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Wherein have you been galled by the king?
What peer hath been suborn'd to grate on you,
That you should seal this lawless bloody book
Of forged rebellion with a seal divine,
And consecrate commotion's bitter edge?
Arch. My brother general, the commonwealth,
To brother born an household cruelty,
I make my quarrel in particular.
West. There is no need of any such redress;

Or if there were, it not belongs to you.



93. And... edge] Q (Dev.); om. Ff, Q (Mus., Steev.). 94. brother general, the] brother Generall, the Q; Brother generall, the Ff. (brother and Generall). 95. To... cruelty,] Q (Dev.); om. Ff, Q (Mus., Steev.).

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91. book] deed, as in 1 Henry IV. III. i. 223, and Fletcher and Massinger, The Elder Brother, III. iii: "let's seal the book" [= a deed of settlement]. The epithet "forged," in line 92, is transferred from " book," to which it strictly belongs, to "rebellion." The Archbishop is charged with having affixed the divine seal to a forgery.

93. commotion's... ] insurrection's fell sword. For "edge" cf. Dekker, Whore of Babylon (Pearson, II. 216): "the edge of Iustice." Bitter, biting, or productive of bitterness. The omission of line 93, in F and Malone's copy of Q, points to some mutilation of the text of Westmoreland's speech (11. 8893). For "bitter edge Theobald's copy of Q read civil Edge; Theobald read civil page.

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94-96. My particular.] A mutilated and corrupt speech, of which the tenor seems to be: "The grievances of my brother the commonwealth (cf. Coriolanus, II. iii. 101), and the wrong done me in the person of my brother born, have caused me to embrace this quarrel as my own." A tolerable sense is given by Johnson's conjectural emendation quarrel general for brother general: "the state of the commonwealth is my general or public cause of quarrel; a domestic injury I make the occasion of my private quarrel.' "General" and "particular' are frequently used antithetically in relation to grounds of quarrel, e.g. in Lyly, Sapho and Phao, i. iii: "where we mislike for some particular grudge, there we

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pick quarrels for a general grief."
Cf. also Sir Gyles Goosecap, I. ii:
"thou shalt die in a very honorable
cause, thy countries generall quarrell
right." Perhaps line 94 should follow
line 96; such an arrangement would
give point to Westmoreland's reply:
"A general redress is not needed, or if
it were, you have no title or authority to
demand it." It has been suggested that
the use of the word redress in West-
moreland's reply makes it probable that
it had occurred in the Archbishop's
speech. Rann read, in line 94, My
brother, general, the commonwealth,
and Knight My brother, general! the
commonwealth. Capell placed a direc-
tion "[shewing Mowbray]" after
"brother general," and Keightley pro-
posed brother-generals; Hudson (after
Bailey) read My burden general is the
commonwealth. For the allusion in line
95 (omitted in Ff) to the execution of
William le Scrope, Earl of Wiltshire,
whom Shakespeare, following Holin-
shed, erroneously supposed to be a
brother of the Archbishop, see 1 Henry
IV. I. iii. 271, and notes there.
well-Stone, on the other hand, argues,
on the evidence of the immediate con-
text and of the following speeches of
Westmoreland and Mowbray, that the
Archbishop does not refer to the Earl
of Wiltshire. He construes the lines:
"My brother Generall [is] the common-
wealth: I make an household cruelty
(a public wrong: the state being re-
garded as a household) to brother borne
(to such born brother of mine), my
quarrel in particular (I treat his harm as
though it were my own private griev


Mowb. Why not to him in part, and to us all
That feel the bruises of the days before,
And suffer the condition of these times
To lay a heavy and unequal hand
Upon our honours ?


O, my good Lord Mowbray,
Construe the times to their necessities,
And you shall say indeed, it is the time,
And not the king, that doth you injuries.
Yet for your part, it not appears to me
Either from the king or in the present time
That you should have an inch of any ground
To build a grief on: were you not restored
To all the Duke of Norfolk's signories,
Your noble and right well remember'd father's?
Mowb. What thing, in honour, had my father lost,

That need to be revived and breathed in me?
The king that loved him, as the state stood then,
Was force perforce compell'd to banish him:
And then that Henry Bolingbroke and he,

100-103. before, . . . honours ?] before? . . . honors. Q.
honours ] one line Ff.
perforce] forc'd, perforce Ff.







102, 103. To lay 103-139. O, my king.] om. Q. 116. force 117. then that] then, that Ff.

102. unequal] unjust, as in Antony and Cleopatra, II. v. 101. So " equal" = just, impartial, as in Beaumont and Fletcher, A King and No King, 1v. ii. 104. Construe. . . ] Interpret events in relation with the necessities that the nature of the times imposes; cf. Fletcher, Bonduca, II. i: " Weigh but the time's estate." Lee paraphrases "to their necessities" as "according to the exigencies of affairs."

III. signories] estates, as in Richard II. III. i. 22.

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113, 114. What... me] For the thought, cf. Titus Andronicus, I. i. 5-7: "I am his first-born son Then let my father's honour live in me." In honour, in way of honour. For "need to" Vaughan proposed to read needed or Had need, but change is unnecessary; "need is an irregular form of the 3rd


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as a

there used to illustrate "need"
form of the 3rd pers. sing. pres. tense,
in place of "needs or "needeth ").
Breathed, endowed with breath or life;
cf. Winter's Tale, v. iii. 64.

115. state] condition of things, as in
Henry VIII. 11. iv. 211; or "common-
116. force perforce] Theobald's
emendation of Ff forc'd, perforce.
"Force perforce," by constraint of cir-
cumstances, an emphatic form of "per-
force," suggested perhaps by F. force
forcée. Cotgrave: "Force forcée: Of
force, of necessitie, will he nill he, in
spight of his teeth." Cf. King John, III,
i. 142, and 2 Henry VI. 1. i. 259. For the
reduplication, cf. "haste-post-haste'
(adj.) in Othello, 1. ii. 37, and "post-
post-haste " (adv.) in Othello, 1. iii. 46.
117-125. And then

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pers. sing. of the preterite tense (in Staunton proposed and when', when]

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place of needed "), as in T. Hull, Sir W. Harrington (1771), II. 9: 'My stooping need not to have disturbed you" (quoted in New Eng. Dict., but

then. For then that, in line 117, Rowe (ed. 1) read when, that and Pope then, when. Craig approved Rowe's emendation when, that in line 117, and

Being mounted and both roused in their seats,
Their neighing coursers daring of the spur,
Their armed staves in charge, their beavers down,
Their eyes of fire sparkling through sights of steel
And the loud trumpet blowing them together,
Then, then, when there was nothing could have stay'd
My father from the breast of Bolingbroke,


O, when the king did throw his warder down,
His own life hung upon the staff he threw;


Then threw he down himself and all their lives

That by indictment and by dint of sword
Have since miscarried under Bolingbroke.

West. You speak, Lord Mowbray, now you know not what.

The Earl of Hereford was reputed then

In England the most valiant gentleman:


Who knows on whom fortune would then have smiled?

119. coursers] courses Ff 2, 3. Staunton's conjectural O then in line 125. The changes proposed would no doubt clarify the syntax, but at the expense of nature and effect.

118. roused] raised. Used refl. in Henry V. 1. ii. 275, and Peele, Edward the First, ii: "Come . . . and rouse


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119. Their .] Their coursers neighing with excitement and so challenging the spur [i.e. as Onions explains, challenging the spur to give the signal for setting off].

120 armed staves] lance-shafts cased or tipped with steel. Lingua, II. i: "guns and glaves, and staves." In charge, in position for attack, ready for the charge. Beavers down, the faceguards of their helmets being lowered. The beaver (O.F. bavière, orig. a child's bib) was the lower portion of the faceguard of a helmet when worn with a visor; in the sixteenth century the beaver and visor formed a single piece, called visor or beaver, which could be pushed up entirely over the top of the helmet, or drawn down, at pleasure. Cf. Spenser, Faerie Queene, 11. i. 29: "they doen upreare Their bevers bright each other for to greet," and Marston, Antonio and Mellida, First Part, v. i. 121. sights of steel] sight-holes of visors, visors.

125. down,] down. Ff 2, 3.

125. warder] staff. See Richard II. 1. iii. 118; and cf. T. Heywood, The Four Prentices of London (Pearson, ii. 204), where a stage-direction reads "They fight, Robert and the Palatine cast their Warders betweene them and part them."


128. by indictment] Blackstone (Commentaries) defines "indictment "accusation of one or more persons of a crime or misdemeanour, preferred to, and presented upon oath by, a grand jury.' The sinister character of the procedure by indictment appears in the commentary on it in Sir T. Smith, De Rep. Angl., iii. 3: "I haue choice to cause him to be endicted, by giuing information to the enquest of enquirie ... and thereupon to procure him to be outlawed," and ib. ii. 23: "He whom the enquest pronounceth not guiltie is acquitted and if he knowe any priuate man who purchased his inditement, he may haue an action of conspiracie against him . . . but that case chaunceth seldome."

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128. dint of sword] lit. stroke of sword; hence, "violent means.' Cf. Jacob and Esau (Haz. Dods., ii. 251): "with dint of sword thy living get thou shall"; and Butler, Hudibras, . ii.

131. Earl] Bolingbroke was Duke of Hereford. See Richard II. 1. iii. 21.

But if your father had been victor there,

He ne'er had borne it out of Coventry :


For all the country in a general voice

Cried hate upon him; and all their prayers and love
Were set on Hereford, whom they doted on
And bless'd and graced indeed, more than the king.
But this is mere digression from my purpose.
Here come I from our princely general


To know your griefs; to tell you from his grace
That he will give you audience; and wherein
It shall appear that your demands are just,
You shall enjoy them, every thing set off
That might so much as think you enemies.

Mowb. But he hath forced us to compel this offer;
And it proceeds from policy, not love.


West. Mowbray, you overween to take it so;

This offer comes from mercy, not from fear:
For, lo! within a ken our army lies,


Upon mine honour, all too confident

To give admittance to a thought of fear.

139. indeed, more... king] Theobald (Thirlby conj.); and did more . . king Ff.

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137. Cried... upon] invoked hatred upon; cf. Twelfth Night, v. i. 63.

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139. indeed, more... king] The reading of Theobald, after a conjecture of Thirlby, where Ff have and did more king. Rowe read more than the king himself. Cambridge Edd. conjecture and eyed more ..king, and Delius and bid more .. king. Boswell-Stone adopted Delius' emendation, "bid explaining as "prayed for." 145, 146. set off] being set aside, dismissed from the mind. Think you, make you seem, cause you to be thoughta causative use of the verb. Vaughan proposed thought for "thing" in line

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145. For "think" Hanmer read mark, and Capell hint.

149. overween] are presumptuous, as in Titus Andronicus, II. i. 29.

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151. within a ken] less than twenty miles away, "ken" being a geographical term for "the distance that bounds the range of ordinary_vision, esp. at sea (Onions, citing Leland, 1538: "a Kenning, that is to say about a xx miles," and Botoner, fifteenth century: "quilibet kennyng continet 21 miliaria "); cf. Cymbeline, III. vi. 6; Lyly, Euphues (Arber, p. 250): "within a ken of Dover"; Kyd, Soliman and Perseda, v. ii: "a kenning from the shore." As it appears from lines 19, 20 ante that the two armies were separated by a distance of considerably less than twenty miles, it is probable that "within a ken" is here used in the sense "in ken," within range of sight; cf. Webster and Rowley, A Cure for a Cuckold, 11. i; Jonson, The Sad Shepherd, II. i: "coming in view or ken of Æglamour "; and T. Heywood, Edward the Fourth, Part. II.

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Our battle is more full of names than yours,
Our men more perfect in the use of arms,
Our armour all as strong, our cause the best;
Then reason will our hearts should be as good:
Say you not then our offer is compell'd.

Mowb. Well, by my will we shall admit no parley.
West. That argues but the shame of your offence:
A rotten case abides no handling.

Hast. Hath the Prince John a full commission,
In very ample virtue of his father,

To hear and absolutely to determine
Of what conditions we shall stand upon?

West. That is intended in the general's name :

I muse you make so slight a question.

Arch. Then take, my Lord of Westmoreland, this schedule, For this contains our general grievances :

Each several article herein redress'd,

All members of our cause, both here and hence,
That are insinewed to this action,
Acquitted by a true substantial form,

159. parley] parlee Q. 161. handling] handing Ff 2-4. ensinewed Q.

(Pearson, i. 103): "Lewis . . . That likewise is within the cities ken," i.e. within sight of the city.

154. battle] army, as in 1 Henry IV. IV. i. 129. Names, men famous in arms; cf. Beaumont and Fletcher, A King and No King, 1. i: "though thy name in arms Be great.'

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157. will] will have it, a use of "will" occurring "in certain more or less ironical phrases" (Onions); cf. 3 Henry VI. i. i. 230, and Hamlet, IV. v. 3. Pope read wills, and Malone conjectured well-.

161. handling] See note to 1 Henry IV. III. i. 67.

162. Hath. commission] Is he invested with plenary judicial powers by commission, i.e. by the king's commission? The allusion is to the mode of investing justices of assize by commission; cf. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, Prol. 315: "Iustyce he was . . . by pleyn commisioun."

163. In... virtue] in the fullest exercise of delegated power. Virtue, power, as in Othello, 1. iii. 321.





172. insinewed]

164. hear... determine] "Hear" and "determine " are technical terms in legal procedure; cf. Trial Regic., (1660): "Authorized . . . to hear and determine," and the "writ of oyer & terminer or commission to judges on circuit to "hear and determine," i.e. to hold courts.

165. stand upon] insist upon.

166. That. ] Sir T. Smith writes (De Rep. Angl., i. 18): "the king. by his liuetenaunt in the warres, who hath his royall and absolute power committed to him for that time." Intended, meant to be expressed, as in 1 Henry VI. III. i. 141.

167. muse] marvel, as in Richard III. 1. iii. 305. Slight, trifling.

172. insinewed. . .] knit, as if with strong sinews, to this undertaking. Cf. King John, v. ii. 63: "you . . . That knit your sinews to the strength of mine," and 3 Henry VI. II. vi. 91. Capell read insinew'd to.

173. by...] by a proper and legally valid form of acquittal.

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