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Wrath to his adversaries, recompense to his enemies,
The Redeemer appears in the character of the Avenger of Israel; and it is much to be noticed, that the distant coasts, the European nations, are pointed out as the particular objects of vengeance, and of just retribution.
The consequences of this divine interposition are universal: —
19. And they from the west shall fear the name of Jehovah, And they from the rising sun his glory.
Again, we have plainly laid before us the enemy from "Chittim," inundating Palestine with his armies, and falling there: and this is the epocha ever marked in prophecy as the time of Christ's appearing: —
When the enemy shall come as a river,
20. And the Redeemer shall come forth at Zion,
Lowth from the Chaldee:
xn rrtrma tya
"He is Lord of retribution,
1 Dw, " exsiccavit," (Arab. iiSii)- See Simon.
* " And shall turn away iniquity from Jacob." So the Septuagint; and St.Paul,Rom.xi.96: reading, instead of »a1i6 and apra, aw1 and apyij. The Syriac, likewise,
has a'vm; and the Chaldee, to the same eflect, a-wn'n. Our translators have followed the present Hebrew text, which must be wrong, from the assertion of verse the fifteenth, unless we render:
And the Redeemer shall come forth
at Zion, Even among them that turn from
"The Redeemer shall come out of
And turn away apostacy from
21. And as to me, this is my covenant with them,
Hath Jehovah said.
"My Spirit that is upon thee,
And the words which I have put in thy mouth,
Nor from the mouth of thy seed,
Nor from the mouth of thy seed's seed;
Hath Jehovah said,
St. Paul's comment on these words is all we need for their illustration; "For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits, that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in: and so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: for this is my covenant unto them when I shall take away their sins." Israel, in virtue of the covenant then to have effect, is consecrated for ever to be the channel for the communication of spiritual good to mankind. This seems to be the import of the latter part of the last verse.
The sixtieth chapter, expositors are pretty generally agreed, pertains to the future reign of Messiah. It is addressed to the city of Jerusalem, evidently from its localities to, the same topical city that is now trodden under foot of the Gentiles. The Sun of righteousness arises upon her, and she becomes resplendent with his rays, and is appointed to be an instrument in the hand of God, as it were, to reflect his beams upon the nations of the earth.
1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come,
And the glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee.
The nations are, at this period, described as involved in great darkness: —
2. For lo, darkness covereth the earth,
This leads to an apprehension, that those nations which had once been enlightened with the light of the Gospel, will become again overwhelmed in the night of ignorance and irreligion: and we know that already the fairest portion, nay almost all of those countries that once enjoyed the profession of the Gospel, are sunk into the darkness, either of Mahometism, of popery, or of modern infidelity. So that we may truly say, only a few glimmerings of the Gospel day remain here and there in Protestant countries: — darting, as it were, the parting glances of a setting sun upon the labours of pious missionaries in the distant regions of the globe. So nearly have we reached the shades of that evening, whose thickening darkness is only to be dispelled by a brighter "dayspring from on high!" and this '' dayspring from on high" again bursts forth over Jerusalem, so that we must still say, " Salvation is of the Jews."'
1 "The images of the prophecy able to think the accomplishment so far exceed any thing that has is reserved for the second advent of yet taken place, that it is reason- our Lord. This even St. Jerome
But Jehovah shall arise on thee.
3. And the nations shall go to thy light,
The vision next represents the concourse of the nations toward the holy city: —
4. Lift up thine eyes around and see, i They all gather themselves together to come unto thee.
Thy sons shall come from far,
Thy daughters shall be borne on the side.
5. Then shalt thou fear, and overflow with joy,
For the riches of the sea shall be turned towards thee,
6. The troops of camels shall cover thee,
All they from Seba shall come,
They shall bring gold and frankincense,
And shall spread the praises of Jehovah.
7. All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered to thee,
They shall come up with acceptance on my altar,
As far as we can understand the language of this prophecy, the nations of the earth, headed by their kings or leaders, are actively employed in bringing back the
is obliged to confess; though, from conversion of them to Christianhis great aversion to the reveries of ity."—Hoesley. the Chiliasts of antiquity, he was '"Shall beat and be en
very unwilling to admit any other larged."—Idem. restoration of the Jews, than the
remains of the dispersed family. Zion trembles at the sudden greatness of her fortunes; and while she trembles, her heart expands with joy. She sees the wealth of nations poured into her honoured city. On the one hand, the ships of the seas, in the midst of which the Holy Land is remarkably placed, fill her ports; and on the other hand, the caravans that cross the desert crowd her borders, loaded with all the valuable productions of their respective countries. The flocks and herds of the most productive are sent for her consumption, and to supply her sacred festivals. Unless, indeed, we suppose a style of metaphor here, very unlike the usual style of the prophet, all this must relate to an earthly city composed of inhabitants gathered from among living men; and not to that city, which, anticipating the language of a later prophecy, we call the " New," or " heavenly Jerusalem." How these two cities subsist together, and of what kind will be the intercourse between them, or in what manner the former serves as a gate of entrance to the-iatter, are among those mysteries of which we must wait the unravelling. At present, however, it is manifest we have before us the " Jerusalem that now is," restored from her '' bondage, with her children."
8. Who are these that fly as a cloud, And as doves to their windows?
9. Surely the distant coasts wait on one, And the ships of Tarshish first;
Bringing thy sons from far,"
Their silver and their gold with them.
Unto' the name of Jehovah thy Elohim,
And to the Holy One of Israel, for he hath glorified thee.
'Or, because of.