Imágenes de páginas

too, but for inflammation. A good sherris-sack hath 95 a two-fold operation in it. It ascends me into the brain; dries me there all the foolish and dull and crudy vapours which environ it; makes it apprehensive, quick, forgetive, full of nimble, fiery and delectable shapes; which, delivered o'er to the voice, the 100 tongue, which is the birth, becomes excellent wit. The second property of your excellent sherris is, the warming of the blood; which, before cold and settled, left the liver white and pale, which is the badge of pusillanimity and cowardice; but the sherris 105 warms it and makes it course from the inwards to the

98. crudy] cruddie F 1.

II. i: "he should have . . . seen them drunk once a day; then would they at their best have begotten but wenches"; and May, The Heir, 1. i.

95. inflammation] excitement with liquor (Onions). The notion is, probably, that wine inflames the liver, which was regarded as the source of courage. A white or pale liver, on the other hand, was a symbol of cowardice (cf. lines 104, 105 post).

95. sherris-sack] a Spanish white wine so called from the town of Xeres, sherry. See Jonson, The New Inn, I. i: "Sack, says my bush, Be merry, and drink sherry." Markham, in The English Hus-wife, 1631 (p. 162), writes: "Your best sacks are of Seres in Spaine." Minsheu has: "Xêres, or Xéres, oppidum Beticæ, i. Andaluziæ, prope Cadis, unde nomen vini de Xeres. A[nglice] Xeres sacke." Coles renders "Sherry-Sack" by "Vinum Escuritanum." See note on 1 Henry IV. 1. ii. "Sherries" was the English form of "Xeres" in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; hence "sakes of Sherries" (quoted in New Eng. Dict. from a work dated 1540-1541); from "sherries," which was wrongly regarded as a plural, a false singular sherry was formed.


97. dull] sluggish, gloomy.

98. crudy] crude, full of crudities; cf. Jonson, Poetaster, v. i: "surfeits, which have filled His blood and brain thus full of crudities." For the form "crudy," from "crude," cf. "hugy," "steely," "steepy," etc. New Eng. Dict. explains "crudy" (cruddie F) as

"curdy, full of curd-like agglomerations," and cites Faerie Queene, 1. v. 29: "His . . . woundes with cruddy blood congealed."

98, 99. apprehensive] quick to apprehend, of lively intelligence.

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99. forgetive] able to forge thoughts, fancies, jests; creative. Cf. All's Well, 1. i. 84; Henry V. v. Chorus 23: "In the quick forge and working house of thought," and Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour, v. iv: spare no sulphurous jest that may come out of that sweaty forge of thine." Also Coriolanus, III. i. 258: "What his breast forges, that his tongue must vent." For the formation of "forgetive," cf. " mynsatives" and "dancitive" (Sir Giles Goosecap, I. ii and II. i) from "mince " and "dance" respectively.

100. shapes] imaginations, fancies; cf. iv. iv. 58 post.

100, IOI. the voice, the tongue] Hanmer read the voice, in the tongue. Staunton proposed to read the voice or the tongue, and Hudson read the tongue.

IOI. becomes] Hanmer read become.

104. settled] congealed, as in Romeo and Juliet, IV. v. 26: "Her blood is settled, and her joints are stiff," and 2 Henry VI. III. ii. 160.

104. liver pale] Cf. "lily. liver'd" in Macbeth, v. III. 15, and "livers white as milk," in Merchant of Venice, 111. ii. 86.

106, 107. inwards... extreme] We should perhaps read inward.. extreme. For "extreme," Q read ex

parts extreme: it illumineth the face, which as a
beacon gives warning to all the rest of this little
kingdom, man, to arm; and then the vital commoners
and inland petty spirits muster me all to their cap- 110
tain, the heart, who, great and puffed up with this
retinue, doth any deed of courage; and this valour
comes of sherris. So that skill in the weapon is no-
thing without sack, for that sets it a-work; and
learning a mere hoard of gold kept by a devil, till 115
sack commences it and sets it in act and use. Here-
of comes it that Prince Harry is valiant; for the cold

107. extreme] extreames Q; extremes Ff 1, 2.
III, 112. this retinue] his retinue Ff.

Ff 1, 2.

treames, and Ff 1, 2 extremes; Schmidt conjectured extremest.

108, 109. little kingdom, man] Man is again compared to a little kingdom or microcosm in Julius Cæsar, II. i. 6769: "the state of man, Like to a little kingdom." See also King John, IV. ii. 246; Macbeth, 1. iii. 140; and Troilus and Cressida, 11. iii. 186-188.

109, 110. vital spirits] An allusion to the "vital spirits," the immaterial principles governing vital phenomena. See F. Bacon, Henry VII.: “a malign vapour flew to the heart, and seized the vital spirits," and Jonson Cynthia's Revels, II. i: "the frame of a wolf. . . surprising your eye suddenly, gave a false alarm to the heart; and that was it called your blood out of your face, and so routed the whole rank of your spirits." Inland, from the neighbourhood of the heart, the capital of the little kingdom of man; cf. Henry V. 1. ii. 142: "to defend Our inland from the pilfering borderers," where Onions paraphrases "inland": "inlying districts of a country near the capital... as opposed to the remote or outlying wild parts."

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IIO, III. muster. heart] Craig refers to Measure for Measure, II. iv. 20, and to Nashe, The Unfortunate Traveller, 1594 (McKerrow, II. 267): "my bloud... did... runne for refuge to the noblest of his bloud about my hart assembled, that stood in more need it self of comfort and refuge." For the relation of the heart to the body and its members, see Stubbes,

107. illumineth] illuminateth 115. hoard] whoord Q; Hoord

Anatomie of Abuses, Pt. I. pp. 25 and 107 (ed. Furnivall); the latter passage may have prompted Falstaff's enconium on sack. Falstaff's account of the little kingdom of man is based on the physiological knowledge of the period.

115. learning... devil] learning is as useless as a [hidden] treasure that is under the watchful guard of a devil. Cf. Middleton and Dekker, The Roaring Girl (Pearson's Dekker, iii. 204): "Good faces maskt are Iewels kept by spirits." It was a superstitious belief that buried treasure is "consigned" to hell, and is therefore under the protection of the devils who are the ministers of hell. Cf. Lyly, Euphues and his England (Bond, ii. 19): "[thou] who, . . . burying thy treasure, doest hope to meete it in hell." Elsewhere allusion is made to a belief that ghosts "walk," or haunt the spot, where they concealed treasure in their life; cf. Davenport, A New Tricke to Cheat the Divell, Iv. ii: "'tis some vex'd spirit

Who having hid some treasure in her life time Must, till that be discovered, walke of force."

116. commences... use] Probably, as Tyrwhitt suggested, an allusion to the Cambridge "Commencement" and the Oxford "Act," i.e. to the conferring of the degree which authorizes the student to set his hoard of learning in act and use. See Middleton and Dekker, The Roaring Girl, 11. iii: "Then is he held a freshman. And never shall commence"; The Puritan, 1. ii: "at last, having done

blood he did naturally inherit of his father, he hath,
like lean, sterile, and bare land, manured, husbanded
and tilled with excellent endeavour of drinking good 120
and good store of fertile sherris, that he is become
very hot and valiant. If I had a thousand sons, the
first human principle I would teach them should be,
to forswear thin potations, and to addict themselves
to sack.



How now, Bardolph ?

Bard. The army is discharged all and gone.

Fal. Let them go. I'll through Gloucestershire; and there will I visit Master Robert Shallow, esquire: I have him already tempering between my finger and 130 my thumb, and shortly will I seal with him. Come away.

123. human] om. Ff; humane Q. 127). 129. Master] M. Q.

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126. Enter B.] Enter B. Q (before line Exeunt.] om. Q.

to "divine." The spelling "humane" (Q) was that in general use at the end of the sixteenth century; the form "human" first appeared in the seventeenth century, and was substituted for "humane" at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The earliest recorded example of "humane" in the 'polite" belongs to the late seventeenth century.

many slights and tricks to maintain my
wit in use.
.. I was expelled the
university [probably Oxford. The
whole speech teems with academic
terms]"; Fletcher and Massinger,
The Elder Brother, 1. ii: "Come,
Doctor Andrew, without disputation,
Thou shalt commence i' th' cellar,"
and ib. "to... see what you have sense
purposed put in act"; Massinger, The
Duke of Milan, IV. i: "one that hath
commenced, and gone out doctor "; and
Butler, Hudibras, II. i. In act, in

119. lean] unfertile, as in 1 Henry IV. II. ii. 106.

119. bare] poor in quality. 121. fertile] causing, or tending to promote, fertility.

123. human] "secular," as opposed

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130. tempering] softening, as wax is softened between the finger and thumb. Venus and Adonis, 565: "What wax so frozen but dissolves with tempering." For the fig. use of "tempering," cf. Wily Beguiled (Haz. Dods., ix. 290): "I'll temper him well enough," and Middleton, Anything for a Quiet Life, IV. i: "You must temper him like wax, or he 'll not seal."

SCENE IV.-Westminster. The Jerusalem Chamber.


King. Now, lords, if God doth give successful end
To this debate that bleedeth at our doors,
We will our youth lead on to higher fields
And draw no swords but what are sanctified.
Our navy is address'd, our power collected,
Our substitutes in absence well invested,
And every thing lies level to our wish:
Only, we want a little personal strength;
And pause us, till these rebels, now afoot,
Come underneath the yoke of government.
War. Both which we doubt not but your majesty
Shall soon enjoy.


Humphrey, my son of Gloucester,

Where is the prince your brother?

Glou. I think he's gone to hunt, my lord, at Windsor.
King. And how accompanied?

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King. Is not his brother, Thomas of Clarence, with him?
Glou. No, my good lord; he is in presence here.
Clar. What would my lord and father?

I do not know, my lord. 15

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SCENE IV.] Capell; Scena Secunda. Ff. Westminster .] The Palace at Westminster. Theobald. Enter .] Enter the King, Warwike, Kent, Thomas duke of Clarence, Humphrey of Gloucester. Q; Enter King, Warwicke, Clarence, Gloucester. Ff. and others] Capell. 1. God] Heauen Ff. dress'd] addressed Ff. 12, 13. Humphrey... brother?] as verse Pope; prose Q, Ff.

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5. ad

6. substitutes] deputies, as in Massinger, The Guardian, II. iv: "my substitute, to whom Pay all obedience." 7. level to] conformable to.

13. the prince] See Sir T. Smith, De Rep. Angl., i. 18: "the name of prince. κατ' ἐξοχήν betokeneth the kinges eldest sonne or prince of wales."

17. in presence] present, as in Lyly, The Woman in the Moone, II. i: "when Iuno was in presence here," and Jonson, Silent Woman, Iv. ii: "here be in presence have tasted of her favour."

King. Nothing but well to thee, Thomas of Clarence.

How chance thou art not with the prince thy brother? 20
He loves thee, and thou dost neglect him, Thomas;
Thou hast a better place in his affection

Than all thy brothers: cherish it, my boy,
And noble offices thou mayst effect

Of mediation, after I am dead,

Between his greatness and thy other brethren :
Therefore omit him not; blunt not his love,
Nor lose the good advantage of his grace


By seeming cold or careless of his will;

For he is gracious, if he be observed:

He hath a tear for pity, and a hand

Open as day for melting charity:


Yet notwithstanding, being incensed, he's flint,
As humorous as winter, and as sudden
As flaws congealed in the spring of day.

32. melting] meeting Q.

20. How chance ] A quasi-adverbial use of the vb. "chance": "how comes it that," as in King Lear, II. iv. 64.

21. He loves neglect] Cf. Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy, ii: "The prince loves her well: If she neglect him and forego his love, She both will wrong her own estate and ours."

27. omit] neglect, disregard.

30. observed] humoured. Cf. Jonson, Sejanus, I. i: "Be hot and cold with him; change every mood often as he varies; Observe him, as his watch observes his clock"; and Beaumont and Fletcher, The Custom of the Country, IV. iii: "observe her well, and fit her temper."

31, 32. He... charity] Contrarily in Thomas, Lord Cromwell, 11. ii: "An eye that knowes not how to shed a teare, A hand that 's alwaies open for reward." Open as day, liberal as daylight; for "day," cf. 2 Henry VI. 1. i. 107. Melting, tender, commiserating all in distress (cf. 1 Henry IV. II. iv. 121, and Othello, v. ii. 348). BoswellStone retains Q meeting, and explains: "meeting the need of charity, giving alms."

33. he's flint] he 's hard as flint. Cf. Lyly, The Woman in the Moone, IV. i: "these passionate lines, Which, if he

33. he's] he is Q.


be not flint, will make him come."
Vaughan paraphrases: "he breaks out
in angry and transient sparks like a
flint"; cf. Julius Cæsar, Iv. iii. 110.
34. humorous
winter] full of
caprices as a winter's day. Cf. Jonson,
The Fox, II. i: "humorous as April
(cf. Two Gentlemen of Verona, i. iii.
85-87), and Cynthia's Revels, 11. i:
"humorous as the air, she 'll run from
gallant to gallant."

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34, 35. sudden ... day] Cf. [H. Glapthorne], Revenge for Honour, III. i: "tempests, Sudden and boisterous." Flaws, squalls, sudden gusts of wind, as in Coriolanus, v. iii. 74: "a great seamark, standing every flaw.' Cf. also Greene, Orlando Furioso, 1. i: "dangerous flawes"; Jonson, The Case is Altered, m. i: "Northern gust, or Southern flaw"; Fletcher, The Humourous Lieutenant, 1. i: “a flaw of wind"; and Beaumont and Fletcher, The Pilgrim, III. vi. Warburton saw in line 35 an allusion to "the opinion of some philosophers that the vapours being congealed in the air by the cold (which is most intense in the morning), and being afterwards rarified and let loose by the warmth of the sun, occasion those sudden and impetuous gusts of wind which are called flaws.” See also a passage from Florio, The

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