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nearly two hundred miles long, by which he joined the Rhine and Danube.*

By the above facts, it will be easy for us at one view to trace the boundary of the Roman Empire ; for if we start at the Straits of Gibraltar, and pass up the Atlantic coast to the English Channel, from thence we pass up on the west side of the British Isle, crossing at or near the Straits of Scotland, thence across the German Ocean to the mouth of the Rhine; we follow this river towards its source until we come to the wall built by Probus ; thence across to the Danube, until we come to the province of Dacia ; leaving the river we pass round Dacia on the north, until we come to the Black Sea ; crossing the Black Sea, we strike the mountains of Armenia, thence to the Euphrates ; passing down the Euphrates until we come to Arabia ; then running in a southerly direction to the Red Sea, including Syria ; crossing the Red Sea, we pass up between, or at the north of the Arabian and African deserts ; we include Egypt and all of Northern Africa to the Straits of Gibraltar.† Within these limits we are to look for the eleven kingdoms. Now, then, when we arrive in the history of the world where there are just “ter kingdoms” and “another,” answering to the description given in the prophecy on the old Roman territory, this will be the fulfilment. And, for convenience, let us at A.D. 500 look to see if these ten kingdoms had arisen.

1st. We may remark, that the Vandals entered

* Ibid. pp. 381, 383

+ Gib. vol i. p. 3.

Africa about A.D. 427-9, and were at this time in possession of a large portion of it.*

2d. The Suevi passed into Spain about A.D. 409, and established themselves in the western and northwestern part of that province.t

3d. The Visigoths established themselves in Spain A.D. 462-472, and in 584 extended their dominion over the whole peninsula. I

* Says Koch, "the Vandals and Alans passed into Africa, A.D. 427. Genseric” (king of the Vandals) “conquered in succession all that part of Africa pertaining to the Western Empire, from the Straits of Cadiz,” (about 65 miles northwest of Gibraltar,) "as far as Cyrenaica,” (the northeastern part of Tripoli,) “which was dependent on the Empire of the East. He subdued, likewise, the Balearic Isles, with Sardinia, Corsica, and a part of Sicily.” (Koch's Rev. in Eu. p. 47. Vide Kohlrausch’s History of Germany, p. 85.)

† " After having settled some years in Gaul, these tribes passed the Pyranees (409) to establish themselves in the most fertile regions of Spain. The Vandals seized Bætica, and a part of Gallicia ; the Suevi the rest of Gallicia, while the Alans took possession of Lusitania, and the province of Carthagenia. The Alans afterwards submitted to the sway of Gonderic, king of the Vandals (420); while the Suevi preserved their native Princes, who reigned in Gallicia and Lusitania, this latter province having been abandoned by the Vandals (427), when they passed into Africa." Koch's Rev. in Eu. vol. i. p. 46.

“ The Suevi remained in Spain, but became, by degrees, more and more pressed upon by the Goths, under Wallia and his suc. cessors, being soon limited to the northwestern portion of Spain and Portugal, and at last in the year 585, they were entirely united with the Westro Gothic kingdom. (Kohlrausch p. 85.)

The Visigoths, pressed by the Romans in Gaul, took the res. olution of carrying their arms beyond the Pyranees, under the conduct of their king Adolplius; they made themselves masters of the city of Barcelona, in 415. Euric, one of the successors

4th. The Angles and Saxons arrived in Britain, about A.D. 450, and established a kingdom.*

5th. The native islanders were driven into Wales, where they succeeded in maintaining their independence.t

6th. The Burgundians entered Gaul about 413, and subsequently established themselves in the eastern or southeastern part of Gaul on the Rhone. I

of this prince took from the Romans (472) all that yet remained of "their possession in Spain and Leovigild ; another of their kings completed the conquest of all that country, (584) by reducing the kingdom of the Suevi.” (Koch, vol. i. p. 46.)

*"In the middle of the fifth century, (449) the Angeli, Saxons, and Futi passed over into England.” (Kohl. His. of Ger. p. 85.) " A body of these Anglo-Saxons arrived in Britain (450) in the first year of the reign of the Emperor Marcian, under the command of Hengis and Horsa.” (Koch, vol. 1 p. 48.) | Rotteck, in speaking of the Britons, says;

“ As desperate as the situation of the natives ” (Britons) “ appeared, they summoned courage enough for a valiant defence, fought about 150 years, four times gloriously, but were finally exhausted against their savage enemies.” “They however maintained in the mountains of Cornwallis, until the middle of the tenth, and in Wales until the thirteenth century, their independent dominion.” (Rotteck, vol. ii. p. 70.)

" After a war of a hundred years, the independent Britons still occupied the western coast, from the wall of Antoninus, to the extreme promontory of Cornwall; and all the principal cities of the inland country still opposed the arms of the Barbarians.” (Gib. vol. iii. pp 620, 621. Vide Koch, vol. i. p. 48, and Humo vol. i. pp. 18, 19.)

“ The Burgundians, a people it would appear originally from the countries situated between the Oder and the Vistula, followed nearly in the track of the Visigoths; as we find them about 413 established on the upper Rhine, and in Switzerland. After the dissolution of the Empire, they succeeded in establishing them

7th. The Franks entered Gaul about 407, and subsequently became masters of the whole province.*

8th. Ostrogoths in Italy, A.D. 493.7

9th. The Gepidæ : this tribe established themselves in Dacia, on the death of Attila, A.D. 453.

selves in those parts of Gaul known by the names of the Sequanois, Lyonnois, Viennois, and Narbonnois, namely, in those Districts which formed, in course of time, the two Burgundies, the Prov. inces of Lyannois, Dauphiny and Provence on this side the Durance, Savoy, the Pays de Vaud, the Valais and Switzerland. These countries then assumed the name of the kingdom of the Burgundians.” (Koch, vol. i. pp. 44, 45.)

“ Southeastern France, Savoy and western Switzerland belonged now (476) to the Burgundians.” (Kohl. His. of Ger. p. 92.)

Burgundy became, with the preservation of its national laws, however, a Frankish Province,” (534). (Rotteck, vol. ii. p. 66.)

*"At length the Franks, having been repulsed in different ren: counters by the Romans, again passed the Rhine, (430) under the conduct of Clodion, their chief; made themselves masters of the greater part of Belgic Gaul, took possession of Tournay, Cambra and Amiens, and thus laid the foundation of the new kingdom of France in Gaul.” (Koch, vol. i. p. 45.)

“On the lower Rhine, on the Maas and the Scheldt, as far as the Netherlands, and in the north of France, dwelt (476) tho branches of the Franks.” (Kohl. His. of Ger. p. 91.)

t"We have seen the foundation of this kingdom" (Ostrogothic) " in Italy by the great Theodoric" (493). (Rott. vol. ii. p. 56.)

“Theodoric broke up with his nation in the year 488, pressed through the passes of Italy, and encountered Odoacer near Aquileja and Verona. Qdoacer was a third time defeated near the Adda, after his own city, Rome, had shut its gates against him; and for three years he was beseiged in Ravenna, until in the year 493, he was at last forced to yield, and his lands fell into the hands of Theodoric, by whom he was killed.” (Kohl. His. of Ger. p. 97. (Vide Koch, vol. i. p. 49.) † “ The valiant and prudent Ardaric had extended the dominion of the last nation, (Gepidæ,) after the death of Attila, over Pannonia and Dacia. This kingdom flourished one hundred years." (Rott. vol. ii. p. 49.)

10th. Alemanni : they invaded that part of Gaul known since under the name of Alsace, the Palatinate, Mayence, etc., and extended their conquests over Rhetia. *

These ten kingdoms were all in existence in 520; and occupied Gaul, Spain, Britain, Africa, Italy, Dacia, and the territory north of Italy. The above, together with Popery in its civil form, constitute the eleven kingdoms,- or the "ten kingdomsand “another."

“ Subsequently they" (the Gepidæ) "joined the numerous hosts of Attila ; and after his death,” (A.D. 451-455,)“ they settled in Dacia, on the banks of the Danube.” (Smith's Clas. Dic. p. 325. Vide Koch, vol. i. p. 50.)

*“Upon the destruction of the Western Empire, 476, the Aleman's subdued that part of Gaul, which is now known by the name of Alsace, where they settled.” (An. Univ. His. vol. xvii. p. 299. Vide Ash, p. 132.)

“ The Alemans and their neighbors, the Swabians, occupied along with the Bavarians, the greater part of what is called Upper Germany, on both sides of the Danube, as far as the Alps.” (Koch, vol. i. p. 51.) • Clovis took from the Alemans a part of their territories'

“they retained, however, under their hereditary chiefs, Alsace, with the Districts situated beyond the Rhine.” “ Clovis left the Alemans, after their defeat, a considerable part of their territories under the hereditary chiefs, who acknowledged the superiority of the Frankish kings.” Those of the Alemans who dwelt in Rhetia and Noricum, were under the protection of the Ostrogoths, until A.D. 536, when their possessions were ceded to the Franks. They were, however, a distinct kingdom, al. though tributary to the Franks, until their signal defeat in A.D. 554. (Vide Koch, vol. ii. pp. 374-376.)

+ See map at the close of the book.

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