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ficknees, and confequently imply fome diforder or diftemper in the human frame, from whatever caufe it might proceed,

The miracle wrought upon the demoniacs, is often defcribed in the fame terms as that wrought upon the diseased; terms that neceffarily imply their having previously laboured under a real dif temper. St. Matthew fays equally concerning demoniacs, lunatics, and paralytics, he HEALED them'. The fame hiftorian defcribes the cure of the daughter of a woman of Canaan, who was grievously vexed with a demon, by faying, that he Was MADE WHOLE". A great multitude of people, fays St. Luke, came to be healed of their difeafes; and they that were


*Τὰς ασθενείας, καὶ τὰς νόσος. Had not poffef= fions been included under difeafes, the mention of them would not have been omitted, Mat. xi. 5. See below, fect. 10.


1 Εθεράπευσεν αὐτές, Mat. iv. 24.

m 'Iden. Mat. xv. 28.


vexed with unclean fpirits, and they were healed. At another time, he tells us, that Chrift CURED many of their infirmities, and plagues, and evil spirits. In defcribing the miracle wrought upon demoniacs, the evangelifts fay indifferently, Chrift expelled the demon, or, that he healed the demoniac'. From hence it appears, that a real diforder cured, whenever Chrift is represented as ejecting a demon. Amongst the Greeks and Romans alfo, as well as amongst the Jews, thofe perfons who were


̓Εθεραπεύοντο, Luke vi. 18.

Ἐθεράπευσε πολλὲς ἀπὸ νόσων καὶ μασίγων καὶ wrevμάτwv woungwu. Luke vii. 21. In ch. viii, 2. we read of certain women which had been healed of evil fpirits. See alfo Act. v. 16.

P Concerning the epileptic youth, it is faid, thy difciples could not (Jegaπevoα) cure him, Mat. xvii. 16. The demon departed out of him; and the child was cured (ilegameún) from that very hour, v. 18. In Luke ix. 42, it is faid, Jefus healed the child. See alfo Mat, viii. 16, 17. juft now cited, where Chrift's bearing away our ficknesses, includes the cure of poffeffions, as well as of other diseases.


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thought to be poffeffed, fuffered grievous diftempers. This will appear with the fullett evidence in the two following fections, where we are particularly to explain the nature of thofe diftempers, which were imputed to poffeffions. All that we mean here to affirm, is, that demoniacs were afflicted with certain diftempers, whether the poffeffion of demons was the real, or only the reputed cause of them. It was indeed from the well-known appearances and fymptoms of certain difeafes, that the ancients inferred, that the patients were


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Prop. V. The particular diforders which the ancients, whether Heathens or Jews, afcribed to the poffeffion of demons, were fuch only as difturbed the underStanding,

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To prepare way for the proof of


this propofition, it is neceffary to to obferve, that we are carefully to diftinguish, though the diftinction hath not been attended to, between difeafes fupernaturally inflicted and pofSeffions. The ancient Heathens attributed diseases, not only thofe attended with extraordinary fymptoms, (as Dr. Sykes apprehended,) but difeafes in general, to the anger of the immortal gods; and accordingly from them fought

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9 Inquiry, p. 6.

I Morbos tum ad iram deorum immortalium relatos effe, & ab iifdem opem pofci folitam. Celfus, lib. i. præfat.


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for relief'. Sick perfons advised with their priests and prophets, as we now do with our phyficians; and expected to be restored to health by luftrations and charms, without the ufe of natural remedies, except fuch as were fuggefted by the gods. They did not, however, represent all perfons whom the gods or demons vifited with diseases, as having thofe gods or demons within them, which was supposed to be the cafe with all demoniacs. When they became fuch, the demon was thought to enter them; and at his leaving them, or being expelled from them, they no longer came under this denomination. While he remained

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f See Young on idolatry, vol. ii. p. 85. In the evangelical hiftory we read, that 66 the demnons (Ἐξελθόντες ἀπῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἀγέλην)


came out of the men, and went into the herd of "fwine." Mat, viii. 32. Compare Mark i. 26. Indeed, the expreffion of cafting out demons, which fo often occurs in the New Teftament, fhews, that the popular opinion was, that they had been in the demoniacs. Agreeably to this opinion, the

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