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and his Truth, they resolved to priņt it again, which they intended Ihould be of a larger Volume than before ; and therefore it was called, when it came forth, The Bible in the large or great Volume, They in- . tended also, in order to this Edition, to have the former Translation revised, and to omit several Prologues and Annotations. Miles Covere dale was the Man now that compared the Translation with the Hebrew, mended it in divers Places, and was the chief Overseer of the Work: But though they left out Matthews, that is, Rogers's Notes, yet they refolved to make Hands and Marks on the sides of the Book, which meant, that they would have particular Notice to be taken of those Texis, being such as did more especially strike at the Errors and Abuses of the Romilh Church.
Grafton resolved to print this Bible in Paris, if he could obtain Leave, there being better Paper, and cheaper, to be had in France, and more dextrous and good Workmen, for the ready Dispatch of the same. For this purpose the Lord Cromwell, who stood by him in this Enterprize, procured Letters of the King to the French King, lo permit a Subject of his to imprint the Bible in English, within the University of Paris, because of the Goodness of his Paper and Workmen. The King at the same Time wrote unto his Ambassador, who was then Edmund Bonner, Bilhop of Hereford, lying in Paris, That he should aid and alif the Undertakers of this good Work, in all their reasonable Suits. Bonner did not only present this Letter to the French King, and obtain with good Words che Licence desired, and had the French King's Letters Patents for the printing this Bible, and being finished, to bring the Impression safely over ; but shewed great Friendship to the Merchants and Printers, and so encouraged them, that the Work went on apace, and with good Success. And to thew how well affected he was to the Holy Bible, he caused the English there in Paris, to print the New Teftament in English and Latin, and took off a great many of them, and distributed them amongst his Friends. But the Principle that moved Bonner in all this was, that he might the better curry Favour with Cromwell, and recommend himself to him; who being the great Fa. vourite now with the King, was the fittest Instrument for his Rife. Cromwell loved him very well, and had a marvellous good Opinion of him; and so long as Cromwell remained in Authority, To lang was Bone ner at his Beck, a Friend to his Friends, and an Enemy to his Enemies, But as soon as Cromwell fell, no good Word could Bonner speak of him, but the lewdeft, vileft, and bittereft that he could, calling him the rankeft Heretick that ever lived: And then such as he knew to be in good Favour with Cromwell, he could never abide their Sight.
But notwithstanding the French King's Licence, such was the overSivaying Authority of the Inquisition in Paris, that by an Instrument dated September the 17th, 1538, the Printers were had up into the said Inquisition, and charged with certain Articles of Heresy. The Englismen likewise that were at the Cost and Charges thereof, and the Corrector Coverdale, were sent for. And then great Trouble arose. But before this happened, they were gone through, even to the last part of the Work. The Englisuomen having some Warning what would
took of Paris, torted he won apace,
e better being theor his Rilere
follow, and finding it not fafe to tarry any longer, fed away as fast as they could to save themselves, leaving behind them all their Bibles, the Impreffion consisting of 2500 in Number, which were seized, and the Lieutenant Criminal caused them to be burnt, as heretical Books'; Conly a few escaped, the Lieutenant for Covetousness selling them for waste Paper to a Haberdasher, 'to lap Caps in, being about four dry Fats full, and these were bought again.'
However, not long after, the English that were concerned in this Work, by the Encouragement of Cromwell, went back to Paris again, and got the Presses, Letrers, and Printing Servants, and brought them over to London, and so became Printers themselves, which before they Dever intended, and printed out the said Bible in London, When it was finished, it was presented to the King, and by him committed to divers Bishops of that Time to peruse, of which Stephen Gardiner was one. After they had kept it long in their Hands, and the King was divers Times sued unto for the Publication thereof; at the laft be'ing called for by the King himself, they delivered the Book ; and being demanded by the King, What was their Judgment of the Transiation, they answered, That there were many Faults therein : Well, said the King, but are there any Heresies maintained thereby? They answered, There were no Herefies that they could find maintained thereby. If there be no Herefies, said the King, then, in God's Name, let it go abroad among our People. According to this Judgment of the King and the Bishops, Coverdale in a Sermon at Paul's Cross, defended his Translation, upon 'occafion of some fanderous Reports, that then were raised against it, confefling, That he did now himself efpy rome Faults, which if he might review once over again, as he had twice before, he doubted not but to amend; but for any Herefy, he was sure there was none maintained by his Translation.
This was nublimed Anno 1539, and is that which is called the Great Bible. Strope, in his Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, p. 444. says, it was published in the Year '1538, or 1539, but as if this was a Mistake of the Press, in the Errata it is 1537, or 1538; whereas I have one that bears Date 1539, and in it the Table for Enfier for 19 Years, begins with that Year. And at the End of all it says, it was finished in April 1539. This has the Frontispiece before it, which Strype says was before Cranmer's Bible of 1540, and explains it at large; but hath neither Coverdale's nor Cranmer's Preface, only a Description of the Succellion of the Kings of Judah and Jerusalem; and a Direction with what Judginent the Books of the Old Testament are to be read: In the Title Page, Cumi Privilegio ad imprimendum folum. ..
When our Liturgy was first compiled, and afterwards revised and altered, in the Reign of Edward the 6th, the Epistles, Gospels, Pfalms, and Ilymns put into those Liturgies, were all according to this Trantlation, and to continued till King Charles the ad's Restoration, wher the, Old Translation being found fault with by some Men, the Epilties and Golpcis were inferted af:er the last Translation, but 'the old Palter was full continued. The Bishops and Clergy did, ir seems, prefer this Translation, before any other in the Englifi Tongue.
it ware of the Press, 15:39, and init End of all it say which Stry
Injunctions were giver out in the King's Name by Cromwell, to all Incumbents to provide one of these Bibles, and let it up.publickly in the Church, in some convenient Place where the Parishioners might refort to the same, and read it. None were to be discouraged from reading or hearing of it; but, on the contrary, exhorted to peruse it, as being the true lively Word of God, which every Christian ought to believe, embrace, and follow, if he expected to be saved. "
The same Year a Parliament was fummoned, which made the terri? ble Act of the Six bloody Articles : Great Triumphing there was on the Papifts Side, for how they hoped to be revenged on all those who had hitherto set forward a Reformation: ''.i is "...pain. Soos
There was nothing could fo much support the Spirits of the Party: which now was clouded, as the free' Use of the Scriptures ; and 'though! there were set up in Churches, yet Cranmer pressed, and how this Year procured Leave for private Persons to buy Bibles, and to keep them in their Houses. So this was granted by Letters Patents November the 13th, directed to Cromwell, the Substance' of which was, That the King was desirous to have his Subjeéts attain the Knowledge of God's Word; which! could not be effected by any Meanis so well, as by granting them the free and liberal Use of the Bible in the English Tongue, which, to avoid Diffention, be intended should pass among them only by one Translation. Therefore Crón well was charged to take Care, that for the Space of Five Years, there? should be no Impreffion of the Bible, or of any part of it, but only by such as Should-be assigned by him ; Gardiner Bishop of Winchester op? posed this all he could. :
With this Bible the Enemies of the Reforination were offended and as God of his Goodness had raised up the Archbishop and the Lord' Cromwell to be Friends and Patrons to the Gospel; fo, on the other Side, Satan, (who is an Adversary and Enemy to all Goodness) had his lostruments, by all Wiles and fubtle Means, to impeach and put back the same. Upon Cromwell's Fall, Gdrdiner, and thole that follow ed him, made no Doubt but they should quickly recover' what they hads loft of late Years : -So their greatest Attempt was upon the Translation' of the Scriptures. Accordingly, the next Year, 1540, there was an Convocation, wherein one of the Matters before them, was concerning. the procuring a true Translation of the New Testament, which was indeed intended not fo much to do to good a Work; as to hinder it. For having decried the present Tråntation on purpofe to make it! unlawful for any to use it, they pretended to set themselves about a new! one, but it was merely to delay and put off the People from the common Use of the Scriptures, as appeared plainly enough, in that the Bishops themselves undertook it, and so having it in their own Hands, they might make what Delays they pleased. For in the third Session a' Proposition was made for the Transation, and the several Books were' divided among the Bishops, viz. Archbishop Cranmer had Matthew; Langland Bishop of Lincoln, Mark; Gardiner Bishop of Winchofter, Luke; Goodrick Bishop of Ely, John; Heath Bishop of Rochester, Acts Sempfon Bishop of Chichester, Romans ; Capon Bishop of Saum, if and 2d Corinthians; Barlow Bishop of St. David's, Galatians, Ephest.ns, Chris loffians ; Bell Bishop of Worcester,' 1 and 2d Theffalonians; Parferu Bi
Vi an v an comes . .. circell i Ihop
peared in the audice of Tree. But that.Elebeir Texts.Pound there entir
shop of St. Afaph, it and ad Timothy, Titus, Philemon; Holdgate Bishop of Landaff, ill and 2d Peter ; Skip Bishop of Hereford, Hebrews
Thirlby Bishop of Westminster, James, if, 2d, 3d John, Jude; Wake- : man Bishop of Gloucester, and Chambers Bishop of Peterborough, Revela-,
In this Convocation Gardiner read a large Catalogue of Latin Words, of his own Collection out of the New Testament, and desired, that for their genuine and native Meaning, and for the Majesty of the Matter : therein contained, those Words might be retained in their own Nature, as much as might be; or be very ftly Englished with the least Alteration. Among those, some few.could not be translated without Loss of Life or Luftre, and these are continued in our English Testament entire ; it being conceived better, that ... Ministers should expound these Words in their Sermons, than alter them in their Texts. The rest were not emphatical in themselves, but that they may be rendered in English without Prejudice of Truth. Wherefore Gardiner's Design plainly appeared in stickling for preserving so many Latin words to obscure the Scriptures; who, though wanting Power to keep the Light of the Word from shining, sought, out of Policy, to put it in a dark Lanthorn: Be-, sides the Popish Bishops inultiplied the Mixture of Latin Words in the Testament, to teach the Laity their Distance, who, though admitted into the outward Court of common Matter, were yet deharred Entrance into the Holy of Holies of these mysterious Expressions, reserved only for the Understanding of the High Priest to pierce into them. Moreover this made Girdiner not only tender, but fond, to have thefe Words continued in Kind, without Alteration, because the Profits of the Rou. mish Church were deeply in some of them concerned. Witness the Word Penances which (according to the vulgar Sound, contrary to the original Sense thereof) was a Magazine of Will-worship, and brought in much Gain to the Priests, who were therefore delirous to keep that and such like Words. What Entertainment Gardiner's Motion met with, I find not; it seems so suspended in Success, as to be neither generally received, nor rejected. .
The Archbilhop saw through all this, and therefore in a following Seffion, told the House from the King (to whom he had discovered this Intrigue) That it was the King's Williand Pleasure, that the Translation both of the Old and New Testament should be examined by both Universities. This was a Surprize to the Bishops, and met with much Oppo-, sition in the House, all the Bishops 7 Goodrick · Bishop of Ely, and Barlow Bishop of St. David's, excepted) making their protests to the contrary. These affirmed the Universities were much decayed of late, wherein all Things were carried by young Men, whose' Judgments were not to be relied on; so that the Learning of the Land was chiefly in the Convocation. But the Archbishop said, He would fick close to the Will and Pleasure of the King his Mafler, and that the Univerfries should examine the Translation. And here, for any Thing that can be found to the contrary, the Matter ceased, and the Convocation soon after was diffolved.
In the latter End of 1541, came forth a new Impression of the Bible, which was nothing but that of Matthews corrected. To this the Arch
bishop had added the laft Hand, mending it in divers Places with his own Pen, and fixing a very excellent Preface before it, for which Reason it is called Cranmer's Bible. Durel, in his Vindic. Ecclef. Ang. c. 27, fays, this was published by Tonflal Bishop of Durham, and Heath Bishop of Rochester, to whom the King had cominitted that Work. To this Impression the King gave Countenance, commanding the buying and setting it up in Churches, by his Proclamation in May 1541 : For as yet, notwithstanding the former Injunctions, many Parishes were destitute of Bibles; whether it were by reason of the Unwillingness of the Priests to have the English Bible, or the People to be any ways acquainted with it, for fear it thould make them Hereticks, as their Curates told them. He limited also the Time that it should be every where provided before All Saints Day next coming, and that upon the Penalty of Forty Shillings a Month, after the said Fealt, that they should be without it: The said Proclamation also set the Price at Ten Shillings'a Book unbound, and well bound and clasped nor above Twelve. And charged all his Bishops and other Ordinarieś to take Care for the seeing this Command the better executed. The King feconded this Proclamation with a Declaration to be read openly by the Clergy in their several Parishes, upon the publishing of this Bible, the better to poffess the People with the King's good Affection towards them, in suffering them to have the Benefit of such heavenly Treasure ; and to dia, sect them in a Course by which they might enjoy the same to their greater Comfort, the Reformation of their Lives, and the Peace and Quiet of the Church ; namely, to use it with Reverence and great Devotion, to conform their Lives unto it, and to encourage those that were under them, Wives, Children, and Servants, to live according tô the Rules thereof; that in doubtful Places they should confer with the learned for the Sense, who should be appointed to preach and explain the same, and not to contend and dispute about them in Ale-Houtes and Taveras. ! ''Uoto these Commands of so great a Prince, both Bishops, Priests, and people did apply themselves with such chearful Reverence, that
Bonner, now Bishop of London, caused six of them to be chained in 1. certain convenient Places in St. Paul's Church, for all that were so
well inclined, to resort unto; together with a certain Admonition to the Readers, fastened upon the Pillars to which the Bibles were chained; to this Tenor, Thai whosoever came there to read, firuld prepare himself to be edified and made the better thereby; that he mould, join thereunto his Readingss to obey the King's Injunitions, made in that Behálf; that he bring with hin Discretion, hones Intent, Charity, Reverence, and quiet Behaviour ; that there pould no such Number meet 'together there, as to make a Multitude ; that no Exposition be made thereupon, but what is declared in the Book itself; that it be not read with Noise in Time of Divine Service, or that any Disputation or Contention be used about it: That in case they continued their former Misbehaviour, and refused to comply with these Directions, he Jould be forced, against bis Hill, to remove the Occasion, and take the Bible out of the Church.
But the People could not be hindered from entring into Disputes about lome Places, so that the King had many Complaints brought him of