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20 nor the deadness of Sarah's womb. He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strength
21 ened in faith, giving glory to God, And being fully assured, that what he had promised, he was able also to
22 perform. And therefore it was imputed to him for right
23 eousness. Now it was not written on his account only,
24 that it was imputed unto him, But on ours also, to whom it will be imputed, if we believe on him who raised up
25 Jesus our Lord from the dead, Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised for our justification.
CHAP. V. 1. Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:
2 By whom also we have had access through faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory
3 of God. And not only so, but we glory in tribulations
4 also, knowing that tribulation worketh patience, And
5 patience experience, and experience hope; And hope shameth us not, because the love of God is shed abroad
V. 20 Giving God the glory of his truth and power.
V. 23. On his account only—To do personal honour to him.
V. 24. But on ours also—To establish us in seeking justification by faith, and not by works: and to afford a full answer to those who say, that " to be justified by works means only by Judaism : to be justified by faith means, by embracing Christianity, that is, the system of doctrines so called." Sure it is that Abraham could not in this sense be justified either by faith or by works: and equally sure, that David (taking the word thus) was justified by works and not by faith. Who raised up Jesus from the dead—As he did in a manner both Abraham and Sarah. If we believe on him who raised up Jesus—God the Father therefore is the proper object of justifying faith. It is observable, that St. Paul here, in speaking both of our faith and of the faith of Abraham, puts a part for the whole. And he mentions that part, with regard to Abraham, which would naturally affect the Jews most.
V. 25. Who was delivered—To death, for our offences—As an atonement for them; and raised for our justification—To impower us to receive that atonement by faith.
CHAP. V. Ver. 1. Being justified by faith—This is the sum of the preceding chapter, we have peace with God—Being enemies to God no longer, (ver. 10,) neither fearing his wrath, (ver. g.) We have peace, hope, love, and power over sin, the sum of the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th chapters. These are the fruits of justifying faith: where these are not, that faith is not.
V. 2. Into this grace—This state of favour.
V. 3. We glory in tribulations also—Which we are so far from esteeming a mark of God's displeasure, that we receive them as tokens of his fatherly love, whereby we are prepared for a more exalted happiness. The Jews objected to the persecuted state of the Christians as inconsistent with the people of the Messiah. It is therefore with great propriety, that the apostle so often mentions the blessings arising from this very thing.
V..4. And patience works more experience of the sincerity of our grace, and of God's power and faithfulness.
Y. 5. Hope shameth us not—That is, gives us the highest glorying. We in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.
6 For whe#*we were yet without strength, in due time,
7 Christ died for the ungodly. Now one will scarcely die for a just man; yet perhaps for the good man one would
8 even dare to die. But God recommendeth his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died
9 for us. Much more then being now justified by his blood,
10 we shall be saved from wrath through him. For if, being enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more being reconciled, we shall be saved
11 through his life. And not only so, but we also glory in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the reconciliation.
12 Therefore as by one man sin entered into the world,
glory in this our hope, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts— —The divine conviction of God's love to us, and that love to God, which is both the earnest, and the beginning of heaven: By the Holy Ghost—The efficient cause of all these present blessings, and the earnest of those to come.
V. 6. How can we now doubt of God's love? For when toe were without strength—Either to think, will, or do any thing good, in due time—Neither too soon nor too late; but in that very point of time which the wisdom of God knew to be more proper than any other, Christ died for the ungodly—Not only to set them a pattern, or to procure them power to follow it, It does not appear, that this expression of dying for any one, has any other signification, than that of rescuing the life of another, by laying down our own.
V. 7. A just man—one who gives to all what is strictly their due: The good man—One who is eminently holy, full of love, of compassion, kindness, mildness, of every heavenly and amiable temper. Perhaps—one—would—even —dare to die—Every word increases the strangeness of the thing, and declares even this to be something great and unusual.
V. 8. But God recommendeth—A most elegant expression. Those are wont to be recommended to us, who were before either unknown to, or alienated from us, while we were sinners— So far from being good, that we were not even just.
V. 9. By his blood—By his blood-shedding, we shall be saved from wrath through him—That is, from all the effects of the wrath of God. But is there then wrath in God? Is not wrath n human passion? And how can this human passion be in God? We may answer this by another question. Is not love a human passion? And how can this human passion be in God? But to answer directly. Wrath in man, and so love in man is a human passion. But wrath in God is not a human passion; nor is love, as it is in God. Therefore the inspired writers ascribe both the one and the other to God, only in an analogical sense.
V. 10. If— As sure as. So the word frequently signifies; particularly in this and the 8th chapter. We shall be saved—Sanctified and glorified, through his life—Who ever liveth to make intercession for us.
V. n. And not only so, but we also glory—The whole sentence, from the 3d to the nth verse, may be taken together thus; We not only rejoice in hope of the glory of God, but also in the midst of tribulations, we glory in God himself, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the reconciliation.
V. 12. Therefore—This refers to all the preceding discourse; from which the apostle infers what follows: he does not therefore properly make a digression, but returns to speak again of sin and of righteousness. As by one man —Adam 5 who is mentioned, and not Eve, as being the representative of man. and death by sin, even so death passed upon all men, in
13 that all sinned. For until the law, sin wa&m-the world;
14 but sin is not imputed, where there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.
15 Yet not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if by the offence of one many died, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, that of one man, Jesus Christ,
16 hath abounded unto many. And not as the loss by one
kind. Sin entered into the world—Actual sin, and its consequence, a sinful nature: and death—With all its attendants. It entered into the world, when it entered into being; or till then it did not exist, by sin—Therefore it could not enter before sin. Even so—Namely, by one man, in that—So the word is used also, 2 Cor. v. 4, all sinned-- In Adam. These words assign the reason, why death came upon all men , infants themselves not excepted, in that all
V. 13. For until the law, sin was in the world—All, I say, had sinned, for sin was in the world long before the written law; but, I grant, sin is not so much imputed, nor so severely punished by God, where there is no express law to convince men of it. Yet that all had sinned even then appears, in that all died.
V. 14. Death reigned—And how vast is his kingdom! Scarcely can we find any king who has as many subjects, as are the kings whom he hath conquered! Even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression— Even over infants, who had never sinned, as Adam did, in their own persons: and over others, who had not, like him, sinned against an express law. Who is the figure of him that was to come—Each of them being a public person, and a federal head of mankind. The one, the fountain of sin and death to mankind by his offence; the other, of righteousness and life by his free gift.
Thus far the apostle shews the agreement between the first and second Adam: afterward he shews the differences between them. The agreement may be summed up thus: As by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; so by one man righteousness entered into the world, and life by righteousness. As death passed upon all men, in that all had sinned ; so life passed upon all men, (who are in the second Adam by faith,) in that all are justified. And as death, through the sin of the first Adam, reigned even over them who had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression: so through the righteousness of Christ, even those who have not obeyed, after the likeness of his obedience, shall reign in life. We may add, As the sin of Adam, without the sins which we afterwards committed, brought us death: so the righteousness of Christ, without the good works which we afterwards perform, brings us life: although still every good, as well as evil work, will receive its due reward.
V. is. Yet not—St. Paul now describes the difference between Adam and Christ; and that much more directly and expressly than the agreement between them. Now the fall and the free gift differ, 1. In amplitude, (ver. 15.) 2. He from whom sin came, and he from whom the free gift came, (termed also the gift of righteousness,) differ in power, (ver. 16.) 3. The reason of both is subjoined, (ver. 17.) 4. This promised, the offence and the free gift are compared, with regard to their effect, ver. 18, and with regard to their cause, ver. 19.
V. 16. The sentence was by one offence to Adam's condemnation—Occasioning the sentence of death to pass upon him, which by consequence overwhelmed his posterity: but the free gift is of many offences unto justification—Unto the (purchasing it for all men, notwithstanding many offences.
that sinned, so is the gift; for the sentence was by one offence to condemnation; but the free gift is of many
17 offences unto justification. For if through one man's offence death reigned by one, they who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness, shall much
18 more reign in life, by one, even Jesus Christ. As therefore by one offence the sentence of death came upon all men to condemnation, so also by one righteousness, the
19 free gift came upon all men to justification of life. For as by the disobedience of one man, many were constituted sinners, so by the obedience of one, many shall be con
20 stituted righteous. But the law came in between, that the offence might abound: yet where sin abounded,
21 grace did much more abound: That as sin had reigned through death, so grace also might reign through righteousness to eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord.
CHAP. VI. I . What shall we say then? We will continue in sin, that grace may abound? God forbid.
2 How shall we who are dead to sin, live any longer
3 therein? Know ye not, that as many of us as have been
V. 17. There is a difference between grace and the gift. Grace is opposed to the offence, the gift to death, being the gift of life.
V. I8. Justification of life is that sentence of God, by which a sinner under sentence of death is adjudged to life.
V. 19. As by the disobedience of one man, many (that is, all men) were con* stituted sinners —Being then in the loins of their first parent, the common head and representative of them all; So by the obedience of one—By his obedience unto death; by his dying for us; many—All that believe, shall be eo«stituted righteous—Justified, pardoned.
V. 20. The law came in between—The offence and the free gift, that the offence might abound—That is, the consequence (not the design) of the law's coming in, was, not the taking away of sin, bnt the increase of it; yet where sin abounded, grace did much more abound—-Not only in the remission of that sin which Adam brought on us, but of all our own; not only in remission of sins, but infusion of holiness: not only in deliverance from death, but admission to everlasting life; a far more noble and excellent life than that which we lost by Adam's fall.
V. 31. That as sin had reigned—so grace also might reign—Which could not reign before the fall; before man had sinned. Through righteousness to eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord—Here is pointed out the source of all our blessings, the rich and free grace of God: the meritorious cause ; not any works of righteousness of man, but the alone merits of our Lord Jesus Christ. The effect or end of all; not only pardon, but life; divine life, leading to glory.
CHAP. VI. Ver. 1. The apostle here sets himself more fully to vindicate his doctrine, from the consequence above suggested, (ch. iii. 7, 8.) He had then only in strong terms denied and renounced it. Here he removes the very foundation thereof
V. 2. Dead to sin—Freed both from the guilt and from the power of it.
V. 3. As many as have been haptized into Jesus Christ, have been baptized into his death—In haptism we (through faith) are ingrafted into Christ. And we baptized into Jesus Christ, have been baptized into his
4 death? Therefore we are buried with him through baptism into death, that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also should walk
5 in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness
6 of his resurrection: Knowing this, that our old map is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be de
7 stroyed, that we might no longer serve sin. For he that
8 is dead is freed from sin. And we believe, that if we are
9 dead with Christ, we shall also live with him: Knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dieth no more;
10 death no more hath dominion over him. For in that he died, he died to sin once for all; but in that he liveth, he
11 liveth unto God. So reckon ye yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but alive to God, through Jesus Christ our
12 Lord. Therefore let not sin reign in your mortal body,
13 to obey it in the desires thereof. Neither present your members to sin, as instruments of unrighteousness; but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members to God, as instruments of righteousness.
14 For sin shall not have dominion over you; for ye are not . under the law, but under grace.
draw new spiritual life from this new root, through his Spirit, who fashions us like unto him, and particularly with regard to his death and resurrection.
V. 4. We are buried with him—Alluding to the ancient manner of baptizing by immersion: that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory—Glorious power, of the Father, so we also—By the same power, should rise again: and as he lives a new life in heaven, so we should walk in newness of life. This, says the apostle, our very baptism represents to us.
V. 5. For—Surely these too must go together; so that if we are, indeed, made conformable to his death, we shall also know the power of his resurrection.
V. 6. Our old man—Coeval with our being, and as old as the fall; our evil nature; a strong and beautiful expression for that entire depravity and corruption, which by nature spreads itself over the whole man, leaving no part uninfected. This, in a believer, is crucified with Christ, mortified, gradually killed, by virtue of our union with him: that the body of sin—All evil tempers, words, and actions, which are the members of the old man, Col. iii. 5, might be destroyed.
V. 7. For he that is dead—With Christ, is freed from the guilt of past, and from the power of present sin, as dead men from the commands of their former masters.
V. 8. Dead with Christ—Conformed to his death, by dying to sin.
V. 10. He died to sin—To atone for and abolish it: He liveth unto God— A glorious eternal life, such as we shall live also.
V. 12. Let not sin reign even in your mortal body—It must be subject to death, but it need not be subject to sin.
V. 13. Neither present your members to sin—To corrupt nature, a mere tyrant; but to God—Your lawful king.
V. 14. Sin shall not have dominion over you—It has neither right nor power. For ye are not under the law—A dispensation of terror and bondage, which