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do not at all disagree with that idea of a demoniac, which we before endeavoured to establish, which is that of a perfon under an alienation of mind, or disorder of understanding, proceeding, or originally thought to proceed, from the poffeffion of demons.

The learned writer farther appeals to paralytical cafes, in fupport of his hypothefis. But paralytics are never spoken of in the Gospel as demoniacs. Nay, the Gospel exprefly diftinguishes palfies from poffeffions. Dr. Lardner likewife preffes into the service two paffages


above, p. 107, 108, 109. He had a fpirit that was not only dumb, like the perfons whofe cafe we are confidering, but deaf alfo. With regard to this last circumftance, it may be obferved, that if the pituitous humour falling upon the optic nerves occafions blindness, as the most learned phyficians tell us it will; the fame humour falling upon the auditory nerves may occafion deafnefs.


b P. 98.

Mat. iv. 24, cited above, p. 64.
P. 58, 59.

which have been already explained; that which speaks of a woman whom Satan bound; and that which defcribes all difeafed perfons as oppressed by the devil. With regard to both these paffages, it has been fhewn, that a diftinction should be made between diforders which the Jews confidered as inflicted by evil fpirits, and fuch as they afcribed to evil spirits poffeff ing mankind. Diseased persons in general were thought to fuffer under the power of evil fpirits; but thofe only were thought to be poffeffed, whom evil spirits entered and actuated, occupying the feat of the human foul, and performing its various functions. If poffeffion was common to all the diseased, it could not have been employed, in the manner it is in the New Testament, to distinguish one sort of diseased persons from another.

We have now examined all Dr. Lardner's objections to the account we have

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given of the Gofpel demoniacs. And if he (who was fo well acquainted with the fubject) did not think it liable to any other, we may prefume no other can be raised against it.

I fhall close this fection with obferving, 1. That what hath been here offered, confirms what was before advanced to prove, that demoniacs laboured under real and violent diforders. Such, it will be allowed, epilepfies and madness are.

2. From the foregoing account of the Gospel demoniacs, it alfo appears, upon what grounds poffeffions might be diftinguished from difeafes in general, and from lunacies in particular.

It hath been fhewn, that, on feveral occafions, the New Teftament includes poffeffions under the general terms, fickneffes and difeafes; and confequently confiders them as one particular fpecies of them.

f Sect. iv. • P. 65.


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At other times, it distinguishes poffeffions from diseases in general, in conformity to the popular language, which it adopted on this fubject, for reafons that will be explained hereafter. Those who first introduced this language.confidered poffeffions as diftinct from every kind of diseases; for, while the latter implied fome diforder in the corporeal fyftem, the former, in their opinion, fuppofed the corporeal fyftem, however found in itself, to be actuated and over-ruled by a fuperior agent.

But to fome it seems ftrange, that poffeffions, if they import madness, should be distinguished from lunacies. That the New Testament doth distinguish between them, I readily allow1; and it is not without reason, that a learned writer blames

See below, chap. II. fect. iii.

1 Matt. iv. 24.

Dr. Warburton, Serm. vol. iii. p. 224, 225. Some expreffions of Dr. Sykes, against whom the bishop's fèrmon is particularly levelled, feem to have given occafion to the cenfure of this learned writer. 1 4


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those who confound them together. But the anti-demonift is under no neceffity of doing this. In order to understand this matter, it is necessary to examine the sentiments of antiquity concerning it; for the evangelifts have not delivered any new fyftem of phyfics, but on fuch fubjects followed the modes of fpeaking then in ufe. Now it was the general opinion of antiquity, that fome diseases are owing to the influence of the celestial bodies; and that the paroxyfms and periods of others are regulated by the moon in particular'. This was the cafe more efpecially with respect to epileptic difeafes, the fits of which, it was affirmed, conftantly returned every new and full moon. Galen says, the moon governs the periods of epileptic cafes and others referred the disease



1 Dr. Mead's Treatife concerning the Influence of the Sun and Moon upon human Bodies, and the Diseases thereby produced, p. 1, 2,

De Diebus criticis, 1. iii, cited by Mead, p. 38.


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