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ihc mad man,

11 And the servants of Achish said unto him, Is not this A.C. 1060. David the king of the land? did they not sing one to another of him in dances, saying, “Saul hath slain his thousands, Ch. xviii. 7. and David his ten thousands ?

12 And David laid up these words in his heart, and was sore afraid of Achish the king of Gath.

13 And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and * scrabbled on the # Or, made doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

14 Then said Achish unto his servants, Lo, ye see the man + is mad: wherefore then have ye brought him to me?

t Or, playeth 15 Have I need of mad men, that ye have brought this fellow to play the mad man in my presence ? shall this fellow come into my house?

PSALM LVI 33. 1 David, praying to God in confidence of his word, complaineth of his enemies.

He professeth his confidence in God's word, and promiseth to praise him. To the chief Musician upon Jonath-elem-rechokim, #Michtam of David, when Or, a golden

Psalm of Dathe $ Philistines took him in Gath. 1 Be merciful unto me, O God: for man would swallow

11. me up; he fighting daily oppresseth me.

2 || Mine enemies would daily swallow me up: for they be Hebe Mine many that fight against me, Oʻthou most high.



I Sam, xxi.

3 Calmet, Gray, and Wells, assign the date of these Psalms to the persecution of David by Saul. The titles prefixed to them in the Hebrew text, though they do not form a part of the Psalm, and may possibly be spurious, are undoubtedly very ancient, and may be considered a better authority for the insertion of the Psalms in their respective places, than the conjectures of later authors. Psalms lvi. and xxxiv. are therefore inserted in this Section on the authority of Lightfoot, and their titles. The title of the xxxivth Psalm informs us, that it was composed when David was sent away by Abimelech, on his feigning himself mad, (1 Sam. xxi. 3.) But we read that the king of Gath was called Achish; Dr. Kennicot therefore supposes, that Abimelech was the common title of the kings of Gath, in the same way as Pharaoh was of the kings of Egypt; and that Achish was only his individual name. That David was an inspired prophet, is evident from the prediction contained in the twentieth and twenty-first verses, that not a bone of Him (the Messiah) shall be broken. The pious Jews were continually looking forward to the Messiah ; and they must have been as well aware of the meaning of these passages in the writings of those who were from time to time endued with the spirit of prophecy, as we ourselves are of the meaning of many of the predictions in the book of the Apocalypse. That is, their faith was kept in exercise by the glimpses given them of the future, though they could not entirely comprehend the precise signification of every figurative expression. Their faith, like ours,

“ was the substance of things not seen ;” and “they walked by faith, and not by sight."

A.C. 1060.

3 What time I am afraid, I will trust in thee.

4 In God I will praise his word, in God I have put my trust; I will not fear what flesh can do unto me.

5 Every day they wrest my words: all their thoughts are against me for evil.

6 They gather themselves together, they hide themselves, they mark my steps, when they wait for my soul.

7 Shall they escape by iniquity ? in thine anger cast down the people, o God.

8 Thou tellest my wanderings: put thou my tears into thy bottle: are they not in thy book ?

9 When I cry unto thee, then shall mine enemies turn back: this I know; for God is for me.

10 In God will I praise his word: in the LORD will I praise his word.

11 In God have I put my trust: I will not be afraid what man can do unto me.

12 Thy vows are upon me, O God: I will render praises unto thee.

13 For thou hast delivered my soul from death : will not thou deliver my feet from falling, that I may walk before God in the light of the living ?


1 Sam. xxi 13.

1 David praiseth God, and exhorteth others thereto by his experience. 8 They are

blessed that trust in God. 11 He exhorteth to the fear of God. 15 The pri

vileges of the righteous. * Or, Achish, | A Psalm of David, when he changed his behaviour before • Abimelech; who

drove him away, and he departed. 1 I will bless the LORD at all times: his praise shall continually be in my mouth.

2 My soul shall make her boast in the LORD: the humble shall hear thereof, and be glad.

3 O magnify the LORD with me, and let us exalt his name together.

4 I sought the LORD, and he heard me, and delivered me

from all my fears. + Or, They 5 + They looked unto him, and were lightened : and their

faces were not ashamed.

6 This poor man cried, and the Lord heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles.

7 The angel of the LORD encampeth round about them that fear him, and delivereth them.

8 O taste and see that the Lord is good : blessed is the man that trusteth in him.

9 O fear the Lord, ye his saints: for there is no want to them that fear him.

Flored unto him.

10 The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger : but they A. C. 1060. that seek the Lord shall not want any good thing.

11 Come, ye children, hearken unto me: I will teach you the fear of the LORD.

12 "What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many u 1 Pet. iii. 10. days, that he may see good?

13 Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile.

14 Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pur

sue it.

7. Ps. xxxiii. 18. 1 Pet. iii. 12,

15 The eyes of the LORD are upon the righteous, and Job *** his ears are open unto their cry.

16 The face of the LORD is against them that do evil, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth.

17 The righteous cry, and the Lord heareth, and delivereth them out of all their troubles.

18 The Lord is nigh * unto them that are of a broken Heb. to the heart; and saveth + such as be of a contrite spirit.

19 Many are the afflictions of the righteous: but the trite of spirit. LORD delivereth him out of them all.

20 He keepeth all his bones : not one of them is broken.

21 Evil shall slay the wicked : and they that hate the righteous I shall be desolate.

* Or, shall be 22 The Lord redeemeth the soul of his servants : and none of them that trust in hiin shall be desolate.

broken of heart.

Heb. con



David flies to the Cave of Adullam.

1 SAMUEL XX11. PART OF VER. 1. 1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam.

PSALM CXLII 34. David sheweth that in his trouble all his comfort was in prayer unto God. | $ Maschil of David; A Prayer when he was in the cave.

Or, A Psalm

of David, giv1 I cried unto the LORD with my voice; with

ing instruc. voice

my unto the Lord did I make my supplication.

2 I poured out my complaint before him; I shewed before him my trouble.

3 When my spirit was overwhelmed within me, then thou knewest my path. In the way wherein I walked have they privily laid a snare for me. 4 || I looked on my right hand, and beheld, but there was ! Or, Look on

The right hand


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31 Psalm cxlii. is inserted here on the joint authority of the Hebrew title, Lightfoot and Travell.

ed from me.

my soul.


A.C. 1060, no man that would know me: refuge *failed me; tno man

cared for my soul. Heb. perish

5 I cried unto thee, O LORD: I said, Thou art my refuge tehes marineran and my portion in the land of the living.

6 Attend unto my cry; for I am brought very low: deliver me from my persecutors; for they are stronger than I.

7 Bring my soul out of prison, that I may praise thy name: the righteous shall compass me about; for thou shalt deal bountifully with me.

1 SAMUEL XXII. PART OF ver. 1 & 2. 1 And when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him.

2 And every one that was in distress, and every one that Heb. had a I was in debt, and every one that was s discontented, ga

Helb, bitter thered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over of soul. them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

1 CHRONICLES XII, VER, 8–19. 8 And of the Gadites there separated themselves unto

David into the hold to the wilderness men of might, and men | Heb. of the || of war fit for the battle, that could handle shield and buck* Heb. as the ler, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were mountains to swift as the roes upon the mountains;

9 Ezer the first, Obadiah the second, Eliab the third,
10 Mishmannah the fourth, Jeremiah the fifth,
11 Attai the sixth, Eliel the seventh,
12 Johanan the eighth, Elzabad the ninth,
13 Jeremiah the tenth, Machbanai the eleventh.

14 These were of the sons of Gad, captains of the host : + Or, one that f one of the least was over an hundred, and the greatest over

a thousand. an hundred, and the great.

15 These are they that went over Jordan in the first estadbacustead, month, when it had I overflown all his banks; and they yosh, ii, 15. put to flight all them of the vallies, both toward the east, and

toward the west.

16 And there came of the children of Benjamin and Ju

dah to the hold unto David. Heb, before

17 And David went out Sto meet them, and answered

and said unto them, If ye be come peaceably unto me to | Heb. be one. help me, mine heart shall || be knit unto you: but if

but if ye be * Or, violence. come to betray me to mine enemies, seeing there is no * wrong

in mine hands, the God of our fathers look thereon, and re

buke it. + Heb. the 18 Then the + spirit came upon Amasai, who was chief of

the captains, and he said, Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse : peace, peace be unto thee, and peace

make haste.

was least could resist


spirit clothed.

be to thine helpers; for thy God belpeth thee. Then David A.C. 1060. received them, and made them captains of the band.

2 SAMUEL XXIII. ver. 13-18 35. 13 And * three of the thirty chief went down, and came

Or, the three

captains over to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the thirty. the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim.

14 And David was then in an hold, and the garrison of the Philistines was then in Beth-lehem.

15 And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Beth-lehem, which is by the gate!

16 And the three mighty men brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David : nevertheless he would not drink thereof, but poured it out unto the LORD.

17 And he said, Be it far from me, O LORD, that I should do this: is not this the blood of the men that went in jeopardy of their lives? therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mighty men.

1 CHRONICLES XI. VER. 15—20 36. 15 (Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into + Or, three the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped 2 in the valley of the thirty. Rephaim.

16 And David was then in the hold, and the Philistines' garrison was then at Beth-lehem.

17 And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Beth-lehem, that is at the gate !

18 And the three brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Beth-lehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David: but David would not drink of it, but poured it out to the LORD,

19 And said, My God forbid it me, that I should do this thing: shall I drink the blood of these men I that have put their lives in jeopardy ? for with the jeo- ^ Heb. with pardy of their lives they brought it. Therefore he would not drink it. These their lives. things did these three mightiest.

captains over

z 2 Sam, xxiii. 15.

35 Several passages of the first book of Chronicles, and the second book of Samuel, relate the same events, and repeat the same catalogues of illustrious men, in nearly the same words throughout. The apparent discrepancies are beautifully reconciled by Kennicot, in his Dissertation on the state of the Hebrew text, by comparing the Hebrew of both passages with the Septuagint. Compare the passage at the end of this Section, (1 Chron. xi. 15—20.) with the parallel passage, (2 Sam. xxiii. 13—18.) and refer to both in Kennicot's Dissert. vol. i. p. 252, 253.

* This is the first parallel passage which occurs. Parallel passages will be placed at the end of the respective chapters or sections to which they belong.

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