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corner gate we find in the north-west angle, so that this describes the northern side of the old city. Now, the length of this side was but a little more than half a mile, or about five furlongs; but the side of Ezekiel's square would require about a mile in all, or about two furlongs and a half more. Read on with the account of Jeremiah: "and the line of the measure shall proceed straight forward over the hill Gareb." Now, a line drawn from the tower of Hananeel to the corner gate, and continued in a straight line two furlongs and a half beyond, will be found just to reach over the hill of Gareb. Here then is the north side of Ezekiel's square, by which of course we shall be able to discover the other boundaries.
Jeremiah proceeds, "It shall encompass Goatha," [or as we may as accurately render, "it shall be turned," or, "take a turn to Goatha;"] that is to say, the measuring line, which is to mark the site of the city of Jehovah, shall there make an angle. Goatha, or Goath, we find to the west of Jerusalem in the map. It is supposed to be near to Golgotha, where our Lord was crucified; and which signifies the " heap of Goath." Encompassing this, we are to encompass also, the prophecy tells us, " the whole valley of dead bodies, and of ashes:" and a line drawn from the hill Gareb, about a mile in length, will enclose together with Goath all the present low grounds on the west of Jerusalem and of /ion, including what is marked as the valley of Justice, and the long valley of Gihon. These, therefore, must be what are meant by the whole valley of dead bodies, and of ashes: not the valley of the son of Hinnom, as some suppose, for that is to the south of Zion; and our line will terminate with the hill of Zion in that quarter, barely including that mountain, if our measures and maps are to be depended upon. Nigh
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to the place where our Lord was crucified, we know there was a place of burial.1
The prophecy concludes, "and all the fields unto the brook Kedron, as far as the angle of the horse-gate eastward." Nothing but an inspection of a plan of the ancient city can explain this; and there it appears very satisfactorily. The horse-gate is at the southern extremity of the eastern side of the old city, as the tower of Hananeel Ib at its northern extremity—that is, of the old city, exclusive of Zion. Along this line the front of the temple was extended; the prophecy does not notice this, we are to take for granted that line is restored. But the eastern front or limits of Zion retired far back to the west, so that if a square is to be completed with a line drawn along the southern boundary of Zion, it will be evident that all, or nearly " all the fields, as far as the angle of the horse-gate eastward," must be taken in. Thus Jeremiah's "city of Jehovah," and Ezekiel's city-like temple, are found to occupy the same space.
Let us compare with this another very express prophecy to the same effect, which, contrary to my general plan, I shall anticipate from an oracle not yet considered, delivered after the return from Babylon. The reader will find it in the fourteenth chapter of Zechariah, verse the ninth: —
And Jehovah shall be King over all the earth:
In that day shall Jehovah be alone, and his name alone;
'The plan of the city which I Mons. O'Anville's map of Paleshave copied, is taken from the tine, the five hundred reed« meaYumily Bible of Dbs. Mam and sured from north to south, would D'OriEV. According, however, just take in the valley of the son to the plan of the city given in of Hinnnm.
And all the country shall be turned ' around' into a plain,
And it shall be exalted, and shall be inhabited in its site,
And men shall dwell therein, and there shall be no more curse;
The converting of the country into a plain, or, "making it round about like a plain," from Geba to Rimmon, and all round in the same proportion, is itself a very remarkable circumstance, and will be found to coincide with another measure of Ezekiel, which we shall be called upon to consider hereafter. Our business, at present, is with the latter part of the verse. "It shall be exalted or elevated," namely, the tract of country afterwards specified — it shall stand elevated in the centre of this plain: and this elevated tract, we shall find, is no other than " the mountain of the Lord's house" —" the exceeding high mountain," which Ezekiel saw in his vision.
There is certainly a difficulty, with our present topical knowledge of the ancient Jerusalem, to trace out the boundary of this elevated line of building, in the passage before us. But, after comparing all that I can find on the subject, I am persuaded that the prophecy intends to trace two sides of the square; by which of course the whole may be found. These two sides are the north and the east. But there is still a small difficulty with respect to the north; as at present translated, the passage points out, not the northern side of the city of Jehovah, according to Jeremiah's prophecy; but the ancient line of the north wall, already built in Zechariah's time: For the gate of Benjamin is in the immediate neighbourhood of the tower of Hananeel, in the north-east angle of the city. The old, or former gate, was some intermediate spot between that and the corner gate; so that, according to this, the line stopped at the corner gate. But this could not be the prophet's meaning. That was, in fact, no prophecy; for the Jews, who returned from Babylon, had already built so far in that direction: and as we have been expressly told in Jeremiah, the line which measured the site of the prophetic city was to go straight forward from the corner gate (in the north-west angle) over the hill Gareb.
I conceive that we are to understand the Hebrew particle, with which the sentence begins, in its comparative sense: The land shall be elevated and built upon; "as from the gate of Benjamin to the place of the old gate, so also to the corner gate ;" that is, in the same proportional distance shall the wall be built up to the corner gate from an opposite point, as from the gate of Benjamin to the place of the former gate. There wanted, as we have seen before, about two furlongs and an half of line from the corner gate to complete the measure of Ezekiel, and to reach over the hill Gareb. This appears, indeed, by the map I use, a little more than from Benjamin's gate to the old gate; but, probably, the error is in the map :—or we may observe, it is not said, to the former gate: but " to the place of the former gate." The place of the former gate may have been the name of some street or place in its neighbourhood, and may not signify the gate itself. This is, probably, the solution of the difficulty; and then Zechariah's account agrees with those of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, respecting the northern boundary of the sacred edifice.
The agreement respecting the eastern boundary, it