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man has that son born to him.* This tion shall have passed away, and anunder usual circumstances and in other come.” (Eccl. 1. 4.) settled countries has been found to How soon this passing away of a be about 30 years. And hence, in generation shall take place must dethe want of more accurate chrono- pend on two things,-the length of logical data, use has been made of human life (which from soon after genealogical tables of this kind, and Joshua's time has been pretty much the length of an historical period ap the same as now) and the actual age of proximated to by the multiplication the generation at the time when the of the number of yeveal into 30 question is taken up concerning it. years.—For instance, in Matt. I. Take first the case of that genera17 we read that there were from tion of Israelites on which the senDavid to the Babylonish captivity tence was pronouncedat Kadesh Bar14 generations. As this was in the nea, that they should all perish in succession of eldest sonst the rule of the wilderness. The age of man calculation is applicable ; and, sup- might be thought from Moses' Psalm posing all the generations to have to have been then, for the most part, been specified by the Evangelist, nearly the same as now. # If so, in we might consider 14 x 30 or 420 about 80 or 90 years (say 85) from years as an approximation to the birth, or 65 from the passing of the true term of years included. In ef. sentence on them,—the generation fect three generations (viz. of Azar- then twenty years old might(together iah, Joash, Amaziah,) are omitted by with those older than themselves) him in his brief summary. The true have been expected, in the natural number, therefore, is 17; giving 17 course of things, to pass away. It x 30 or 510 as the term of years was by the direct intervention of a jufrom David to Jehoiakim,-a term dicial providence that that period differing but a little from the true. was shortened from 65 to 38 years.
But when the chronological term Again, take that passage from to be inquired into is defined, not Judges 11. 7—10, on which depends by a succession of generations, but the contested chronology of the in: by the passing away of any particular terregnum between Joshua's death generation, then the question will be, and Israel's first apostasy and sernot at what time the generation spo- vitude. “ Israel served the Lord all ken of may have given birth to a ge ' the days of Joshua, and all the neration of sons to succeed them, • the days of the elders that overlived but (just as in a tontine of cotem Joshua who had seen all the great poraries) at what time they will all works of the Lord which he did themselves have died off ;—when, as ' for Israel. But Joshua died, and the wise man says,
also all that generation were gather* i.e. The yevɛa “à sementi in sementem.” | Censorinus apud Larcher, Herod. vol. vii.
p In the two other fourteens mentioned in this verse of St. Matthew the rule is not applicable, because neither in the one nor the other,—the line from Abraham to David, nor the line from the Captivity to Christ, is the succession that of eldest sons. less than four cases of the first fourteen (Boaz, Obed, Jesse, David,) the sons specified were the sons of their fathers' extreme old age. (See Whitby.) Hence a vastly greater length to the chronological period than 14 x 30 years.—The tables chiefly applied in this way in early profane history are tables of kings, and consequently, for the most part, of eldest sons.
I This is, however, doubtful. It seems most probable to me that the statement at v. 10 of this Psalm has reference to the premature old age of the Israelites then living under the withering influence of God's anger. Soon after Joshua's time life seems to have been generally abbreviated.
" One genera
al to their fathers, and there arose N. B. May I be allowed to menanother generation." ('omparing tion two misprints of consequence the first verse of this passage with in the paper alluded to, both of them Deut, 11, 3, 4, it would seem that the at p. 335.-At line 15 there should miracles in Egypt and against Pha- be read 6th, 8th, and 9th for 5th, raoh were comprehended in “ all the 7th, and 9th : also in the Table of great works” spoken of as witness- post-diluvian patriarchs, the Lxx ed and to be testified to by these should head the third column of elders. Now, in order to their figures, Josephus the fourth. being competent witnesses on the subject, we cannot suppose them of less than 12 or 15 years old at the A Correspondent has also in a time of those miracles. Consequent private communication favoured us ly, the natural time of that generation with hint” comfirmatory of the passing away would be in about (85 above view of our Correspondent E: – 15) or 70 years from the Exodus, it having always (he says) appeared i. e. 30 from Moses' death and the to him, that the true meaning of entrance into the land of Canaan. û yevka uútn (Luke xxi. 22,) wasMr. Clinton, by approximation, “ This generation, of which I am makes it 27 from the death of speaking ; not in which I am living." Moses.
We shall give it in his words. As regards the passage under con “ In Luke xvii. 34, we read tavsideration it will be observed that
τη τη νυκτι, κ. τ. λ. Here it is so the αυτη η γενεα of the Evangelist evident that the words relate to some is designated simply as the genera future night of which our Lord tion in existence at the commence was speaking, and not to the night ment of the shaking of the nations, which was to commence at the close not as being then of competent age of the day in which these words (as in the last example) to witness were spoken, that our Translators to the shaking. We may therefore have properly rendered the passage suppose it at the time of the French • In that night.” No change of acRevolution to have but recently cents even is therefore necessary to come into existence; and, conse justify— " that generation shall not quently, that in about 85 years from pass away &c:"i. e. the generation that time, i.e. in 1875 or there of men, whenever it be, that sees about, it would be likely in the the commencement of the signs, will course of nature to have passed a assuredly see the end of them. Inway. This seems the chronological dividuals may die in the midst of limit given us. As was observed in their generation : but some of those my former paper, it is before that then living shall be also among the generation shall have passed away, quick at the Second Advent. If that and while there are still a few sep time be, as many suppose, one of tuagenarian and octogenarian sur unparalleled tribulation, the consivivors from it, that the consum deration that the time is short will mation of the prophecy is to be ex be most valuable.” pected. E.
Keprints and Ertracts.
SIX PROPHETICAL SERMONS-BY J. GILL, D.D.
Preached in Great Eastcheap, 1750–5. Under this head we purpose to bring forward interesting passages from the works of scarce and approved authors, and sometimes (as in the present instance) to give a condensed summary of an entire work.
We begin with the Six Prophetical Sermons of the eminent Dr. Gill. Some things therein would now be placed by us in a somewhat different position ; and frequently we think he takes in a mystical sense passages which will ultimately have a literal fulfilment; but they contain nevertheless much which we are persuaded will be read with interest in the present day; especially when it is remembered, that he wrote of France prior to the bursting out of the Revolution, and of the Turk when he was in the zenith of his power.
At the same time we must be understood as placing these, and other things to be brought forward, before the Reader, not as concurring in all that an author may state, but because we think the sentiments of the earlier eminent Expositors ought to be known.
The circumstance which gave rise to them was an annual Sermon, appointed by Dissenters of different denominations to be preached at Eastcheap, in order to revive the attention of Christians toward Prophecy ; and some prophetical subject was consequently taken by the minister on these occasions.
sented as in a wilderness sitting upon ISAIAH, xxi. 11, 12. The burden many waters ; whose destruction will of Dumah. He called to me out of be by the lion of the tribe of Judah, Seir, 'Watchman, what of the night and is expressed in the self same -The Watchman said, “The morn words. Compare vv. 1, 8, 9, 10, ing cometh, and also the night : If with Rev. xvii. 1, 3, 5; xix. 11ye will enquire, enquire ye-return- 20; and xviii. 2, 4. come.'
The Burden, DUMAH, some think First he notices the context: that respects the Dumean Arabians, and the chapter begins with “ The Bur- others the Idumeans or Edomites.den (or Oracle] of the desert of the Dr. Gill decidedly thinks the latter sea, or plain of the sea.” This de. are intended;–1st because the Septuscribes Babylon, as named in v. 9. agint renders it—“ The vision of I. It was built on a plain, and in a wa dumea.” 2nd. The Arabic version calls tery place by the river Euphrates; it-" A prophecy concerning Edom and the Jewish writers call any con and Seir, 3rd. Because the
is out Auence of waters a sea. Its des of Seir which was the mount of the truction by the Medes and Persians Edomites. (Gen. XXXVI. 8.) 4th. Beis foretold ; (v. 2.) who are signified cause the next verses contain a disalso by a couple of horsemen. (v. 7.) tinct burden concerning Arabia. The The whole may be accommodated prophecy may refer therefore to the to mystical Babylon; who is repre time when Edom and Seir should No. 2 New Series. (Vol. v. No. 44.)
be a possession for his enemies; ters. Moreover he considers it the
but also under the Jewish dispensaHe then discusses the subject un tion, which consisted in obscure der the following heads : I. Who is shadows and types. (Cant. iv. 6,) the Watchman : II.—The question There were indeed stars to give twice put to him ; III. The direct light, viz. the prophets and ministers reply ; IV. The exhortation added. of the word ; and the word itself
I. By the term Watchman Dr. Gill was a lamp for the feet; yet the supposes a prophet or minister of the day spring from on high,' - the word to be signified; for Isaiah, bright and morning star,'— the sun Jeremiah and Ezekiel are each of of righteousness,' had not yet risen ; them called Watchmen—and minis. and the church was looking for him ters in general are so called in Cant.
a light to lighten the III. 3, 7; Isa. lII. 8; LXII. 6. He Gentiles, and to be the glory of his conceives the four living creatures people Israel.” in Rev. iv. 6, 8, who are full of eyes, He considers, that it might respect to be emblems of the gospel minis- this night ; and states that there
* Josepbus, Lib. XIII. Chap. IX. sect. 1. + In Loco,
to come as
were several prophecies which point of the light which then arose. But ed to the time of Christ's coming, night followed very quickly to the and served to direct the answer: e.g. Jews, who loved darkness rather Judah was not to cease to be a tribe, than light, and with whom the night and the second temple was not to has therefore judicially remained be destroyed, till Messiah should ever since. And after the time of come (Gen. xlix. 10; Mal. 111. 1.) Constantine night came upon the Hints were given by the prophets, Gentile world, being led on by Mathat he was coming (Isa. xxxv. 4; homet in the east, and by the man Hab. i1. 1, 3; Zech. ix. 9.) And of sin (whon he considers to be the Daniel fixes the very time of his Romish Antichrist,) in the west. This coming-viz. seventy prophetical state of things he thinks is repreweeks, or four hundred and ninety sented by the Church of Thyatira. years, from a date which he gives. (Rev. 11. 20—24.) But with the Re* By these hints of the watchmen, formation another morning appear. ' and especially the last, the people ed, expressed by the morning star' • knew what time of night it was, (v. 29,) promised to those in Thyati• and how long it would be to the ra who overcame; and this, brought coming of the Messiah, and lived on the Sardian church state, In in expectation of it. R. Nehumiah, process of time however the Refor• that lived about fifty years before mation went backwards instead of 'the coming of Christ, gave out that forwards ; things had been declining ' the time of the Messiah signified by down to his own times, at which Daniel could not be protracted lon- period he considered that a night ger than those fifty years; and about was coming; for a sleepy spirit had • the time he did come we find that seized ministers and churches, which ' there was, among the people of the he anticipated would end in a gen* Jews, a general expectation of him: eral forsaking of God's house, and 'good old Simeon was waiting for of Gospel ministers ; so that even ' the consolation of Israel; and Anna professors would be shy of truly de• the prophetess spoke of him to voted ministers, neither hearing 'them that looked for redemption them, nor receiving them into their • in Jerusalem ; and when John the houses : and this he thinks is one • Baptist his forerunner appeared, all part of the meaning of the dead
the people were in expectation, bodies of the witnesses not being • and mused in their hearts whether suffered to be put into graves :-—viz. • he were the Christ or no.” (Luke that the light of the gospel will be II. 25, 28; and 111. 15.)
thus wholly withdrawn; and the III. In treating the watchman's witnesses will cease prophesying, answer to the question—The morn their testimony being finished. ing cometh, and also the night—he If asked the question, (he contiasserts, that there will be a constant nues,) Watchman, what of the night? revolution of night (or seasons of he would fix the time to be the end adversity and darkness) with morn of the Sardian church state ; the reing (or prosperity and light) unto formed churches having then only a the end of time.
name to live, and being dead in reThe first coming of Christ he con- gard to the life and power of true siders to be the morning principally religion ; though there were a few intended in the text: which he main among them, who had not defiled tains from 2 Sam. XXIII. 4; and their garments. Their times he Hos. VI. 3, and shews the progress thinks described by Zechariah xiv.