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seasons, those with southern aspect were, uniformly, more or less injured by the extreme heat of the sun's rays, and the hot, dry winds, and were more subject to mildew after showers in damp, sultry weather, because less open to cool breezes, and drying winds.
Mr. Floyd said he had always favored a southern slope, and had been led to this opinion from the fact that the healthiest and most productive vineyards in their section were located on such expos
He thought much of Gen. Lund's success was due to the influence of the lake and his system of culture.
Mr. Plumb mentioned a number of vineyards and orchards in Madison and vicinity, a careful examination of which would throw some light on this subject of best exposure, and called on Mr. Ott to give his experience in grape-culture.
Mr. Ott, in response, stated that the vineyard he had set out on his lot, in this city, had proved almost a failure. The lots on which the vines were set faced the Third Lake, with southern exposure, and the direct rays of the sun, in the hot days of summer, caused the tender shoots to wilt and shrivel up, and in consequence the vines made a feeble and unhealthy growth. He had set vines on his farm, a number of miles from the city, on land nearly level, or slightly descending in various directions; did not see much difference in them; perhaps those on the highest point of the ridge were a little the best.
Mr. Harney thought our climate was especially adapted to the grape, and that almost any exposure was good. Experience had taught them that the southern was good, and they preferred it. In Mr. Vincent's vineyard, mildew was not known, and he thought they had no reason to apprehend trouble from it in their section.
Mr. Northrop was convinced that the location of Gen. Lund, on the banks of the lake, was a very favorable one, and that we conld not expect the same success on other northern slopes, away from the influence of the water. He was a friend of the birds and thought that they were entitled to a portion of the fruit. Were he setting out berries or small-fruit plants, he would set enough, so that the wants of the birds could be supplied. We cannot overestimate the benefit we derive from them. He cited an instance where the canker-worm attacked a portion of his orchard; they hatched out in myriads, and he expected to lose all his trees, but the birds came to his rescue, and only a very few worms survived.
Mr. Phillips said he could not approve of killing off the birds; we had already suffered much by so doing, in the increased depredations of cut and canker-worms, chinch-bugs, codling-moths, curculio, and other injurious insects; the birds are entitled to our care and protection, and it would be very foolish to destroy them because they take a part of our fruit, when it is only by their help that we are able to raise it at all.
Mr. Smith regarded the birds as of great assistance to us; he would not allow them to be killed or disturbed on his premises. Two or three years since the cabbage worm made its appearance in his garden, and destroyed nearly all his crop; they were so numerous and destructive that he had little hopes of raising any cabbage the next season, but following the worm, came a little bird, in large numbers; a kind that had not been common there before; they worked very busy all the spring in the garden where the worms had been so plenty; the consequence was the worms disappeared. Do not destroy the birds, they are our friends, and we can well afford to let them have a portion of our fruit.
Mr. Greenman, being called upon to give his experience as to the effect of heavily mulching the vineyard with straw, said, that the frost in August killed nearly nine-tenths of his vines; whether it was the result of the mulching, he was not prepared to say, but he would not recommend this system of cultivation without further trial; his opinion was, that it tended to promote an excessive growth at the expense of hardiness.
Society adjourned until 2 p. m.
THURSDAY AFTERNOON. Meeting was called to order at 2 p. m. Vice-President J. M. Smith in the chair.
Rev. S. B. Loomis, as committee of observation for the fourth district, presented his report.
A very interesting paper on “Floriculture," prepared by Mrs. M. M. Davis, of Baraboo, was read by Mr. A. C. Tuttle.
This was followed by the reading of a paper by Mrs. H. M. Lewis, of Madison, on the subject of the “ Arrangement of FlowAnd one by Mrs. I. H. Williams, of Madison, on “ Our Window Plants.” All of which were listened to with great interest by the members and a large number of ladies present. The papers are given in full elsewhere.
CULTIVATION OF FLOWERS.—Mr. J. C. Plumb said that he had been greatly interested in the papers read, and was very much pleased with this feature of our meetings. He was not engaged much in the cultivation of flowers, but would give a good method of planting delicate flower-seeds in the open air for the benefit of those who were not experienced in the matter. Some seeds were hard to germinate, and would only do so well in hot-beds; but for the seeds of our common garden flowers, make a bed in some warm part of the garden, having it slightly elevated above the surface, four feet in width, and of any desired length. The soil should be finely commuted, and of good quality. When the surface of the bed has been finely pulverized, and is in good condition, begin at one end, and with a strip of lath, with the edge slightly rounded, make depressions of about a quarter of an inch in depth across the bed, and four inches apart; sow the seeds, using the whole package, or a part only, as may be needed; cover with very finely commuted earth to the depth of a quarter of an inch, not usually more; place the lath on the surface and gently press the soil down on the seeds; fill out the bed with as many different varieties as may be desired; place laths over each row of seeds, and if where exposed to the winds, put cross laths or stones on, for weights to hold them in place. Do not remove, to water, but sprinkle the whole surface, and sufficient moisture will extend under the laths, without danger of washing out or disturbing the seeds.
In from four to eight days the seeds will commence to germinate. When the weather is favorable, the laths may be turned over and lie by the side of the row, but should be replaced to protect from the heat of mid-day, if too warm, and from the chill of cool nights, until the germs appear above ground. Keep them in this seed-bed until they have reached a suitable size, and the conditions are favorable to transplant; then set where you wish them to bloom. By proper care and attention in this way, earlier and stronger plants can be secured.
Mr. Smith said, that though he was not able to attend to the cultivation of flowers, they were a great source of pleasure to him; it
was a great relief, a rest to mind and body, after the day's work was over, and he was tired of books, to go out and look at the beautiful flowers. His wife and daughter raised the flowers; every year a part of the hot-bed was assigned to starting the seeds, and the plants were cared for there, till the beds outside were prepared and the season favorable, when they were transplanted. In this way they secured strong, healthy plants, and had an abundance of bloom from early in the season until very late in the fall.
Gen. Lund contrasted the advantages and taste of twenty years ago, when he first came to Wisconsin, and now; the wanton destruction of trees had in a asure given place to setting out ornamental shade trees and shrubs, and great progress had been made in the variety and beauty, as well as extent of cultivation of our fluw
He appreciated the visit of the ladies, relieving the tedium of our session by bringing into it the beauties of home and its surroundings, and he hoped the practice might be continued in the future.
Mr. Whittier gave an account of what their local society was doing, and the increased interest in the cultivation of flowers and ornamenting of homes, resulting from their labors. Thought we did not give attention enough to the culture of rare plants and flowers, that do not need the sunshine. They had found a vine of this class growing in the thick timber, which he thought might be especially adapted to our sunless windows.
J. T. Clark and S. S. Northrup spoke of the great enjoyment derived from the beautiful flowers, and the adornment of home and its surroundings. They had received much benefit and pleasure from seeing them in the yards of others, and felt under obligation to the growers for their good influence. We should sometimes lose sight of the dollars and cents, and consider the true value of the confort, joy and beauty of home.
Mr. G. J. Kellogg said he had been exceedingly entertained by the papers of the ladies, and only regretted that we had to go back from the poetry of horticulture to the prose.
He moved that the thanks of the society be tendered to the ladies who had contributed to our entertainment, and that their names be placed on the list of the society as bonorary members, which was unanimously carried.
Mr. F. S. Lawrence, on the part of the committee appointed by
the society to draw up resolutions expressing our sympathy with bereaved members, presented the following:
WHEREAS, Providence, in His infinite mercy, has seen proper to enter, during the past year, the homes of two prominent and honored members of the society, and taken to himself their dearly beloved companions, Mrs. N. F. Lund, of Madison, and Mrs. J. C. Plumb, of Milton, ladies of unexceptionable character, well beloved in their respective, social circles, and esteemed for their many domestic virtues, and whose memories are still fragrant as the beautiful flowers which they so dearly loved, and so freely bestowed upon all; therefore,
Resolved, That the society tender to Mr. N. F. Lund and Mr. J. C. Plumb, its sympathies in this, their affliction, and commend them to One who doeth all things well, and for a purpose,
Resolved, That the Secretary cause these resolutions to be entered in full records of this society, and that copies be sent to each of our afflicted brothers, as a memento of our sympathy and condolence in this, their sorrow.
Which were adopted.
"Twenty-five Years Experience in the Orchard," by B. B. Olds of Clinton.
"Apple-Culture-The Up-hill Side," by G. J. Kellogg of Sanesville.
"Orchard Protection,” by H. M. Thompson, of St. Francis.
"Success or Failure in Fruit-culture," by G. W. Putnam, of Ash Ridge.
REPORT OF CRANBERRY COMMITTEE.--The committee appointed to consider the cranberry interests of the State made the following report:
Members of the State Horticultural Society:-Your committee would respectfully report that in their opinion it is advisable to appoint a committee, to consist of one member from each county, actively engaged in the cultivation of cranberries, or having land suitable for that business, said committee to report through its chairman to the secretary of your society, at the earliest possible time, giving the name of each grower, individual or company; number of acres set to vines owned by each; number of acres in bearing owned by each; the amount invested in improvements up to January 1, 1876, and such other facts as the chairman of said committee may suggest.
Also that the committee on Centennial Exhibition, be requested to secure specimens of cranberries, showing varieties, soil and growing vines, for the Centennial Exhibition.
C. S. WHITTIER,