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affertions of the moderns, who have no other way to fupport a favourite hypothefis, than by running counter to all antiquity; let the reader judge.



The foregoing obfervations concerning demons, may enable us to underftand what is meaned by a spirit of divination, (or, as it is in the original, a Spirit of Python or Apollo) with which the damfel at Philippi was thought to be poffeffed. Amongst many other forts of diviners in the Pagan world, there was one which were thought to be poffeffed



clafs; yet they often intimate, that Paganism had no other fupport than human fraud and imposture, See Differt. on. Mir. p. 241, 242. From the paffages cited above, in the introduction, p. 7. note, it appears, that they themselves doubted or difbelieved the reality of poffeffions, though they afferted it in their popular difcourfes. I have no defire of detracting from the juft merit of these writers; and mean only to fhew thofe, who lay too great ftrefs on their authority, how little deference is due to it in the cafe before us.

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with prophefying demons". other names that were given them, they were often called Pythons, from Apollo Pythius', one of the chief of all the pro phefying demons, whofe prieftefs at the famous temple at Delphi was from him called Pythia. He himself was the fon of Jupiter and Latona, and born in the ifle of Delos. It was with the spirit of this dead man, that the damfel at Philippi was thought to be infpired. St. Luke, without allowing her pretenfions, (as we have fhewn elsewhere 9,) defcribes


Potter's Greek Antiq. vol. i. chi 12. p. 268, See alfo ch. 9. p. 241, 246.


a Such as δαιμονόληπτοι, ἐγίας ιμάντεις, &c.

• Пúbwys. Plutarch, de Orac. defect. p. 414. E.

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Or from Python, a famous Byzantine vent

riloquift. See Hefych. Lexicon, and Vandale de

Divinat. Idol, fub Vet. Test p. 650. This laft

writer has well refuted that ftrange, but too com

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mon opinion, that by a spirit of Python, St. Luke meaned the devil. Compare Le Clerc's Supplement to Hammond, on Act. xvi. 16.


Differt, on Mir. p. 275.


them in the language of the Pagans; which, without doubt, he uses in the fame fame fenfe as they did, efpecially as he gives no notice to the contrary; and, confequently, he cannot here refer to any other than a human spirit.





Prop. III. Thofe Demons who were thought to take possession of men's bodies, were, it is probable, confidered by the Jews as evil beings.


TH HE word, indeed, is in itself indifferent, and was, in the age of the Gospel, very commonly applied both to good and bad demons'. In the New Teftament it doth not occur always in a bad fenfe: but it fometimes

Philo de Gigantibus, p. 286, cited in Differt. on Mir. p. 207, 208.

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In Act. xvii. 18. 1 Tim. iv. 1. Rev. ix. 20. it is applied to the fouls of fuch men as were deified or canonized after death. Differt. on Mir. p. 167, 203, 204. See above, p. 45, 46.




doth. St. James faith, The devils (demons) believe and tremble. To fuppofe with Dr. Sykes, that good spirits are here spoken of, doth not agree with the apoftle's reafoning in this place. St. Paul's argument likewise in his first epistle to the Corinthians", is generally thought to proceed on the fuppofition, that the demons worshipped by the Heathens were wicked fpirits: a supposition very agreeable to the characters afcribed to them, and the immorality of the worship paid them by their own votaries. Jofephus declares, that demoniacs were poffeffed by the fpirits of wicked men. By fuch fpirits, demoniacs amongst the

Ch. ii. 19. The word ufed by St. James is δαιμόνια ; but δαιμόνια and δαίμονες occur in Scripture as fynonimous terms. Compare Mat, viii, 31. Luke viii. 27, 29. Δαιμονιώδης cannot be taken in a good fenfe, Jam. iii. 15.

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"I Cor. x. 20, 21. compare 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15, 16.


Bell. Jud. lib. vii. c. 6. § 3, cited above, p.

42. In his hiftory of Saul (Antiq. lib. vi. c. 8. § 2. and c. 11. §2.) and Solomon, (Antiq. lib. viii. c. 2. § 5.) dasóvia must be taken in a bad fenfe. He



Heathens (after whom the Jews copied) were thought to be poffeffed'. And it was plainly with a view of difcrediting the miffion, and blafting the character of Chrift, that the Pharifees reproached him as a confederate with the prince of demons.

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exprefly reprefents Saul, as feized upon by an evil fpirit and demons, τῇ πονηρᾶ πνεύματος, καὶ τῶν δαιpori, Antiq. lib. vi. c. 11. § 2. Nevertheless, the adjective dapovios must be understood differently in this author, and as equivalent to divine. It is joined with providence, Antiq. lib. xiii. c. II.

3. Bell, Jud. lib. vii. c. 8. § 5. Ode, in his Commentar. de Angelis, p. 202, has observed, that diapóvó regás is a divine prodigy, Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 17. Bondesa Saspóvsos, divine assistance, lib. iv. c. 3. § 14. Sarpávios Ploga, a destruction from God, lib. vi. c. 9. § 4. and ovogà Saspióvros, a calamity fent from God, lib. i. c. 19. § 3. Other examples of this ufe of daμovies are produced by Ode. See alfo Philoftrat. de Vit, ApolJon. Tyan. lib. i. c. 2. P. 4. (ed. Olear. Lipf. 1709.) where Japónos is used as equivalent to θεῖος, οίνου 7.011



Concerning the Larvati amongst the Latins, fee above, p. 26, 27, note, In the eaftern languages, all


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