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Prop. II. By demons, whenever the word occurs in reference to poffeffions, either in the Scriptures, or other ancient writings, we are to understand, not fallen angels, but the Pagan deities, fuch of them as had once been men.

E have elsewhere" examined the
meaning of demons, when applied
to the objects of popular worship in the
Heathen world; and fhewn from the
united teftimony of Pagans and Jews;
from the authors of the Septuagint verfion
of the Old Testament, and from the
writers of the New, that we are hereby
to understand fuch human fpirits as fu-
perftition deified. We are now to in-
quire, whether the word be not used in
the fame fenfe by all the ancients, when
they speak upon the fubject of Pos-


Differt. on Mir. ch. iii. fect. 2.

C 3

I. With

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I. With regard to the Heathens, it is well known, that they advanced human spirits to the rank of gods and demons; and that they judged them capable of entering the bodies of mankind, and of producing phrenfy and distraction, which, as will be shewn below, was regarded as the most usual effect of demoniacal poffeffion. Prophefying amongst the Heathens was attended with rage and madness *. Almost all their oracles belonged to that species of divination which was by fury, fuch as was imputed to the power and prefence of their gods. And that these gods were deified men, appears from the oracles of Jupiter, the chief of all the prophetic divinities; of Apollo,


*Not only the Pythia at Delphi, but the Sibyls alfo. fwelled with rage, and were befide themfelves. See Virgil. Æn. vi. 77. Quid vero habet auctoritatis furor ifte quem divinum vocatis, ut, quæ fapiens non videat, ea videat infanus ; & is, qui humanos fenfus amiferit, divinos affecutus fit ? Cicer. de Divinat. lib. ii. cap. 54


who, next to Jupiter, excelled most in the faculty of inspiring predictions, and who had a celebrated temple at Delos, the reputed place of his birth; of Trophonius, Amphiaraus, and other men, who after death were tranflated to the gods.

The terms employed by the Greeks'; to defcribe perfons infpired, poffeffed, and

* They are called Stopéenlos, Afchyl. Agamemnon, v. 1149. Strabo, lib. xii. p. 535. D. ed. Paris. 1620. p. 809, ed. Amftelodami, 1707.--qua Sólo, Plutarch. de Herodot. malignitate, p. 855δαιμονιζόμενοι; (which fhews that the gods by whom these perfons were poffeffed were demons) Plutarch. Sympof. lib. vii. quæst. 5. prop. fin. Vide Plutarch. de Fluviis, p. rr59, ποιεῖ δὲ πρὸς τὰς δαιμονιζομένες. Lucian defcribes them by a fimilar word, Tos davalas, Philopfeudes, p. 337. v. 2. ed. Amftelodami. Concerning an exorcift it is

there faid, P. 338

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aúvel Tov daljicva, abigit dæmonem, Eupuxλex, from Euricles, fee He

• It may be worth while to inquire in what fenfe demon is used in this Dialogue of Lucian. Ion, after he had given an account of the perfon who caft out demons, adds, that he himself had feen one (that is, a demon) fo ejected. Many others as well as you, faid Eucrates, have met with demons



difordered in their understandings, ferve to shew, that the spirits by whom these perfons were thought to be actuated, were not fallen angels, but the gods the Heathens worshipped; particularly fsuch as

fychius, Suidas, or Vandale de Idolat. p. 648, 649. wółwves, Schol. in Aristophan. Vesp. 1014. p. 314. ed. Kufter. Plutarch de Orac. defect. p.. 414. E. Differt. on Miracles, p. 275.- Posbóanatos or Qabóλaulo, Plutarch. in Pompeio, & Herodot. lib. iv. p. 229. c. 13.-and ruμpóanalo,, Plato in Phæd. p. 1216. E. & p. 1218. F..

(dainos.) I have a thousand times feen fuch things. In proof. of this affertion, he affures the company, that he and his family had often seen the statue of Pelichus descending from his pedestal, and walking round the house, p. 338, 339. In the sequel of the dialogue, Eucrates, who had been defending the doctrine of apparitions, fays, We have been endea vouring to perfuade Tychiades, (who fuftains the character of of an unbeliever in these points,) that there are demons, (Saímovás Tivas Elvas,) and that the phantasms and souls of the dead wander upon the earth, and appear to whom they please, p. 、 346. To confirm this sentiment, Diognotus, the Pythagorean, bids Tychiades go to Corinth, where he might fee the very house from which he himself had expelled the demon (row~saica) that disturbed it, which was the ghost of a dead man, p. 348. Nor doth it appear, that the word demon, is in any part of the Dialogue, applied to any other than human fpi-` rits. The demoniacs therefore, of whom he speaks in this Dialogue, must be poffeffed by fuch fpirits. He uses demon in the fame sense on other occafions. "Easov ávaπaúsasba: TÈC To managiτy Saiμovas. Sine quiefcant defuncti manes. De Luctu, tom. ii. p. 307. In his Charon, five Contemplantes, v. 1.

were of human origin, or mere fictions of the imagination. This obfervation holds true alfo with refpect to the terms employed to defcribe the fame perfons by the Latins. We are indeed expressly informed by Hippocrates, that the Greeks referred poffeffion to their gods, particularly the mother of the gods, Neptune, Mars, Apollo, Hecate, and

They are called by the Latins, Lymphatici, Plin. Nat. Hift. lib. xxv. c. 5. p. 386, ed. Harduin. These anfwer to the vμpola of the Greeks. Veteres Græci Nympham dicebant, quam nos mutatione unius literæ Lympham, hoc eft, aquam, Calopin. Dictionar.--Bacchantes. Bacchæ bacchanti fi velis advorfarier, ex infanâ infaniorem facies. Plaut Amphit. A&t. ii.. fc. 2. v. 71. See Herodot, lib. iv. c. 79. & Curtius, viii. 33.Some perfons are defcribed by Pliny, (Nat. Hift. lib. xxx. c. 10. fect. 24.) as agitated a nocturnis diis, Faunifque. The Fauni were the gods of the

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358, he introduces Mercury as informing Charon, that men believed, that the fouls of the departed feafted upon the li bations and facrifices that were offered them; which is what he elsewhere, as well as others, affirms concerning demons. Πεπιτεύκασι δ ̓ ἦν τὰς ψυχὰς ἀναπέμπομένας, κ. τ. λ. Compare his Menippus feu Necyomantia, p. 328, 329.


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