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- according to his style of writ
as "to be justified, pardoned,
as righteous." Thus he
argues
n believed God, "and it was
him for righteousness,"-" that
koned to Abraham for righte-
that he received the sign of
a seal," a visible confirmatory,
and witnessing mark "of the
s which he had by faith." In
we have a similarity so striking.
scarcely fail to explain each
oth, sinful men are placed in the
righteous men; the instrument,
s, is faith; and the transaction
ases also, publicly and sensibly
s to Abraham, by the sign of
; as to Abel, by a visible accept-
acrifice, and the rejection of that

faith, and he expressed that faith of sacrifice he offered. It was that his faith "pleased God;" m as a principle, and by the act ed, which act was the offering e to God different from that of n had not this faith, whatever object; and Cain, accordingly, ng an offering to which God had That which vitiated the offering the want of this faith; for his s not significant of faith that ased God," in the case of Abel,

; and he had "respect" to his cause it was the expression of that upon his faith so expressing itself, sed to him "that he was righteTorcibly do the words of St. Paul, menting upon this transaction,

Abel's sacrifice was accepted, its immediate connexion with his by faith he is said to have offered hatever it might be, which made ing differ from that of Cain, wheance, or kind, or both, this was of his faith. So evident also is it apostle, that Abel was witnessed teous," not with reference to any habit of a religious life," as some th reference to his faith; and to s expressing itself by his offering Excellent sacrifice."

en, the faith of Abel had an immeexion with his sacrifice, and both being accepted as "righteous,"tified, in St. Paul's use of the term, had his faith respect? The parect of the faith of the elders, celeHebrews xi., is to be deduced from nstances mentioned by St. Paul as

of the existence and operation of principle, and by which it manielf in them. Let us explain this, ascertain the object of Abel's faith the manner of its manifestation,-acts in which it embodied and renelf conspicuous.

n this chapter, is taken in the sense

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ly tecedent revelation to which his faith, as thus expressed, had respect, and on which that peculiarity of his offering, which distinis guished it from the offering of Cain, was founded; a revelation which indicated that he the way in which God would be approached n, acceptably, in solemn worship, was by anich mal sacrifices. Without this, the faith to which his offering, which was an offering of the firstlings of his flock, had a special fith, ness and adaptation, could have had no ward; rant in divine authority. But this revelation must have included, in order to its being ad the ground of faith, as "the substance of -d, things hoped for," a promise of a benefit to be conferred, in which promise Abel might confide. But if so, then this promise must have been connected, not with the worship of God in general, or performed in any way whatever indifferently, but with his works ship by animal oblations; for it was in this way that the faith of Abel specially and disto tinctively indicated itself. The antecedent of revelation was, therefore, a promise of a benefit to be conferred, by means of animal nt sacrifice; and we are taught what this beneed, fit was, by that which was actually received e- by the offerer,-"He obtained witness that he was righteous;" which must be interit, preted in the sense of a declaration of his nd personal justification, and acceptance as righteous, by the forgiveness of his sins. The at reason of Abel's acceptance and of Cain's c- rejection is hereby made manifest; the one, of in seeking the divine favour, conformed to his established and appointed method of he being approached by guilty men, and the other not only neglected this, but profanely and presumptuously substituted his own inventions.

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ith 5. It is impossible, then, to allow the sacrifice of Abel, in this instance, to have ed been an act of FAITH, without supposing d. that it had respect to a previous revelation, he which agreed with all the parts of that ed sacrificial action by which he expressed his faith in it. Had Abel's sacrifice been eucharistic merely, it would have expressed gratiNe tude, but not faith; or if faith in the general l's sense of confidence in God that he would nd receive an act of grateful worship, and reward the worshippers, it did not more express faith he than the offering of Cain, who surely believed ed these two points, or he would not have le- brought an offering of any kind. The offering

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of Abel expressed a faith which Cain had not; 1," and the doctrinal principles which Abel's nn faith respected were such as his sacrifice be visibly embodied. If it was not an euchala- ristic sacrifice, it was an expiatory one; and, ch in fact, it is only in a sacrifice of this kind, is that it is possible to see that faith exhibited ild which Abel had, and Cain had not. If then. we refer to the subsequent sacrifices of expialis tion appointed by Divine authority, and their nt explanation in the New Testament, it will be obvious to what doctrines and principles of an antecedent revelation the faith of Abel

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e of a better public justice, and admitted them to a share the woman," ap- in the government, they behaved so ill, that twin fature period, the people demanded a king, 1 Sam. vii. 2. ted method A. M. 2909. ss, and to

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ABIATHAR, the son of Ahimelech, and the tenth High Priest among the Jews, and ars, "in firm fourth in descent from Eli, 2 Sam vin. 17; raf God, and in obe- Chron. xviii. 16. When Saul sent to Nob fered that sacri- to murder all the priests, Abiathar escaped ed as the religi- the massacre, and fled to David in the wilder Thilst Cain, ness. There he continued in the quality of rances that High Priest; but Saul, out of aversion to tea disdaining Ahimelech, whom he imagined to have be dmade of manifesting trayed his interests, transferred the dignity of pearing to his the High Priesthood from Ithamar's family or natural fit into that of Eleazar, by conferring this office atly acquitted upon Zadok. Thus there were, at the same aging the time, two High Priests in Israel, Abiathar fed and express with David, and Zadok with Saul. In this

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e Benefactor, state things continued, until the reign of good things Solomon, when Abiathar, being attached to to have been de- the party of Adonijah, was, by Solomon, diIn short, Cain, the vested of his priesthood, A. M. 2959; and the first fruits the race of Zadok alone performed the funcce, in the arrogance tions of that office during the reign of SoloAdres rejecting the mon, to the exclusion of the family of Ithamar, according to the word of the Lord to Eli, 1 Sam. ii. 30, &c.

ABIB, the name of the first Hebrew sacred month, Exod. xiii. 4. This month was afterwards called Nisan; it contained thirty days, eightened fol- and answered to part of our March and grace of Christ." April. Abib signifies green ears of corn, or to the year of the fresh fruits, according to Jerom's translation, Exod. xiii. 4, and to the LXX. It was so

RAM, the door of Atad, be- named because corn, particularly barley, was

here Joseph, his in ear at that time. It was an early custom La mourned for the to give names to months, from the appearLIL. On this occasion ances of nature; and the custom is still

ed by all the elders of among the Jews commenced in September, at the command in force among many nations. The year rate of Pharaoh, and and consequently their jubilees and other those of his brethren, civil matters were regulated in this way,

arery great com- Lev. xxv. 8-10; but their sacred year began Brod, as it has been in Abib. This change took place at the reVerity and single- demption of Israel from Egypt, Exod. xii. 2,

they fell not of night. He takes annals of Deism, and retion of the ordiart which, in

red him to give to "This shall be to you the beginning of over whom he bore months." Ravanelli observes, that as this portunity of observing deliverance from Egypt was a figure of the rely bamble origin, by redemption of the church of Jesus Christ, Race upon his father's who died and rose again in this month, it e of Canaan, the modest was made the "beginning of months," to and to their simple burial lead the church to expect the acceptable year La city situate in the month the paschal lamb was taken; and on of the Lord. On the tenth day of this

Jordan, opposite to the fourteenth they ate the passover. On ; xx. 49; Joshua the seven succeeding days they celebrated it stood in the neigh- the feast of unleavened bread, on the last of Per. Moses encamped which days they held a solemn convocation, time before the He- Exod. xii., xiii. On the fifteenth they gathe Jordan. Here the thered the sheaf of the barley first-fruits, and atry, and worshipped on the following day presented an offering of

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or which God punished them by ion of twenty-four thousand perday.

the second son of the prophet brother of Joel. Samuel having O his sons the administration of ce, and admitted them to a share nment, they behaved so ill, that lemanded a king, 1 Sam. viii. 2.

AR, the son of Ahimelech, and igh Priest among the Jews, and escent from Eli, 2 Sam. viii. 17; iii. 16. When Saul sent to Nob ll the priests, Abiathar escaped e, and fled to David in the wildere he continued in the quality of ; but Saul, out of aversion to whom he imagined to have beterests, transferred the dignity of "riesthood from Ithamar's family Eleazar, by conferring this office . Thus there were, at the same High Priests in Israel, Abiathar , and Zadok with Saul. In this continued, until the reign of when Abiathar, being attached to f Adonijah, was, by Solomon, dihis priesthood, A. M. 2989; and Zadok alone performed the funcat office during the reign of Soloe exclusion of the family of Ithaling to the word of the Lord to ii. 30, &c.

me name of the first Hebrew sacred od. xiii. 4. This month was afterd Nisan; it contained thirty days, red to part of our March and ib signifies green ears of corn, or , according to Jerom's translation, 4, and to the LXX. It was so ause corn, particularly barley, was mat time. It was an early custom mes to months, from the appearnature; and the custom is still mong many nations. The year Jews commenced in September, quently their jubilees and other ers were regulated in this way, B-10; but their sacred year began This change took place at the reof Israel from Egypt, Exod. xii. 2, all be to you the beginning of Ravanelli observes, that as this e from Egypt was a figure of the n of the church of Jesus Christ, and rose again in this month, it the "beginning of months," to murch to expect the acceptable year ord. On the tenth day of this e paschal lamb was taken; and on enth they ate the passover. On succeeding days they celebrated of unleavened bread, on the last of s they held a solemn convocation, xiii. On the fifteenth they gae sheaf of the barley first-fruits, and lowing day presented an offering of

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-ht in his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it," Joshua vi. 26. Hiel of Bethel, about gh five hundred and thirty-seven years after this imprecation, having undertaken to rebuild Jericho, whilst he was laying the foundation of it, lost his eldest son, Abiram, 1 Kings xvi. 34; and Segub, the youngest, in when they set up the gates of it: A remarkable instance of a prophetic denunciation ve fulfilled, perhaps on a person who would not of credit the tradition, or the truth of the preom diction. So true is the word of the Lord; TS, so minutely are the most distant contingencies foreseen by him; and so exact is the ere accomplishment of divine prophecy!

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2. ABIRAM, the son of Eliab, of the tribe of Reuben, was one of those who conspired od with Korah and Dathan against Moses in the he wilderness, and was swallowed up alive, with his companions, by the earth, which in opened to receive them, Num. xvi.

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ABISHAG, a young woman, a native of Shunam, in the tribe of Issachar. David, lly at the age of seventy, finding no warmth in nd his bed, was advised by his physicians to ad procure some young person, who might comn- municate the heat required. To this end of Abishag was presented to him, who was one all of the most beautiful women in Israel, in- 1 Kings i. 3; and the king made her his ing wife. After his death, Adonijah requested are her in marriage, for which he lost his life; Solomon perceiving in this a design upon rst the crown also. Adonijah was his elder ng, brother, an intriguing man, and had aspired to be king before the death of David, and had had his life spared only upon the conded dition of his peaceable conduct. By this iii. request he convinced Solomon, that he was rch still actuated by political views, and this tar brought upon him the punishment of treason. and ABISHAI, the son of Zeruiah, David's the sister, who was one of the most valiant men of his time, and one of the principal generals

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ABLUTION, purification by washing the us. body, either in whole or part. Ablutions the appear to be almost as ancient as external ela, worship itself. Moses enjoined them; the heathens adopted them; and Mahomet and his followers have continued them thus een they have been introduced among most nations, and make a considerable part of of all superstitious religions.-The Egyptian me priests had their diurnal and nocturnal ablutions; the Grecians, their sprinklings; the Romans, their lustrations and lavations; the rd, Jews, their washings of hands and feet, becle, side their baptisms; the ancient Christians the used ablution before communion, which the Romish church still retains before the mass, sometimes after; the Syrians, Copts, the &c., have their solemn washings on Good city Friday; the Turks, their greater and less -sed ablutions, &c.

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Lastrations might always of an infamous and licentious nature. phur, by water, For this reason, Chrysostom affirms, that applied by ven- every idol, and every image of a man, was ting to be purified. called an abomination among the Jews. The

epted, might "abomination of desolation," foretold by the herton When a prophet Daniel, x. 27, xi. 31, is supposed by ewa to be swept in some interpreters to denote the statue of red persons Jupiter Olympius, which Antiochus Epipha ist with water. nes caused to be erected in the temple of vay of purification, Jerusalem. The second of the passages above the streets. cited may probably refer to this circumdan performed, at stance, as the statue of Jupiter did, in fact, hich some cere- "make desolate," by banishing the true worpurify themselves ship of God, and those who performed it, from the temple. But the former passage, considered in its whole connexion, bears more immediate reference to that which the evangelists have denominated the " abomination of desolation," Matt. xxiv. 15, 16; Mark xiii. 14. This, without doubt, signifies the ensigns of the Roman armies under the command Titus, during the last siege of Jerusalem. The images of their gods and emperors were delineated on these ensigns; and the ensigns themselves, especially the eagles, which were fell together on carried at the heads of the legions, were obbesed, in which jects of worship; and, according to the usual THE Touted Abner style of scripture, they were therefore an ed by Asahel, whom abomination. Those ensigns were placed upon of his spear. Still the ruins of the temple after it was taken and hand Abishai, till he, demolished; and, as Josephus informs us, ted with murder, was the Romans sacrificed to them there. The ted that Joab would horror with which the Jews regarded them

de of king Saul, and After Sanl's death, ing and for seven of Sal, in oppoof his skirmishes The bosheth's and each ether, hard by led Job to select to fight with an 2 consented: the

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in the fusion of blood, sufficiently appears from the account which deer, taking it highly into the city, when he sent his a Josephus gives of Pilate's introducing them charge him with lewd Cæsarea into winter quarters at Jerusalem, army from Saul's concubine, and of Vitellius's proposing to march through dickly transfer the Judea, after he had received orders from the hands of David. Tiberius to attack Aretas, king of Petra. ad a correspondence The people supplicated and remonstrated, La terve with him at and induced Pilate to remove the army, ads left the feast at Vitellius to march his troops another way. red him, when Joab, The Jews applied the above passage of Daniel varaly remonstrated, to the Romans, as we are informed by Jerome. er bad come as a spy. The learned Mr. Mede concurs in the same event a messenger to opinion. Sir Isaac Newton, Obs. on Daniel are some further com- ix, xii., observes, that in the sixteenth year ing; and when Abner of the emperor Adrian, B.C.132, the Romans J's presence, the latter, accomplished the prediction of Daniel by

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Abner might be- building a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, and partly to revenge his where the temple of God in Jerusalem had erally stabbed him stood. Upon this occasion the Jews, under

David, to show the conduct of Barchochab, rose up in arms

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ted the act, honoured against the Romans, and in the war had fifty afiral, and composed cities demolished, nine hundred and eightyThis term was used hundred and eighty thousand men slain by five of their best towns destroyed, and five Brew, who, being shep- the sword; and in the end of the war, B. C. are been an abomination 136, they were banished from Judea upon

by that people, as oxen, mained desolate of its old inhabitants. Others they sacrificed the pain of death; and thenceforth the land reich the Egyptians

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This word is also applied to the invasion and desolation of Christenagain have applied the prediction of Daniel to idolatry and idols, dom by the Mohammedans, and to their

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up Lustration, among the Romans, was a lay solemn ceremony by which they purified and their cities, fields, armies, or people, after

rip of idols is in conversion of the churches into mosques. but likewise be- From this interpretation they infer, that the laters were almost religion of Mohammed will prevail in the east

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infamous and licentious nature. son, Chrysostom affirms, that and every image of a man, was mination among the Jews. The -n of desolation," foretold by the iel, x. 27, xi. 31, is supposed by eters to denote the statue of mpius, which Antiochus Epiphato be erected in the temple of The second of the passages above robably refer to this circume statue of Jupiter did, in fact, late," by banishing the true wor, and those who performed it, mple. But the former passage, nits whole connexion, bears more eference to that which the evandenominated the " abomination ," Matt. xxiv. 15, 16; Mark xiii. thout doubt, signifies the ensigns an armies under the command ring the last siege of Jerusalem. of their gods and emperors were n these ensigns; and the ensigns especially the eagles, which were he heads of the legions, were obship; and, according to the usual ipture, they were therefore an . Those ensigns were placed upon the temple after it was taken and ; and, as Josephus informs us, 3 sacrificed to them there. The which the Jews regarded them appears from the account which ves of Pilate's introducing them ty, when he sent his army from to winter quarters at Jerusalem, lius's proposing to march through er he had received orders from attack Aretas, king of Petra. = supplicated and remonstrated, d Pilate to remove the army, and march his troops another way. pplied the above passage of Daniel ans, as we are informed by Jerome. d Mr. Mede concurs in the same Sir Isaac Newton, Obs. on Daniel serves, that in the sixteenth year eror Adrian, B. C. 132, the Romans ed the prediction of Daniel by

temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, temple of God in Jerusalem had pon this occasion the Jews, under Et of Barchochab, rose up in arms Romans, and in the war had fifty olished, nine hundred and eightyr best towns destroyed, and five nd eighty thousand men slain by ; and in the end of the war, B. C. were banished from Judea upon ath; and thenceforth the land reSolate of its old inhabitants. Others

applied the prediction of Daniel asion and desolation of ChristenThe Mohammedans, and to their n of the churches into mosques. interpretation they infer, that the Mohammed will prevail in the east

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