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650 to the Author, in acknowledgment of his unwearied labor. He spends six or eight hours daily on the Dictionary. He has published a Grammar also, and other works to facilitate the acquisition of the language.
Dr. Morrison landed at Canton on the 4th of Sept. 1807. On the same day in 1817, he writes,
"Our knowledge of China was very limited, our hopes of a residence small, our interest nothing. To learn the language, and by degrees to render the Sacred Scriptures into Chinese, was the object which we immediately contemplated.
"Your mission to China now possesses considerable knowledge of the country, of the character of the people, and of the language. It is furnished with instruments with which to begin the more spiritual part of its labors. The New Testament rendered into Chinese has been, in part, put into circulation, and will, we trust, produce salutary effects; for the word of the Lord shall not return unto him void. Two persons have renounced idolatry, and professed faith in the Lord Jesus. Let us not be ungrateful. We or our successors shall see greater things than these if we faint not. O that God our Savior may shed down richly his Holy Spirit, to strengthen our faith, to purify our hearts, and to bless our labors.”
INDIA, BEYOND THE GANGES.
This division comprehends that part of the continent of Asia which lies between China and Hindoostan; frequently called the further peninsula of India, in contra-distinction to the hither peninsula. It contains the great Burman Empire, Malacca, and Siam, with the smaller states on the eastern side of the peninsula. In the whole of this division, there are, as yet, but two missionary stations.
Rangoon, the chief sea-port of the Burman Empire,-about 670 miles S. E.
American Baptists. Missionaries: Adoniram Judson, James Colman, George
This mission, begun by the Baptist Missionary Society in England, has devolved on the American Baptists. The missionaries at Serampore, in a letter to the American Baptist Board of Missions, dated June 25, 1818, have offered some important suggestions with reference to the mission. "Should Divine Providence," they say, "give you favor in the eyes of the Burman Government, that empire stands in great and pressing need of many more missionaries. We would recommend you to send, as soon as possible, to Siam, Bassern, Ummurapore, Ava, Martaban, &c.”
The Gospel of St. Matthew has been translated and printed. Mr. Judson was proceeding with a dictionary from an indigested mass of materials, which had long been accumulating. Mrs. Judson assists in the translation of the Tracts into Burman.
The Government has relaxed its rigor; the condition of the missionaries is, therefore, meliorated; but their lonely situation away from any house or road, makes it very difficult to have much intercourse with the natives, especially during the rains.
(1815.) MALACCA, the chief town in the Peninsula of Malacca. London Missionary Society. Missionaries: W. Milne, W. H. Medhurst, C. H. Thomsen, John Slater.
Appointed to this station or to Canton, Samuel Milton, Thomas Brighton, John Ince. It has already been shown, under the head of "Canton," what efficient assistance, particularly in printing the Scriptures, the Malacca mission renders to that of China. And its co-operation is perhaps still more important in their circulation. For this purpose, Malacca, connected as it is with Penang, has peculiar advantages; the missionaries having a medium of most extensive maritime intercourse, by the numerous vessels which pass through the Straits of Malacca. At Canton and Malacca, not less than 36,000 Chinese tracts, exclusive of the Scriptures, have been printed and circulated; and by those channels alone, which are at present open, it is calculated that an annual supply of 10,000 may be distributed.
Two schools have been opened for Chinese children, in which about 55 boy g receive Christian instruction. A Malay school has also been formed. A weekly
lecture was also opened for the benefit of the Chinese, and was held in a heathen temple.
The Chinese residing in these colonies are still influenced by the persecutiog edicts of their native country; as most of them intend to return, and, in the meau time, feel that they have relatives who may suffer on their account.
INDIA, WITHIN THE GAXGES.
This is, without question, that division of the Missionary Field, in which, under an awful responsibility, the most extended labors of British Christians are demanded. From the borders of the Burinan empire on the east to those of Persia on the west, and from the source of the Ganges and the Indus on the north, to Cape Comorin in the south, 70 or 80, or perhaps 100 millions of human beingsa tenth of the whole race of mankind, are now living either under the immediate authority, or the controlling influence of this Christian country.
And for what end has Infinite Wisdom placed under the power of the most highly privileged nation upon earth, this immense multitude, almost all of whom Jive in the lusts of the flesh,
fulfilling the desires of the flesh and the mind, and die alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart. For what end? Men will answer this question according to the meanness or grandeur of their habit of conception and feeling; but he only is the wise man, who answers the question now, and acts upon that answer, as he will unquestionably reply in the day when the Great Householder shall come to take account of his servants. Acting under such a feeling, and constrained by the love of Christ to promote his glory in the salvation of perishing sinners, the Christian needs not the stimulus of inferior motives in this sacred labor;—though policy, humauity, and every consideration that can affect a wise and feeling mind, combine to enforce on British Christians the obligations under which they lie of proclaiming to the deluded and enslaved myriads of India the glad tidings of salvation. The Societies laboring in this part of India entered on their work in the following order.
The Danish Mission College established its mission at Tranquebar, so far back as the beginning of the last century. About 30 years after the Christian Knowledge Society, having before rendered assistance to the Danish Mission, began to form new stations. No other Society followed, except an attempt of the United Brethren, hereafier to be mentioned, till the first missionaries of the Baptist Society landed at Calcutta in 1793. In 1804 the London Missionary Society followed. The Church Missionary Society entered on its connexion with India by a grant of money through some of the Chaplains, in 1897, for the establishment of readers of the Scriptures. In 1813, the American Board of Commissioners established a mission at Bombar; and the Wesleyan Missionary Society appointed a missionary to Madras in 1816.
These Societies are taken in their alphabetical order.
AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS.
[1813.) Bombay. Missionaries: Gordon Hall, Samuel Nesvell, Horario Bardwell. For a particular account of this mission, the reader is referred to the letters and journals of the missionaries published in former numbers of this work. There are twelve schools belonging to this and the two succeeding stations, in which have been entered more than 1200 children; but the number of constant, attendants is smaller.
(1818.] Mahim, six miles north of Bombay. Missionary: Allen Graves. A residence at this station was begun in May, 1818. Mr. and Mrs. Graves teach a school of native children.
(1818.] Tanna, twenty-five miles north of Bombay, and the principal town in the island of Salsette. Missionary: John Nichols. Mr. and Mrs. Nichols removed to Tanna last autumn. They had remained at the station in Bombay till that time, to assist in the book binding business, and to make some advances in the language. These missions are very kindly regarded by the government of Bombay.
* See also in our Number for April, p. 169, the description of the Anglo-Chinese College.
Survey of Protestant Missionary Stations.
BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. Calcutta and Serampore. Calcutta is the chief of the three British Presia dencies in India, and the grand emporium of the East. A school book Society. consisting of Europeans and natives, was formed in May, 1817, for the supply of school books in the native languages. Serampore is a Danish settleinent, about 15 miles north of Calcutta, and is the chief station of the mission.
Missionaries: Carey, Marshman, Ward, Randall, Eustace Carey, Lawson, Penney, Yates and Pearce. Mr. Stephen Sutton, and Mr. David Adain, arrived in safeiy on the 30th of March, 1818. A number of native brethren are also laboring here.
Serampóre may be considered as the parent station. It is the residence of the senior missionaries, Carey, Marshman, and Ward; and also of Mr. Randall, who is engaged in the manufactory of paper for the printing office. The mission establishment here, comprising servants and workmen, is very large. Ten presses are employed, almost exclusively in preparing the Holy Scriptures for circulation in the numerous dialects of the East. Upwards of 100 native schools have lately been established, containing about 7,000 children, who receive daily instruction, and are thus insensibly prepared to reject the idolatry of their fathers.
Calcutta is now occupied by Messrs. Eustace Carey, and Lawson, who are united in the charge of those Christians collected in this city by the labor's of their senior brethren. Mr. Penney superintends the Benevolent Institution, and assists Mr. Yates in a Seminary commenced with a view of aiding the objects of the mission. Mr. Adam is studying the Bengalee and Sanscrit, and Mr. Pearce bas lately united himself with these brethren. They have erected several places of worship for the natives, in different parts of the city, and are preparing to erect others.
At Dum-Dum, a station of the artillery, eight miles north of Calcutta, Raminohun, a native preacher, is placed.
At Barrakpore, a village on the opposite banks of the Ganges from Serampore, preaching is regularly maintained.
At Gundulpara, eight miles N. W. of Serampore, Tarachund, a native, is stationed. Many intelligent young natives come to him for instruction. He has composed many hymns, and written several tracts, in an excellent spirit, and is translating into Bengalee, at the desire of the missionaries, Janeway's Life, Bixter's Call, and similar works on practical religion.
[1807.) Jessore, a district in the east of Bengal, about 70 miles E, N. E.cf Calcutta, containing 1,200,000 inhabitants, in the proportion of nine Maliomcdans to seven Hindoos.
Missionary: William Thomas, country born. Mr. Thomas resides at the principal town of this district. Froin April 1813, to July 1817, he labored at Chou. gacha, a small village; there he baptised 29 persons. Four natives are employed as readers, and itinerate in the vicinity. (1817.] Dacca, about 100 miles E. of Jessore, once the capital of Bengal.
Missionary: Rama-prusad, native. This station, which had been given up, is now renewed. Two Christian natives, one of whom is Rama-prusad, have been sent thither. They arrived May, 1817, and labor both in and around Dacca, : with acceptance. There are Armenian and Greek Christians in Dacca, who rejoice in ihese labors. About forty persons, Christians and heatben, assembled to hear Rama-prusad's first sermon. Some wept, and all listened with deep a tension. The Greek priest, in particular, expressed lively joy at hearing, for the first time, a converted Hindoo “preach Jesus Christ according to the Scriptures.” I have seen, said he, an idolater preaching Jesus Christ, in a manner which has not only amazed me, but charmed my heart.
One school has been opened for the children of indigent Christians; and five in Bengalee and one in Persian for the native children.
(1813.] Silhet, in Bengal, 310 miles N. E. of Calcutta. Teacher: Jehn De Silva, a Portuguese. Mr. De Silva is chiefly employed in instructing a number of Portuguese who reside here. They are nominally Roman Catholics; but their ignorance is such, that they formerly worshipped an old tattered copy of a l'opish Cütechism. Some of these poor people, he thinks, do not bear in vain.
[1812.) Chittagong, a district in the eastern extremity of Bengal, about 230 miles E. of Calcutta, on the borders of the immense forests of Teak-wood, which divide the British dominions from Burmah. Missionary: - Peacock.
A body of people termed Mugs, who were formerly Burman subjects, fled, about 24 years since, from the tyranny of that government, and took refuge among the British. The whole of the country south of Chittagong, for about 100 miles to Ramoo, the frontier town, was assigned to them. In language and manners they assimilate with the Burmans. They have no caste, and are intelligent; and in their manners frank and kind.
The labors of Mr. De Bruyn among these people had been very successful. Ninety of them were baptised, some of whom had visited Serampore, and satisfied the missionaries by their consistent conduct. But the Society has to lament the loss of Mr. De Bruyn, who fell by the hand of an assassin about the close of 1817.
[1809.} Curwa, a town in Bengal, on the western bank of the Hoogly, in the district of Burdwan, about 75 miles N. of Calcutta. Missionaries: William Carey, jun. Hari.
No where has the system of itinerating been conducted on a larger scale than at this place, and in its neighborhood, under the superintendance of Mr. W. Carey. Fourteen natives, some of whom preach, and others read and distribute the Scriptures, are employed here. The field is not only thus extensive, bat promising. Mr. Hart has been sent to labor here for a time.
Berhampore, a town of Bengal, about 120 miles N. N. W. of Calcutta. PranKrishna, native.
A small church had been formed here; but the greater number of its members have removed. A few, however, remain, and are visited by Mr. Ricketts, from Moorshedabad. Pran Krishna labors, so far as his impaired health wili permit.
(1816.] Moorshedabad, about 10 miles above Berhampore, the capital of Bengal, before Calcutta was raised to that dignity by the English government. It has an inmense population. Missionaries: J. W. Ricketts, Kashee, a native.
Mr. Ricketts, who lives near this great city, has begun to itinerate around, and to open schools for native children.
[1817.] Malda, a large town in Bengal, about 170 miles N. of Calcutta. Missionary: Krishna, a native.
Krishna resides at English Bazar, a town near Malda. In the towns and villages round him he diffuses the knowlerige of the Gospel, not without success, and makes excursions to distant places, for the distribution of Tracts and parts of Scripture.
(1814.) Dinagepore, a city in Bengal, 240 miles N. of Calcutta; 40,000 inhabitants. Missionary: Ignatius Fernandez.
In the last year 22 persons have rejected idolatry. Between 70 and 80 attend public worship. There are about 60 scholars in the schools. Here, as in other places, there is rising up a body of native youth, free from the terrors of the caste, and the fetters of superstition and idolatry, who may become, in future years, far more able to serve the cause of God in India than the present generation,
(1816.] Monghyr, a large city 250 miles N. W. of Calcutta, a station of invalids of the British army. Missionaries: John Chamberlain, Brindabund, a native. Inghum Misser, native reader,
Mr. Chamberlain writes: “It is wonderful to observe how evidently the Invisible Hand has been at work among the people, and preparing them for the Lord. Some evident change is effecting in their spirit and in their prospects.
(1812.] Paina, the capital of Bahar,-a large city, said to contain 500,000 inhabitants; 320 miles N. W. of Calcutta-on the south bank of the Ganges. Missionary: J. T. Thompson.
Mr. Thompson has labored here for several years, and not in vain. He has lately been much employed in Jong journeys to Benares, Allahabad, Lucknow, and other places, which have afforded an opportunity of widely proclaiming the truth, and of distributing the Scriptures to multitudes who had never seen or heard of them before. By this method of itinerating, thousands hear the Gospel message, and, obtaining copies of the Divine Word, carry them to their respec. tive towns and villages, where, after a lapse of years, they are sometimes found co bave been reall and studied beyond the highest expectations,
(1816.] Guyah, a large city, 55 miles S. of Patna, and a place of great idolatrous resort. Missionary: Fowles.
Mr. Fowles, a native of India, resides here on his own estate, which comprises several villages; to the inhabitants of which, and to others around, he endeavors to make known the Word of Life.
(1809.] Digah, near the extensive cantonments at Dinapore; 230 miles N. W. of Calcutta. Missionaries: William Moore, Joshua Rowc.
The missionaries have been occupied very usefully, for several years, in presiding over a considerable school, and in various other labors. Several natives appeared hopeful, and those baptised last year remain stedfast.
(1816.) Benares, a celebrated city in the province of Allahabad, 460 miles N.'w.of Calcutta, by the way of Birbhoom; but, by that of Moorshedabad, 565; -contains 12,000 stone and brick houses, from one to six stories high, and above 16,000 mud houses; the inhabitants in 1803 were 582,000; during the festivals the concourse is beyond all calculation. Mahomedans not more than one in ten. The ancient seat of Bramhunical learning, and denominated the “Holy city.” Missionary: William Smith.
By Mr. Smith's intimate acquaintance with the language spoken here, and his fervent piety, he seems particularly fitted for this station. In a few days he distributed, in consequence of pressing applications, nearly 1000 books and tracts, in Sanscrit, Hindee, Hindostanee and Mahratta. Many copies of the Gospel have also been dispersed. Here Mr. Smith found a very respectable and wealthy Hindoo, who had removed from Bengal to Benares to secure his salvation; as the shasters affirm, that whoever dies at Benares will be saved. He has, however, listened with deep and serious attention to the proclamation of the Gospel, and "expresses himself in such a manner,” says Mr. Smith, “as almost made me believe him to be a real Christian."
(1814.] Allahabad, an ancient city situated at the junction of the Jumna with the Ganges, about 490 miles W. N. W. of Calcutta.
Missionaries, Macintosh; Nriputa, native. Nriputa joined Mr. Macintosh August 2, 1816. They are usually engaged in missionary labor abroad, morning and evening daily; sometimes together, at others, in different directions.
Multitudes of pilgrims resort to Allahabad, in order to bathe at this celebrated jonction of the rivers, and some to drown themselves as an act of merit. Mr. Macintosh writes, “I went up to the man who stamps the pilgrims, who come to bathe, and found he had stamped 32,000; but he said that was only half of what were stamped last season. I asked him if he knew what number had drowned themselves during the fair; he pulled out a list, and counted thirty!
Cawnpore, a large and important military station.
The labors of the Baptist missionaries have been very successful among the military at this station.
(1812.) Nag pore, the capital of the eastern Mahrattas, 615 miles West of Calcutta, population 80,000. Missionary; Rum-mohun, native.
This place has of late been in a very unsettled condition, in consequence of the hostile operations which have been going on in that quarter. It is probable, however, that after tranquillity shall have been restored, there will be a fairer field opened for missionary labor than before.
(1812.] Surat, a large city on the western side of the Peninsula, said to contain 500,000 inhabitants, a considerable part of whom are Moors, that is, Arabs. Persians, Monguls and Turks, professing Mahomedanism, but retaining some pagan rites;-celebrated at the port whence the Mahomedans of India have been accuscomed to embark on their pilgrimages to Mecca.
Missionary. Carapeit Chator Äratoon. Armenian.
The Scriptures and tracts in various languages have been distributed. The strength of this laborious missionary begins to fail, but not his zeal. He deplores, in feeling terms, bis inability to make greater exertions,
“I am very sorry that I cannot labor, at present, as I used to do; for I have not my former strength. I go out among the natives every day, although I can not do so much as I ought; and this I do every day without considering rain or sun, except when I am very sick. I consider my life is not so dear as the great cause of our Lord. I cannot stay, nor get rest, without preaching. Oh blessed, blessed is that servant, whom, when his Lord cometh, he shall fini so doing."