mist, a shape, I wist! Es the Line.

And still it near'd and near'd : The ship halb

Down dropt the breeze, the sails dropt As if it dodged a water-sprite, been suddenly down,

It plunged and tack'd and veer'd.

"T was sad as sad could be ;
And we did speak only to break

With throats unslaked, with black At its nearer apo
The silence of the sea !

lips baked,

proach, it seem

eth him to be a We could nor laugh nor wail;

ship ; and at a All in a hot and copper sky,

Through utter drought all dumb we dear ransom be

stood; The bloody Sun, at noon,

freeth his speech

from the bonds On Right up above the mast did stand, I bit my arm, I suck'd the blood,

thirst. No bigger than the Moon.

And cried, A sail ! a sail !

With throats unslaked, with black One after one, by the star-dogged One after au lips baked,


Agape they heard me call; Too quick for groan or sigh,
A flash of joy. Gramercy! they for joy did grin, Each turn'd his face with a ghastly

And all at once their breath drew in, pang,
As they were drinking all.

And cursed me with his eye.
And horror fol- See! see! (I cried) she tacks no more! Four times fifty living men

His shipmates Ows: for can it be Hither to work us weal; (And I heard nor sigh nor groan),

drop down dead a ship, that comes onward without Without a brecze, without a tide,

With heavy thump, a lifeless lump, wind or tide ? She steadies with upright keel! They dropp'd down one by one.

The western wave was all a flame, The souls did from their bodies fly,– But Life-in-
The day was well-nigh done,
They fled to bliss or woe!

Death begins her
Almost upon the western wave

work on the anAnd every soul, it pass'd me by Rested the broad bright Sun;

cient Mariner. Like the whizz of my cross-BUW! When that strange shape drove suddenly

PART IV. Betwixt us and the Sun. " I FEAR thee, ancient Mariner! The wedding.

guest feareth that It seemeth him And straight the Sun was fleck'd I fear thy skinny hand !

a spirit is talking but the skeleton with bars,

And thou art long, and lank, and to him; of a ship. (Heaven's Mother send us grace!) brown,

As if through a dungeon-grate he As is the ribb'd sea-sand.*

With broad and burning face.

" I fear thee and thy glittering eye,

And thy skinny hand so brown.”— Alas! (thought I, and my heart beat Fear not, fear not, thou Wedding. But the ancient loud)


Mariner assureth How fast she nears and nears!

him of his bodily This body dropt not down.

life, and proceedAre those her sails that glance in the

eth to relate his Sun, Alone, alone, all, all alone,

horrible penanec. Like restless gossameres ?

Alone on a wide wide sea!

And never a saint took pity on And its ribs are Are those her ribs through which the. My soul in agony. seen as bars on

Sun the face of the Did peer, as through a grate; The many men, so beautiful!

He despiseth the setting Sun.

creatures of the And is that woman all her crew ? And they all dead did lie :

calm. The spectre

Is that a DEATH, and are there two ? And a thousand thousand slimy woman and her Is DEATH that woman's mate?

things death-mate, and

Lived on; and so did I. no other on board Her lips were red, her looks were the skeleton-ship. Like vessel, like free,

I look'd upon the rotting sea, And envieth tha: crew! Her locks were yellow as gold : And drew my eyes away;

they should live, Her skin was as white as leprosy,

and so many lie I look'd upon the roiting deck, The Night-Mare LIFE-IN-DEATH was And there the dead men lay.

dead. she,

Who thicks man's blood with cold. I look'd to leaven, and tried to pray ; Death, and Life- The naked hul alongside came,

But or ever a prayer had gush'd, in-Death have diced for the And the twain were casting dice;

A wicked whisper came, and made ship's crew, and “The game is done! I've won, I've My heart as dry as dust. sbe (the latter) winneth the an

I closed my lids, and kept them close, cient Mariner. Quoth she, and whistles thrice.

And the balls like pulses beat; No twilight The Sun's rim dips; the stars rush For the sky and the sea, and the sea within the courts

and the sky,
of the sun.
At one stride comes the Dark ;

Lay like a load on my weary eye
With far-heard whisper, o'er the sea

And the dead were at my sect.
Off shot the spectre-bark.

The cold sweat melted from their But the curse liv At the rising of

eth for him in the We listend and look’d sideways up!

limbs, be moon,

eye of the dead Fear at my heart, as at a cup,

Nor rot nor reek did they ; [me
My life-blood seem'd to sip!

The look with which they look'd on
The stars were dim, and thick the Had never pass'd away.

The steersman's face by his lamp An orphan's curse would drag to Hell

A spirit from on high;
gleam'd white;
From the sails the dew did drip-
Till clomb above the eastern bar

. For the two last lines of this stanza, I am indebted to Mr. The horned Moon, with one bright Wordsworth. It was on a delightful walk from Nether Stowey star

to Dulverton, with him and his sister, in the Autumg of 1797 Within the nether tip.

that this Poem was planned, and in part composed.



But oh! more horrible than that And soon I heard a roaring wind :

He heareth

sounds and gocth Is a curse in a dead man's eye! It did not come anear;

strange sights Seven days, seven nights, I saw that But with its sound it shook the sails, and commotious curse, That were so thin and sere.

in the sky and And yet I could not die.

the element. s his loneliness The moving Moon went up the sky, And a hundred fire-flags sheen,

The upper air burst into life! and fixedness he searpeth towards And nowhere did abide .

To and fro they were hurried about! the journeying Softly she was going up,

And to and fro, and in and out, Moon, and the And a star or two beside

The wan stars danced between.
stars that still so-
jurn, yet still move onward ; and everywhere the blue sky
belongs to them, and is their appointed rest, and their native And the coming wind did roar more
country and their own natural homes, which they enter unan loud,
wouneed, as lords that are certainly expected, and yet there is and the sails did sigh like sedge ;
silent joy at their arrival.

And the rain pour'd down from one
Her beams bemock'd the sultry main, The Moon was at its edge.

black cloud ;
Like April hoar-frost spread;
But where the ship’s huge shadow The thick black cloud was cleft, and

The charmed water burnt alway

The Moon was at its side:
A still and awful red.

Like waters shot from some high crag,
By the light of Beyond the shadow of the ship The lightning fell with never a jag,
the Moon he be-
I watch'd the water-snakes :

A river steep and wide.
holdeth God's
creatores of the They moved in tracks of shining
grea! calm.

The loud wind never reachd the The bodies of the And when they rear’d, the elfish light ship,

ship's crew are

inspired, and the
Fell off in hoary flakes.
Yet now the ship moved on!

ship moves on
Beneath the lightning and the Moon
Within the shadow of the ship The dead men gave a groan.
I watch'd their rich attire :
Blue, glossy green, and velvet black, They groan’d, they stirr'd, they all
They coild and swam ; and every

u prose,

Nor spake, nor moved their eyes ;
Was a flash of golden fire.

It had been strange, even in a dream,

To have seen those dead men rise.
Their beauty and 0 happy living things! no tongue
their happiness. Their beauty might declare :

The helmsman steer'd, the ship
A spring of love gush'd from my

moved on,
He blesseth them And I bless'd them unaware :

Yet never a breeze up blew; in his heart. Sure my kind saint took pity on me, Where they were wont 10 do;

The mariners all 'gan work the ropes,
And I bless'd them unaware.

They raised their limbs like liseless
The spell begins The self-same moment I could pray;

to break,
And from my neck so free

We were a ghastly crew.
The Albatross fell off, and sank
Like lead into the sea.

The body of my brother's son

Stood by me, knee to knee :

The body and I pulld at one rope,
On Sleep! it is a gentle thing, But he said nought to me.
Beloved from pole to pole!
To Mary Queen the praise be given! " I fear thee, ancient Mariner!” But not by the
She sent the gentle sleep from Be calm, thou Wedding-guest!

souls of the men, Heaven,

nor by dæmons of "T was not those souls that fled in


or middlo That slid into my soul.


air, but by a

Which to their corses came again, blessed troop of By erace of the The silly buckets on the deck, holy Mother, the That had so long remain’d, (dew;

But a troop of spirits blest :

angelic spirits,

sent down by the ancient Mariner

invocation of the is refreshed with I dreamt that they were filld with

For who it dawn'd- they dropp'd guardian saint.
And when I awoke, it rain'd.

their arms,
My lips were wet, my throat was cold, And clusterd round the mast;
My garments all were dank; Sweet sounds rose slowly through
Sure I had drunken in my dreams,

their mouths,
And still my body drank.

And from their bodies pass'd. ·
I moved, and could not feel my Around, around, flew each sweet
limbs :

I was so light-almost

Then darted to the Sun;
I thought that I had died in sleep,

Slowly the sounds came back again,
And was a blessed ghost.

Now mix'd, now one by one.

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