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the heroes, who were all human spirits. The defign of his treatise on the Epilepsy is to fhew, that this disorder was neither more divine, nor facred than other diforders; in oppofition to priests, magicians, and impoftors, who referred it more immediately to the gods, and undertook to cure it by expiations and charms. And we are certain, that amongst the Latins, the fpirits that actuated the Cerriti and Larvati (who most exactly answered to the demoniacs of the New Teftament) were no other than deified human ghosts .

fields, and sprang from Faunus, the father of Latinus. Concerning the Cerriti and Larvati, see below, note (*).

2

* Vide p. 303. Oper. ed. Foefii, Genev. 1657. This paffage will be cited below, ch. ii. fect. 3. No 3•

D

Περί Ιηρης νοσο.

• Vide Hippocrat. Oper. p. 301, 302, 303, 307,

310.

d The Cerriti and Larvati. The Cerriti derived their names from Ceres, the daughter of Saturn. In Cereris facris furore corripiebantur.

Such

Such were the fentiments of the Heathens concerning poffeffing demons in

Et ficut à Baccho Bacchantem dicimus, fic a Cerere Cerritum. Calepini Dictionar.

"

As to the Larvati, lar aut lars eft Hetrufca vox. It fignifies a prince, or a lord; which laft word is fuppofed to be derived from lar. See Ainfworth and Littleton on this word. It was applied not only to their domeftic, but alfo to their celestial gods, the dii majorum gentium, who were all natives of this lower world; and answers to the word daewv. Quos Græci daíuovas, noftri, opinor, Lares. Cicer. in Timæo 3. That the demons of the Greeks were deified men and women, we have fhewn elfewhere. Arnobius, fays, Varro-nunc antiquorum fententias fequens larvas effe dicit lares, quafi quofdam genios & functorum animas mortuorum. Adv. Gentes, lib. iii. p. 124. A laribus larvæ. Larvæ gentibus erant mortuorutu animæ, quas aliter umbras vocabant. Vide Littleton.

The ghofts of the deceafed were diftinguished by different names, according to their different difpofitions and functions. The larvæ were confidered as mifchievous fpirits. What Apuleius fays on this fubject, in his book, De Deo Socratis, is as follows: Secundo fignatu fpecies damonum animus humanus, exutus & liber ftipendiis vitæ, corpore fuo abjuratis. Hunc vetere Latinâ

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every age; and particularly in that it
which the Gospel was firft published.
Strabo, who flourished in the time of

linguâ reperio Lemurem dictitatum. Ex his
ergo Lemuribus, qui, pofteriorum fuorum curam
fortitus, pacato & quieto numine domum poffi-
det, Lar dicitur familiaris. Qui verò, propter
adverfa vitæ merita, nullis bonis fedibus incertâ
vagatione, ceu quodam exilio, punitur, inane ter-
riculamentum bonis hominibus, cæterùm noxium
malis, id genus plerique Larvas perhibent. Cùm
vero incertum eft, quæ cuique eorum fortitio eve-
nerit, utrùm Lar fit, an Larva; nomine Manem
deum nuncupant +.-Larvatus is derived from
Lars, or rather from Larva, and is generally ex-
plained by larva indutus, vel dæmone poffeffus. A
larvis furiofi infanique vocantur larvati. I agree
with a learned writer, (Crito, v. i. p. 238) that

* Mox etiam Lemures animas dixerè filentum.
Ovid. Faft. 1: 5.

St. Austin (De Civ. Dei, lib. ix. c. 11.) gives the following
account of the fentiments of the Platonifts on this fubject,
of fuch of them especially as he fùppofed beft understood
Plato. Dicit quidem & animas hominum dæmones effe, & ex
hominibus fieri Lares, fi meriti boni funt; Lemures feu Larvaj.
fi mali. Manes autem deos dici, cùm incertum eft, bonorum'
eos, feu malorum effe meritorum.-Larvas quippe dicit effe
noxios dæmones ex hominibus factos. Sed hinc alia quæftio
eft. Inde autem perhibet appellari Græcè beatos daimovas,
quòd boni fint animi, hoc eft, boni dæmones, animos quoque
hominum dæmones effe confirmans.

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Auguftus, calls the goddess Feronia (who was born in Italy) a demon: and says, that those who were possessed by this demon walked barefoot over burning coals. Philoftratus, in his life of Apollonius Tyanæus, who was cotemporary with Christ, relates, that a demon who poffeffed a young man, confeffed himfelf to be the ghost of a person flain in battle.

II. Let us proceed to inquire what were the fentiments of the Jews, concerning thofe demons which thought to poffefs mankind. The whole

were

the larvati are demoniacs: but the larva with which they were poffeffed, were human ghofts. Confequently fuch alfo demons were.

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Φερωνία πόλις ἐςὶν ὁμώνυμῳ ἐπιχωρία τινὶ δαίμου.—οὶ κατεχόμενοι ὑπὸ τῆς δαίμονΘ· ταύτης, Strabo, lib. v. p. 346.

f

Εξηγόρευσεν ὁ δαίμων ἑαυτὸν, καὶ δῆτα ἔλεγεν εἶναι μὲν εἴδωλον ἀνδρὸς, ὃς πολέμω ποτὲ ἀπεθανεί. Dæmon quifnam effet confeffus eft-nempe aiebat fe umbram hominis effe in bello olim interfecti. Vit. Apollonii Tyan. lib. iii. c. 38. p. 128.

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30

*

hiftory of this people furnishes a melancholy proof of their great proneness to adopt the principles and practices of their fuperftitious and idolatrous neighbours. In the time of our Saviour, the Greek learning (originally built on the philofophy of the Eaft) was greatly studied and admired by the Jews, and had infected even the loweft ranks of men. It is natural therefore to suppose, that those amongst them, who, like their Heathen neighbours, believed in real poffeffions, would ascribe these effects to the fame fpirits as they did. What is so highly probable in theory, will, perhaps, upon inquiry, appear to be true in fact.

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In proof of this point, I would first of all produce a paffage from the evangelical history, which is generally urged to eftablish the contrary doctrine. Irefer to the language of the Pharifees, when they made the following objection

to

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