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church-there may be no call, save rude and unpractised hands, when in argument in opposition to enemies these are put forth in the work of --there may be no call for the pro-reforming or remodelling our ecclesiduce and for the production of these astical institutions. The popular and rights, just because there might be prevailing cry at this moment is, for no contest, and we are left to the the exclusive application of all the individual exercise of every power

revenues of the church to the support which legitimately belongs to us. of our working clergy. This can

It is thus that for centuries, nay, have no effect in Scotland, for, unfor a whole millennium, we fortunately for us, by the ravenous imagine a prosperous and specific and unprincipled spoliation of our union between the church on the one church which took place at the Reforhand, and the state upon the other, mation from popery—and which, I a union most fruitful in blessing to pray God, may never be acted over both; the church rendering to the again in any land-I say, by the state that most precious of all services ravenous and unprincipled spoliation -the respect of a virtuous, and of our church which took place at that orderly, and loyal population, and period there has nothing been left in the state giving ten-fold efficiency the shape of those higher endowments, and extent to the labours of the which, however they may have prochurch by multiplying and upholding voked the hostile feelings of those its stations over all the land, and who do not calculate on all the ends of a providing it in fact with approach to church, because not aware of them, the door of every family. There is are nevertheless indispensable—that here no compromise of sacred prin- leisure, and independence, and sufficiple on the part of the church ; for ciency, without which a thorough it is not in drivelling submission to professional education can never be the authority of men-it is in devout administered, and a thorough professubmission to the high authority of sional literature cannot be upholden. heaven, that we tell our people to I say, the danger is, lest in the blind honour the king, to obey magistrates, impetuosity-we had almost said the to lead a quiet and peaceable life in phrensy—of invasion, the church all godliness and honesty, and to may be deprived of its best capabimeddle not with those who are given lities for the support of an order of to change. Neither is there any men profoundly conversant in the compromise of sound policy on the credentials, and qualified, by their part of the state : for the Christian profound acquaintance both with education of a people is the high road Christian antiquities and the original to all the best objects of patriotism. languages of scripture, to expound In such an intercourse of benefits as and to vindicate their contents, and this, there need not (we repeat) be so the substance of our faith. There much as a taint of worldliness. We is a risk in this age of demand for may retain entire our apostolic fer- mere menial and personal labour, vour, and apostolic simplicity not- with a total insensibility to the prerowithstanding as pure, as in the season gatives and the necessities of mental of our most dark and trying ordeals: and intellectual labour—there is a equally pure in the sunshine, and risk in this age that the law of theogladness, and cordiality, between a logy be altogether despised. Not that Christian church and an enlightened we look on a highly erudite scripture government.

criticism to be indispensable as an I have only one remark more, and instrument of discovery into the with that I shall conclude.

sense and meaning of the Bible ; To take down the establishment, but we look on it to be indispensable whether in England or in Scotland, as an instrument of defence : and we would be to desolate the land of far feel quite assured that if the wealth the greatest amount of its Christian which is still in reserve for the eleinstruction. But there is another ments or the reward of an elevated danger to which the cause of sound scholarship be enervated, or even Christianity might be exposed from transferred to the support of the

but as

church's homelier and humbler ser- | into a display of its might. Such is vices—then will England cease to be England berself: while apparently that impregnable bulwark of ortho- passive and motionless, she silently doxy which she has heretofore proved, concentrates the power to be put forth in virtue of her many ecclesiastical on an adequate occasion. And such, champions, among the nations of Pro- I would add, are the churches and coltestant Christendom. I speak of it, leges of England; in which,- though not as an instrument of discovery, they have been termed the dormitories

an instrument of defence of literature-is fostered into maturity against the inroads of false doctrine. and strength, almost all the niassive In the peaceful and ordinary seasons learning of our nation. In these of the church, their services may not venerable institutes there lies up, if be needed; but when danger threa- not a force in action, at least a force tens, and when an attack is feared in readiness. This is the age of hosfrom heresy or false doctrine, then tility to endowments, and more espethe church does with her critics and cially so, when the alleged wealth and her pbilologists what the state does the alleged indulgence of our estawith her fleets that are lying in ordi- , blished dignitaries are looked to with nary-she puts them into commission. an evil eye; but to the church and And to these lettered and highly the universities of England the theoaccomplished ecclesiastics, more than logical literature of our nation stands to any blind or hereditary veneration indebted for her best acquisitions: on the part of the people, does she and we hold it a refreshing spectacle, owe it that both the Arian and the at any time, to behold an armed Socinian heresies have been kept champion come forth in full equipfrom her borders.

ment, from some high and sheltered And here I am reminded of one of retreat of her noble hierarchy; por the noblest passages in the whole can we grudge her the wealth, the recorded eloquence of Canning, who, alleged wealth, of all her endowments, in his speech to the corporation of when we think how well, under all Plymouth, adverting to the objection her venerable auspices, the battles of of a navy during peace, alluded to orthodoxy have been fought,--that in the mighty power which lay up in this holy warfare they are her sons reserve in those enormous floating and scholars who are ever foremost masses assembled at that port, form- in the land, ready at all times to face ing one of the most glorious of our the threatening mischief, and, by the national spectacles. Our present might of their ponderous erudition, to repose,” he said, “is no more a proof overbear it. of our inability to act, than a state of It is the general belief, that with inertness and inactivity in wbich I the destruction of our church and our have seen those mighty masses that navy, there would be an end to the float in the waters about your town, political greatness of England; and, is a proof that they have no stre th, believing, as I do, that with the deand are capable of being fitted for struction, or even serious mutilation, service. You well know," he conti- of her church and her colleges, nued, “how soon one of those stupen- there would be an end to her moral dous masses now reposing on its sha- and literary greatness, let me condow in perfect stillness, how soon, clude with the humble and honest upon any call of patriotism and neces- prayer, that sity, it would assume the likeness of against them shall ever prosper, but an animated thing, instinct with life that purified, though not destroyed, and motion-how soon it would ruffle, they may ever remain the venerable as it were, its swelling plumage, fountains of the nation's learning and how quickly it would put forth all the nation's Christianity; May God its beauty and its bravery, collect bless what has been said. its scattered elements of strength, and awaken its dormant thunder.Sermons by the Rev. Dr. CHALMERS Such is one of those magnificent ma- will be found in Nos. 144, 145, and chines, when spreading from inaction ' previous Volumes.

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2 Corinthians, iv. 2.—" By manifestation of the truth, commending ourselves to every

man's conscience in the sight of God.

There is nothing that is wont to be ism. Meanwhile they seem to have more frequently alleged by the ene- rested in a sort of heedless domestic mies of missions than the utter hope- quietism ; and while they denounce lessness of the enterprise, and that as enthusiasm the confidence of those for the want of those miraculous who count on the miracles of grace, powers wherewith the first teachers which may well be termed the miraof Christianity were invested. We cles of every age, they will denounce can remember the day when able it as a still weaker enthusiasm to men associated the uttermost folly look for the revival of those miracles and fanaticism with the cause. Yet which, non-extinct for many ages, believing as they did, on the strength have ceased to be any thing but matof prophecy, that the knowledge of ter of solid history, since the outset the Lord was some time to cover of the Christian dispensation. the earth as the waters cover the For ourselves, we are sanguine as channels of the deep, they seemed to the effect of missionary exertions, themselves to have been actuated by but not so confident as many that the an imagination, which all others held gift of sensible miracles is again to to be most fanatical, that the church be restored. We hold that, however was again to be visited with the super- essential such miracles may have been natural endowments of another pen to the first establishment of Christitecost for the further extension of the anity, this system of faith contains gospel into the territories of heathen- an evidence within itself for its own

VOL. vi.

H н


ample and indefinite diffusion even THE ASSERTION, that it is the great, if unto the uttermost limits of the habi- not the only, instrument of Christian table world. We reckon that in the missions, both in and out of Christenvery constitution and economy of the dom. gospel there is provision made for its And LASTLY, we shall consider THE propagation, and that without any delegated virtue from on high to its CESS IN OUR MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE messengers by which they may lay -a prospect confirmed, as we hope an arrest on the known laws and pro- to show, by the actual and historical cesses of visible nature. It short it is success which has already attended it. our opinion that, for the conversion I. If by CONSCIENCE be understood of men to Christianity, whether at the moral faculty, or that which takes home or abroad, there is another cognizance of, or that makes distincpower at work than that of achieving tion between the morally good and evil pretended miracles, and even another —this may safely be regarded as a evidence than that which lies in the universal and inward feeling in man history of past miracles. We think to be met with throughout all the there is an evidence, which is distinct members of the human family, under from this, adverted to in the text; | all the varieties of life and observaand a sermon on the text may con- tion : and, with allowance for every tribute something, perhaps, towards modification of sentiment, still there its elucidation.

is a general sense of right and wrong, But, here again we are brought to which is characteristic of our species the experience how inadequate the -a feeling of approval and comopportunity of a single and occa- placency associated with the former sional sermon is for the full and -a feeling of shame, dissatisfaction, thorough and radical exposition of and remorse, associated with the any one topic in theology. At the latter. This peculiarity of our nature best we can but undertake to offer obtains in all countries and among a few slight touches, or on the whole all conditions of humanity. Whata saint and incomplete outline in a ever the practice may be, there is a sermon, of an argument, the inherent certain truth of perception as to the worth of which is not to be measured difference between good and evil by the effect of any brief or hurried every where; there is a law of rectidemonstration of ours.- A reason, tude, to which, in every nation how however valid and invincible in itself, degraded soever a universal homage may suffer from the dense rapid is yielded by the sensibilities of the statement we are compelled to make heart, however little it may be yielded of it: in which case you may have pre- to by the practical habit of their lives. sented at one view a good reason and In a word, there is a morality recogyet a feeble and impaired reasoning. nised by all men, imprinting the

First, Nevertheless, let us en- deepest traces of itself on the vocabudeavour as we may to give some lary of every language, and marking GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE EVIDENCE the residence of a conscience in every PRESENTED IN THE PASSAGE BEFORE US bosom ; insomuch that go to any out--that is, the manifestation of the cast tribe of wanderers, and, however truth to the conscience.

sunk in barbarism, if you tell them SECONDLY, WE SHALL AT LEAST AS- of right and wrong, they will meet SERT, AND, AS FAR AS WE CAN, ESTABLISH your demonstration with responding

and intelligent sympathy. You do, In short, wherever man is to be found, not speak to them in a language there is the impression at least of a unknown; there is a common feeling, reigning and righteous God. When a common understanding betwixt you, utterance is made of such a being by one ground of fellowship, at least, on a missionary, even in the darkest which the most enlightened missionary places of the earth, they are not of Europe might converse with the startled as if by the sound of a thing rudest savages of the desert.

unknown; there is a ready acquiesBut again : this conscience, this cence with him; and as he speaks of sense of morality does not exist alone God, and sin, and vengeance, there in the breast; it is, more or less, is a felt harmony, between the confollowed up by a certain conception science of the savage, and the sermon of some rightful sovereign who planted of the missionary, it there. The feeling of a judge within But further still, conscience, in the the heart is in no case altogether sense that we have hitherto used apart from the faith of a judge above, the term, is that faculty by which who sits as overseer upon the doings cognizance is taken of the good or and as arbitrator of the destinies of evil desert of conduct in general; men. The moral sense does not and conscience, by the use of lanterminate or rest in the mere abstract guage, has obtained a meaning more relation of right and wrong, but is extended than this. It is implicated embodied in the belief of a substantive with the faculty of consciousness, and being who dispenses the rewards that so is made to take a special cogniare due to the one, and who inflicts zance of one's own character, of one's the penalties which are felt to be due own conduct. One man is said to unto the other. It is this which gives speak of the conscience of another rise to the theology of natural con- when he speaks to the independent science, more quick and powerful far sense or knowledge which the other than the theology of academic de- has of the state of his own heart, and monstration; not so much an in- his own history; and certain it is, ference from the marks of design and that, never do we feel profounder harmony in external nature, as an veneration for any wisdom, than for instance suggested from what is that which searches and scrutinizes personal and what is felt within the amidst the arcana of one's own narecesses of one's own bosom, because ture, and comes to a right discernleading from one effectual step-from ment thereupon. The man who can the felt supremacy of conscience pronounce aright upon my character, within to the feared supremacy of a and accurately read to you its inner God, the author of conscience, and tablet, the lineaments which I know who knoweth all things.

to be graven there--the man who It is a mistake to imagine that this shows to me the picture of what I am, theology is not universal, or that any and I believe it to be at all points decree, whether of ignorance or of the faithful reflection of what I feel corruption, can fully obliterate it. myself to be—the man whose voice It was not stifled by the fables of from without is thus responded to by Greece or Rome ; neither was it ex- the echo of conscience or conscioustinct, as may be seen by their invo- ness within the man who can awaken cation to the great spirit, among the this inhabitant of my bosom from his tribes of the American wilderness. slumbers, and make him all alive to

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