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has done the grounds of inquiry, on any word, pretending to be the true any one topic whatsoever, and by solution, and which do concur in this means to free it in a great mea the instance before us. sure from perplexity.
Ist. It must be the name of a It will be known to many of our MAN : for the name and the number readers, that Irenæus, one of the carly are evidently used interchangeably Greek fathers,* mentions in his work in the text : “no man might buy or on heresies, (lib. v. cap. xxx,) three ' sell, save he that had the mark, or different words from among many the name of the beast, or the num which were advanced by others; • ber of his name. Here is wisdom : each of which words made (accord- • let him that hath understanding ing to the Greek method of com • count the number of the beast, for puting them by the numerical value it is the number of a man, &c.” i.e. of the letters thereof,) the number —the name is the proper name of a 666. They are Ευανθας, Λατεινος man, and the number therefore anand Tειταν. The former Irenaeus swers to the number of a man, or a dismisses as scarcely worthy of no
proper name. This Mr. Rabtice : the two last he regards with ett shews to be the case in the insome complacency. On account of stance before us, since Latinus was certain peculiarities in the word it- king of Latium or Italy, and founder self, he seems to incline most to of the ancient kingdom of the Latins, Terav; but Aareivos is, he says, very called after his name Latium, and likely to be the true one, “because afterwards Rome, whence came the they were Latins who reigned in his Latin name, race and language. time.” In his ready application of 2dly. He contends that this name it to the Roman empire, he seems to should be written and calculated in consider it as understood generally, Greek. One reason assigned by our that that was the kingdom symbol- author is, the fact, that all the three ized by the beast of the Apocalypse; instances adduced by Irenæus are though he seems rather to depre- Greek ; but this is not conclusive cate such an application, and even
For Irenæus, being himthe inquiry itself, until the kingdom self a Greek, would naturally, if he should first be broken up and di were not guided by any fixed prinvided into ten parts.t
ciple, write in his own language. It is the name Aatelyog then, It shews indeed what was the prewhich Mr. Rabett advocates, and vailing notion in the church on this lays down in the course of his dis- head; but even this not conclusively, quisition certain principles, derived unless we had names instanced by from the text of Scripture, which he theological writers of other nations considers must necessarily meet in also written in Greek. Mr. Rabett
* He was Bishop of Lyons about A.D. 171. He speaks of Polycarp as having been a hearer of St. John, and himself as a hearer of Polycarp ; and as having received from that father many of the sayings of St. John himself.
of The manner in which Irenæus passes from the consideration of lateivos, after baving approved it to a certain extent, is very singular, and looks as if he had been influenced by the prudential consideration, not needlessly to provoke the wrath of the powers that be upon a subject that was involved in so much obscurity. For after his “ valde verisimile est, quoniam novissum Regnum hoc habet vocabulum : Latini enim sunt qui nunc regnant :" he abruptly adds—sed non in hoc nos gloriabimur. And then he passes on to the word Tɛitav and approves it, because it has six letters only, and each syllable three letters ; and because none of their kings had borne the name of Teitan, and for various other equally unsatisfactory reasons.
seems to think the circumstance, and it appears to us to be the only that Irenæus was one of the Greek question of any moment, so far as fathers, is in favor of his hypothesis: this name is concerned. The papists, we deem the contrary to be the case; having been pressed by it as a proof - we should attach more weight to
that the Latin Church is the aposhis authority on this point, had he tasy described in the Apocalypse, been a Roman, and whilst writing in Bellarmine objected that it was inLatin, had nevertheless brought for correct to write it Lateinos, with ward these three names in Greek. the diphthong el, and that it ought That which would decide us in this rather to be written Latinos.t Dr. matter is the fact, that the Apoca- Adam Clarke has recently advocated lypse was itself originally written in the same side of the question, for Greek, and that the Greek has ever the purpose of establishing his own been the standard of reference (so theory in its place; and has brought far as the New Testament is con forward the authority of Hesiod, cerned) among critics, throughout Polybius, Dionysius of Halicarnasthe Christian Church. Moreover the sus, Strabo, Plutarch, Dio Cassius, farther circumstance adduced by Mr. Photius, and the Byzantine HistoriR. that in this instance the number ans. But Mr. Rabett contends that is by St. John not written in full the question is, not whether the perlength, (as is usual with other num sons here set in array by Dr. Clarke bers,) but in Greek numeral letters, used the εl; but whether it was acthus-xs, points out the Greek knowledged as a legitimate mode of most explicitly, as the language by writing the circumflexed i among the numeral characters of which it the ancient Greeks or Romans in the is to be calculated.* And if it is to names of men ;-whether in fact it be counted in Greek numeral letters, was genuine orthography in the time it must be spelt in Greek letters, for it of Irenæus. We would illustrate would be contradictory and absurd this view of the question by a paralto write the name in Greek and cal lel case in our own times. The culate by Roman numerals, or to verb to waive, when signifying to write it in Latin and calculate it by put off or defer, is often found used Greek numerals : for neither indeed by modern authors of good style would there be letters and numerals and correct orthography written as to correspond in some instances. above, with the diphthong ai ; and The word Lateinos is claimed by it is likewise found in many modern Mr. Rabett to be of Greek ortho writers spelt wave. Now the latter graphy (though this is by some dis- authorities, if produced against the puted, as will presently be seen :) former mode of writing it at a thouand it is evident to those acquainted sand years distance, would be no with the subject, that Irenæus cal- proof that it was not also a received culates this, as also the two other mode of writing it in the present examples, in Greek numerals.
day : and the same argument would
apply to many other words which 30, 1, 300, 5, 10, 50, 70, 200. are variously written, and that by
We must return however to the accomplished scholars. orthography, for that is disputed; To meet this question then Mr.
* The number 666 does itself occur twice in the Septuagint, (Ezra 11. 13 and 1 Kings x. 14,) and is written both times at full length, egakoola žšykovta č.
+ Latinus is out of the question in this argument, as that would be writing it with a Latin termination instead of a Greek.
Rabett first adduces arguments of a νος, and Λατεινος in Ireneus. “That presumptive character : viz. that which custom therefore hath estabIrenæus should, in two examples lished (continues Scaliger,) not only out of three, give instances of this is it no fault to write it so, but it orthography (as Lateinos for Lati would appear necessary to make it nos, Teitan for Titan,) and yet give so.”a no note or intimation whatsoever But of evidence to the use of that he is deviating from the ordi- the diphthong e in place of the i nary usage; which is hardly to be Mr. Rabett adduces an overwhelmaccounted for, if he considered that ing mass; not only proving the prohis orthography was liable to be priety of its use before the letter v, challenged. Candour however ob as mentioned by Scaliger, but before liges us to avow, that there is some other letters also, of which we have thing like a remote intimation in already had an instance in the word Irenæus, in regard to the word tel
He instances Eusebius liketav that it was more commonly spelt wise spelling the name of Irenæus, Titan; for when he first instances Elpevalos. He gives various examit, he says—“ Sed et TEITAN, prima ples from Varro, Plautus, and Lusyllaba per duas Græcas vocales, ε et 1, cilius; and quotes Scapula declaring scripta, omnium nominum quæ apud the practice to have been common nos inveniuntur, magis fide dignum in the time of Cicero. He cites also est.”
At the same time, he gives Hubert Goltzius, who in his Theno such notice in regard to LATEI saurus rei Antiquariæ has numerous Nos, and as he propounds both names instances of Greek inscriptions from with modesty, and not at all with the medals of the Roman emperors the air and dogmatical spirit of one and their wives, among which may who is anxious to establish a favour be instanced, by way of example, ite hypothesis, it is but fair to admit, Σαβεινα, Αλβεινος, Κωνσταντινος, that it was a mode of orthography (the C being used in all instances which was in common use, and instead of the E :) and he quotes his which he had no reason to expect author as explaining, at page 284 of would be objected to.
his work, “that εl (in these inscripOf direct proof of the legitimate use tions) is put for i, as eidus for idus of this orthography Mr. Rabett brings leibertas for libertas, and many oforward Ennius, lib. VI. 26, (who thers.” And finally the Sieur A. had previously been quoted in the de la Motraye, in his Voyage to the matter by Dr. H. More and Bp. Chersonesus and Adrianople, has also Newton,) who uses the identical instanced on the medals of Antoniword Lateinos. This is the only nus and Faustina, the use of the el instance in the use of the word it for cob This is surely evidence sufself, unless we except Irenæus, al. ficient to satisfy any dispassionate leged by Scaliger ;* whom Mr. inquirer of the legitimacy, (not to Rabett quotes as stating, that the say with Scaliger, the necessity) of Greeks write the letter iota with the writing ateivos, in the manner diphthong el when they pronounce given by Irenæus. it before an v, as AVTWVELVOS, Sabel 3rdly. Mr. Rabett lays it down
* The word Latineis used instead of Latinis, of which examples are given by Mr. Rabett, we do not consider proofs of the use of the actual word Lateinos ; because it is evident that in the nominative singular the same would be Latinos or Latinus,
a Scaliger Animad. ad Chron. Euseb. 106.
as a principle, that the number must distinguishing name of their church be 666 and no other. This, if we and empire; they have canonized consult our authorized version, ap- the Latin language at the Council of pears to require no comment. But Trent for the use of the whole church, there exists a solitary instance to the in lien of the Italian, which is the contrary, in the Codices of Petavius, vernacular tongue of Italy ;— they a French Jesuit, which was adduced allow no exercise of religion but in by Archbishop Laud, and is revived Latin ; and the pope still considers in the present day by Professor Lee, himself as the head of the Latins. among some other obsolete mon Leaving now this particular name strosities brought forward again by with the reader, for his own consithat learned writer.—The manu deration, we pass on to notice some script alluded to has xes', or 616. few of the other names that have The thing does not appear to us appeared, and to shew how they are worthy of any serious notice. There affected by the application of the is scarcely a passage of Scripture principles here adduced. existing, of which a various reading Almost all, then, that have been may not be found in some manu advanced fail in some one or more of script or other, through the careless the particulars that have been here ness, fraud or ignorance of tran- assigned. For example, such names scribers ; but if a generally received as Amosatns, suggested by Mr. Fareading is to be questioned, because ber, and n Aativn Bagideia, by Dr. some solitary instance of a different Clarke, do not contain the proper one, and that of comparatively late name of a man. Such words as date, can be raked up, we must bid LVDOVICVS and NAPOLEON farewell to the idea of ever having are names of men, but they are neiany truth of Scripture established ther written in Greek, nor calculated on a certain basis. All the best and in Greek numerals, nor are they earliest Greek Testament manu names of kingdoms. The square scripts have it χξς".
root suggested by Mr. Potter, and 4th. We would beg to add, that so much lauded by Mede, (viz. 25.) in our opinion the name of the beast is objectionable on every account; should not only answer to the num for it does not answer to the number ber of a man, but also to the number of the name, nor to any one requiof a kingdom : for it is the number site of the Scriptures ; nor is it of the beast likewise ; and the beast strictly the root of 666, leaving as is evidently, from his numerous horns it does a residue of 41: the number and crowns a kingdom or empire. 26 would have been nearer as a root It is the same apparently as the beast than 25. And once more, the word of Dan. vii, and that is explained to Maoueriç has not a Greek terminasignify a kingdom.
tion, and is in other respects incorIt is needless to add, that in both rectly spelt, as has been amply shewn the two last particulars the name by Mr. Faber. Λατεινος corresponds with what is The word amosatns however, adrequired.—And as the word itself vanced by the latter writer, and reanswers to the terms or principles cently contended for by him in a laid down; so - Mr. Rabett justly separate treatise called “Recapituobserves, that the papal kingdom lated Apostasy," is worthy of further has proved itself to be signally Latin. observation, on account of the name The popes and their coadjutors have of Mr. Faber having influenced others adopted the epithet Roman as the to adopt it, and because it is like
wise adopted by Papists and applied it were usual to make use of any of by them to Protestants. And in the numerous stenographical conaddition to the exception just taken tractions of the letters of the Greek against it, the very circumstance that alphabet for numerals, we should it is a word frequently applied to meet with other instances besides deserters from any communion, de- that of s. prives it at once of that clear and Mr Faber is therefore in a comexplicit character, which one would plicated dilemma. If he writes it expect to find in a mark that is to or he makes the number 1160. If distinguish the kingdom of the beast he uses the contraction without the from all others. The word AATELVOS mark, it is after all no other than or: is certainly free from this vagueness ;
unless Mr. F. would maintain that as it cannot apply to any but those s is at the same time equal to of who are members of the Latin church. and not equal to it. If he puts the
Mr. Rabett however brings an mark over it, he makes it an episeobjection against the word which mon, and not a letter ; which would appears to us entirely destructive of be as absurd as to use in English its pretensions :-viz. that when it the cypher 0, for the letter (), or is correctly written, its number is the figure 1, for the letter I, merenot 666. To make it this number ly because there is a resemblance beMr. Faber does not write it with the tween them. And farther, if the mark letters or but with the contraction s. be omitted, and left to the reader to This latter character Mr. R. con supply, he might chuse to place it tends is not a numeral, but nothing beneath instead of above, when inmore than a ligature or contraction : stead of 6 it would signify 6000. that to make it a numeral there must Such is the substance of Mr Rabett's at least be the mark over it, thus s', Treatise : and we repeat, that he in which form it is incapable of ex has rendered service by his work, pansion into the letters or. This if it only tends to free the subject does not strike us as a valid argu in any measure from obscurity, and ment; because all the letters of the to shew, that it is not every plausiGreek alphabet, when used as nu ble conceit, which a writer may merals, have a mark over them or choose to bring forward, that has under them; and it may as well really a pretension to be considered. therefore be objected to the first letter in the word, a, that it should be (2.) The time of the End.-A written a'. We attach more weight charge delivered to the Clergy of the to his assertion, that the episemon Archdeaconry of Ely, at a Visitas is not a contraction of or, but is tion held in the Parish Church of derived from the double rr or F St. Michael's, Cambridge, May 19, written s; and that it has no other 1835, by the Rev. J. H. BROWNE, power
but the denotation of quan M. A. Archdeacon of Ely. tity, any more than two other char London: Hatchards, 8vo. pp. 114. acters used as numerals, viz. KOTTA We have always felt persuaded and σανπι.
These are never met in our own minds, that if we were with other than as numerals and in really approaching to that great and calculations; and Mr. Rabett there- awful crisis foretold in Scripture fore argues,
that had it been cus as immediately to precede the comtomary for the Greeks to make use ing of the Lord, the signs of that criof an episemon as a letter, we should sis given in the word of God would meet with examples of the other two thicken around us, and become more in words ; and if, on the other hand, distinct as the “ day of clouds” drew