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tabernacles of the Most High, that is not executed; but the boaster is cut off in the midst of his vain threatenings. Hence I conclude, that this belongs to the great anti* type of the king of Babylon, who certainly perishes in an attack upon Jerusalem in the last conflict. Compare what we have read in the last oracle, where the king of Assyria was in some sort the type; but especially the forty-eighth psalm.
After this sacred song of anticipated triumph, the prophecy draws to its close; and the twenty-second and third verses may be called its application to the literal Babylon—which is followed by a more general application to the last foe.
22. I will stand up against them, saith Jehovah Sabaoth, And I will cut off from Babylon the name and remnant, The increase and the posterity, saith Jehovah.
23. And I will make her the inheritance of the bitterns, pools of
And I will plunge her into the mire of destruction :'
What follows, introduced by the oath of the Almighty, in reference, perhaps, to the oath in Deut. xxxii. 40, applies the grand burden of the whole to the last enemy.
24. Jehovah Sabaoth hath sworn, saying:
Surely as I devised, so hath it been,
25. According as I broke the Assyrian in my land,
And his yoke shall be removed from off them,
1 Sec Simon, i
26. This is the purpose which is purposed concerning the whole
And this is that hand which is stretched out against all nations.
27. Surely Jehovah Sabaoth hath purposed; who then shall
disannul? And his hand is stretched out; who then shall turn it back?
It is plain, from the correct rendering of these words, that something is contemplated as already done; and a similar design respecting some other occurrence is declared, fixed, and determined. What these two events are, is next explained: as " I break," or have broken, the Assyrian in my hands, so will I crush HIM: that is, in the usual style of Scripture, the great emphatic adversary. The destruction of Sennacherib would take place in a few years; it is contemplated as past and done. — In like manner, on the mountains of Israel, should the great subject of the foregoing prophecy, typified by the king of Babylon, come to his end. The literal king of Babylon could not be intended; because neither on the mountains, nor in the land of Israel, did any monarch of that race meet his fate. That the Scripture, therefore, be not broken, his antitype must fall there. The twenty-sixth verse, indeed, plainly teaches us to extend the meaning of the whole prophecy beyond the partial history of the then contending and rising kingdoms.l
1 " The circumstance of this Compare Ezek. xxxix. 4, and see
judgment being to be executed on Lowth on this place of Isaiah."—
God's mountains, is of importance: Bishop Lowth. Vitringa observes
it may mean the destruction of to the same effect, " The schemes
Sennacherib's army near Jerusalem, of impious ambition ascribed to
and have a still further view, the Babylonian despot, suit exVOL. I. O
Remarks on the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Chapters.
I Pass over the burdens of Philistia and of Moab in the latter part of the fourteenth, and in the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters: though I am persuaded they have a bearing, in their close, on the glorious kingdom of Messiah, " when he shall have had mercy on his land and on his people."
But in the seventeenth and eighteenth chapters we have a prophecy that more directly concerns the object of our inquiry. It is entitled the " Burden of Damascus;" but the title by no means corresponds with the prophecy. The subject is the dispersion of the ten tribes, and their restoration in the last days. Damascus being at this time in close confederacy with Israel, their joint destruction is mentioned and contrasted together; and hence the title which the Jewish editors have attached to the prophecy.
1. Lo, Damascus is removed from being a city, And is become a heap of ruins!
actly with the character of ' the measure types of Antichrist, at
man of sin,' * as delineated by they seem to have affected divine
Daniel and St. Paul, aud seem to honours. See Judith, viii. 8. \V
indicate that the prophecy extends tringa conceives that there is a
to much later times than those manifest allusion to Antichrist in
of the Babylonian empire. The this passage." — Hoksley. Babylonian monarchs were in some
It should rather be " thu wicked."
2. The cities of the vale' are forsaken; They are given up to the flocks,
And they lie down, and no one puts them in fear.
3. As well shall the fortress cease from Ephraim,
But the remnant of Damascus shall be
Damascus and her dependent cities are to become rains; their populous country is to he desolated. Not less, indeed, would he the desolation of the ten tribes; but here would be the difference: the bulk or mass of the Israelites would be destroyed, and a remnant left. With respect to the Syrians of Damascus, their destruction would be complete; their very remnant would be destroyed. This, however, had not yet taken place when Jeremiah prophesied : -|- a sufficient indication that we are not to confine the scope of these prophecies to the ravages of the Assyrian king, who had already begun to execute the divine vengeance on these nations.
Having thus contrasted the destinies of these two confederate nations, the prophecy proceeds to show what would befall the ten tribes, — the preserved remnant of
'"W Ccelosyria, proprie Syria thi» passage, by substituting r*v
Cjiv.t, :'i j£ iv profundum, cavum for -am. We have only to take
volis, undo ilrw volis valima. — Tlaa 'n tne sense of copia, and
Simon. there will be a just opposition
* There is no occasion, I eon- between the parallel terms. Com
ceive, with Houbigant and Lowth, pa** TM and its parallel terra in
to have recourse to conjecture in *"* next couplet.
this part of the family of Abraham in the latter days; — a very small remnant would be left.
4. And it shall come to pass in that day;
That the bulk of Jacob shall be diminished,
5. And it shall be as when one hath gathered the standing
It shall be as the ears that are picked up in the valley of
6. Two or three berries on the top of the highest bough, Four or five on its straggling branches:
Saith Jehovah Sabaoth.
The remainder of the prophecy we must admit to be involved in much obscurity. The cause of this obscurity arises probably from this, that the prophecy has not yet been accomplished. The following verses are, however, so far clear as to foretel the destruction, at a certain period, of all idolatry, and under the symbol of its ancient rites, as I believe, of all false and superstitious modes of worship.
7. In that day shall man look to his Maker,
And his eyes shall be directed to the Holy One of Israel:
8. He shall not look to the altars, the work of his own hand, Neither shall he have regard to that which his ringers have
May we, then, understand by this, the conversion