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take all the weeds and other trash, and about an inch of soil, from the crown of the trees; then, any time from the first to the middle of September, with a pocket-knife, I examine carefully the stem of each tree; the borer can readily be found by the refuse thrown out of the hole made on entering; this refuse of a borer of the same year's growth, will be about the size of a pea, and, being of a glutinous nature, sticks around the mouth of the hole, and can readily be seen; older ones throw out coarser chips that fall to the ground. When one is fourtd, take the knife and cut him out. If an orchard is carefully examined in this way each year, there need be few, if any, borers missed; and, as they are more easily found the second fall of their growth, and can have done but little damage at that time, we would never receive any serious damage from them."
THE MAY BEETLE. (Lachnosterna quercina, Knoch).-The larvæ of this beetle, known as the “white grub-worm," are often the source of much damage to grass-lands which they injure by devouring the roots, so that in many instances the turf is entirely severed from its connection with the soil, and may be rolled up like a carFig. 6.
pet. In the acconi panying cut, (Fig. 6,) 2. represents the full-grown larva, 1. the pupa, 3. the beetle, side-view, 4 the same, back-view. The beetle appears in this latitude, the last of May and first half of June, sometimes appearing in great numbers, flying in the early evening and often entering houses, be
ing attracted there by the lamp-light. They feed in the beetle-state upon the foliage of plants, seldom, however, doing injury at this time unless present in great numbers. The following account of their habits is from Riley: “Their existence in the beetle-state is, however, short, and as they are confined to the foliage their injuries are exceedingly :small compared with those which their larvæ inflict upon us. Our meadows, strawberry beds, corn, vegetables, and even young nurs
ery-stock, are subject to the attacks of these white grubs, and are often ruined by them. Soon after pairing, the female beetle creeps into the earth, especially wherever the soil is loose and rough, and after depositing her eggs to the number of forty or fifty, dies. These eggs hatch in the course of a month, and the grubs growing slowly do not attain full size till the early spring of the third year, when they construct an ovoid chamber (Fig. 1, of the cut), lined with a gelatinous fluid, change into pupe, and soon afterwards into beetles. These last are at first white, and all the parts soft as in the pupæ, and they frequently remain in the earth for weeks at a time till thoroughly hardened, and then on some favorable night in May, they rise in swarms and fill the air.”
REMEDIES.-As natural checks and destroyers of this grub, may be mentioned the badger, weasel, skunk, marten, the crow and different hawks, but especially the ground-beetles among insects. Hogs are fond of them, and a gang may be turned into an infested meadow which is to be cultivated the next year, with advantage. The grubs sometimes so thoroughly destroy the roots of meadowgrass that the sward is entirely severed, in such cases a heavy rolling would doubtless destroy great numbers of them. Applications of ashes and salt have been recommended, but I think them of doubtful utility unless sufficiently applied to saturate the ground to the depth of a foot or moré. A field or meadow is badly injured during a certain year by the full-grown grubs. The following spring the owner, ignorant of the insect's history, applies some substance to the land as a remedy, and finding no grubs during the summer following, will naturally conclude his application was effectual, when in reality the insects left of their own accord in the beetle state.
During their periodical visits as beetles they should be shaken from the trees, gathered up, scalded and fed to the hogs.
SOME BENEFICIAL INSECTS.-I shall confine my notes of beneficial insects to those of which the society already has cuts. A fuller account of these may be found in the Annual Report of the Wisconsin State Agricultural Society for 1870.
LADY-BIRDS.-These beetles destroy the eggs of many kinds of injurious insects, especially during their larval state. In their perfect state, these insects are well known, while the larvæ, although more beneficial, are not as well known. Fig. 7 a, represents the 13
spotted lady-bird, (Hippodamia 13-punctata, Linn), color, brick-red, with thirteen black spots; b, is the spotted lady-bird, (Hippodamiu Fig. 7.
maculata, DeGeer) color, pink, marked with black, as in the cut; c, is the 9-spotted lady-bird, (Coccinnella
9-notata, Herbst), color, brick-red. 6
with nine black spots. The lines at the sides of the cuts represent the natural size (length) of the insects. Fig. 8 represents the larva, pupa, and perfect beetle of the convergent lady-bird, (Hippodamia convergens, Geer), which is orange-red, marked with black and white. The larvæ of these lady-birds may be known by Figs. 8 and 9. Their appearance is Fig. 8.
rather repulsive, and on this ac- Fig. 9.
eggs of other insects. The eggs of these beetles are orange, and much like those of the Colorado Potato-beetle, except being much smaller. Care should Fig. 10. be taken that they are not destroyed with those of
Fig. 10 represents the Fiery Ground-beetle (Calosoma calidum, Fabricius). The larva of this beetle preys upon cut-worms, and other larvæ, while the perfect insect is also predaceous, destroying larvæ and perfect insect of the Colorado Potatobeetle. The color is black, with copper-colored
dots on its wing-covers. The Mucky Ground-Beetle, (figure 11,) is also predaceous in both Fig. 11.
the larval and perfect state. Fig. 12.
Below are given cuts of four insects, true bugs, which have beaks, instead of jaws, as beetles have.
These beaks are made to pierce an insect, when the juices of such
insect are pumped out by the Fig. 14.
resents its beak, color, ochreyellow. The Bordered Soldier-bug, figure 14. The natural size is Fig. 15.
represented by the line at the left. Colors, dark,
light brown color. Fig. ure 16 a, the Many Banded-robber; b, side-view of its beak; colors are yellow,
6 white, and black. The line on the left shows the insect's natural size.
OF THE WISCONSIN
STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY,
Annual meeting held in Madison, February 1 to 3, 1876.
AGRICULTURAL Rooms, February 1, 1876. The society was called to order at 74 o'clock p. m., by President Tuttle, who delivered his annual address, which will be found on pages 9-14. Prof. Searing being unable to appear before the society, as announced in the programme, the secretary's report was called for, read and adopted.
JOINT CONVENTION.-In the remarks following the report, in relation to some of the suggestions made, Mr. J. S. Stickney said he was very much in favor of holding a joint conyention with the State Agricultural Society. He, and doubtless many others, would like to attend both, but could not well spare the time as held at present; thought it would be advantageous to the society and would greatly extend its influence.
On motion of Geo. J. Kellogg, a committee of three was appointed to confer with the agricultural society in relation to the subject. The committee appointed were, J. S. Stickney, F. W. Case and J. M. Smith.
ILLUSTRATIONS.-In speaking of the fund appropriated for the illustration of the society's annual report, Mr. Stickney thought that it was time it was utilized. If properly used it would be very beneficial to the interests of horticulture.