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are safe; but the reasonings of the ancients, which were founded on the dissection of brute animals, led them into a thousand errors.
In the science of the mind, all reasonings founded on resemblances to the material world are to be wholly rejected. For, what two things in nature are more unlike, than matter and mind. Yet on no subject, except Theology, has analogical reasoning been more freely and foolisbly employed. "To give a single example: When a man is deliberating between two courses of conduct, we say, that he is balancing in his mind what to do; we compare the contrary motives to the weights in the opposite scales, of a balance, and for the purposes of common conversation, this is proper enough. But some philosophers have considered this language as metaphysically true, and on the strength of it have made important analogical inferences respecting the mind. It was on this ground that the schoolmen gravely maintained, that if a hungry ass were placed between two bundles of hay equally inviting, the beast would stand still and starve to death; for as his mind would be exactly balanced between the two, he could incline to neither. If it were necessary to show the absurdity of such reasoning, we might ask the schoolmen—suppose that the ass was weary in travelling under a heavy load, and he should weigh in his mind, whether he would go on or stop—and suppose that in this case the opposite motives should happen to be equally balanced, what would the poor beast do then?
If analogical reasoning is dangerous in metaphysics, much more in Theology,-For if mind cannot be compared to matter, much less God with a creature. From the very nature of the subject we are to expect, that whenever God is likened to any thing human, the resemblance will be faint, and generally limited to a single point. Yet, in every age of the church, there have been theologians, who have overJooked this fundamental principle, and have derived from the Bible, doctrines almost as gross, as those of heathen mythology. The Bible informs us, that man was made in the image of God; and from this language a sect in ancient times inferred, that God had a bodily shape like men. The Bible speaks of God as jealous and angry; and Lactantius wrote a whole book, to prove from such expressions that God was possessed of human passions.-Christ is called the Son of God; and there are men at the present day, who maintain, that this is true in the most literal sense of the phrase.
In almost all the doctrines of Christianity analogical reasoning bas' been abused. God is called a Father; and wbat father, says the universalist, can make his children eternally miserable?-Men are as clay in the hands of the potter; how then are they moral agents? Sinners are said to be dead. What propriety is there in calling upon dead men to repent? The atonement is compared to the payment of a debt. But if the debt is paid, the sinner has a right to demand forgiveness. How then is salvation of free grace?
All these questions are the result of the same error. They all suppose the resemblance between the two things compared is perfect, when, in fact, it is only partial.
For the Panoplist. REMARKS ON THE TRANSLATION OF MATTHEW, iii, 2.
In the last number of the Panoplist, at P. 445, the writer of the remarks, on the use of icchaical terms in Theology, has given a definition of the Greek word v: TevOEW, which I do not think perfectly correct. or rather, it is not complete. He says, "The first duty, which Christ and his apostles enjoined upon their hearers, was that of repentance. But how was this to be expressed? The Greek HET VOEW contained a part of what they wished to inculcate; (viz. sorrow for a full committed.) but for the more important part, the exercise of right affeetions lowards Guil, such as the renewed heart does excrcise,-it was not suficient.”
Now, I can by no means agree, that "sorrow for a fault," or crime, is the principal meaning of this word. No doubt, sorrow of this kind is often exercised by the impenitent, and that it is an usual attendant of the reproaches of a guilty conscience. It is not necessary to show, that such a sellish sorrow constitutes no part of what we mean by repentance.
it cannot have escaped any attentive scholar, that the preposition LUETU, when compounded with a verb, usually signifies chunge, alierition, transformation, &c. At least, any one, who will take the trouble to examine its uses in the New Testament, may satisfy himself that such is often the sense of the compounds in which this particle occurs. * In the classic writers, generally, I think an examination would abundantly confirm the opinion, that our English translation of the word in the evangelists and epistles, is correct, so far as it could be, in giving the sense of the original in a single word.
If these remarks are just, the appropriate rendering of HETØVCE can imply nothing less than a change of the mind, that is, the morul mind, the disposition, the permanent affections of the soul. Any single word adapted to convey the idea of so complete a mutation of the vioral character, a transformation so entire, including all the affections of an intelligent being, in relation to good and evil.-does not probably exist in any language. But I am not aware, as the writer above mentioned seeins to be, that the Greek is peculiarly deficient in this particular.
I should never have imagined that a man of so much learning and judgment as Campbell, would have translated the imperative of this verb as he has in Matt. iii, 2, and in every other instance throughout the Evangelists; and the substantive, wherever it occurs in the original. What he has gained by rendering METUVOSITE, "Reform," instead of "Nopent," I confess myseil unable to see. It appears to be one of those examples, in which a laborious critic is liable to mistakes of cqual magnitude, with those of far less erudition. In this instance, and in many other parts of his translation, he has altered the version from that of the common English New Testament, where no alteration was necessary; and seems desirous of shewing his fertility of invention, or in the application of new phrases, where the former translation was clearly the best that could be given. ZETA.
* See Matt. xvii, 2. Mark ix, 2. Rom. xii, 2. 2 Cor, si, 13, 14, 15, &c.
EXTRACTS FROM MR. GALLAUDET'S ADDRESS,
(As the Rev. Mr. Bingham, now on his way as a missionary to the Sandwich
Islands, was about to leave Hartford, it was desired by the friends of missions There, that a public prayer-meeting miglıl be held with special reference to that mission, and that the marriage of Mr. Bingham and Miss Moseley might be solemunized in the Church, on that occasion. Mr. Gallaudet was requested to deliver an address. The exercises were attended by a vast concourse of people; and the meeting was one of the most solenn and interesting, which have been witnessed in this country. The occasion was a happy one; and Mr. Gallaudet made a most happy use of it. We select several passages from his
address, and commend them to the hcarts and consciences of our readers.] “It is right, therefore, my Brethren, nay, it is our duty, to cherish that Christian sympathy which the interesting solennities of this evening are calculated to inspire. Let us ponder with a melancholy regret ou the final farewell which our missionary friends must soon bid to their native land, and to all the delights of kindred and of home. Let us follow their long track across the inighty deep; and while we anticipate in imagination their arrival in a strange and heathen country, where they expect to spend their days and repose their bodies in the tomb, we will indulge the same sorrow as did the afflicted elders of Ephesus, and grieve that we shall seo their faces no more.
"I would not check this overflowing of your hearts; I would only attempt to exalt and ennoble such euiotions by mingling with them a few considerations with regard to the great object that in the course of providence demands the sacrifices which now excite your sympathy.
..This object is to bear the message of a Savior's love to thousands of immortal souls who have never yet heard of him, and who are plunged in the lowest depths of sensuality and sin; aud, also, to introduce the arts and comforts of civilized society among a race of people, who, while they dwell in one of the finest climates, and own one of the richest soils, in the world, know little or nothing of those social, intellectual,and moral,enjoyments which we prize as among our bigliest privileges.
“It were enough to justify such an enterprize, if it only aimed to promote improvement and civilization; to introduce busbandry and manufactures; to inculcate conjugal fidelity and domestic attachiment, parental care and filial obedience, with all the duties and charities of life; to educate the rising generation; to ineliorate the condition of the female sex; and to diffuse the blessings of knowledge among those who now divide their time between that small degree of labor which is necessary for their bare sustenance and those animal enjoyments which are common to them with the brutes."
“But, my hearers, much as we may differ in opinion about the best mode of carrying into effect the projects of mere philosophy, such considerations are of little moment when compared with the imperious duty which is laid upon us all to make the Gospel of Christ known to the heatben. "Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations"-Was the explicit command of our Savior. Who is to execute this cominand? Soine, body must do this, or all nations will not be taught. Are we for ever VOL. XV.
to sit still and soothe our consciences with the reiterated maxim, “Charity begins at home!” This is not only a proof of the grossest disobedience to the injunctions of Christ, but of the basest ingratitude. From whom have we received our religious privileges!—from our forefathers. From whom did they derive them?-from their ancestors; and these were once heathen, and were enlightened by Christian Missionaries. Had these Missionaries practised the same cold-hearted policy which so many recommend at the present day, of keeping safe at home, and of relieving only that wretchedness which prevails in their own country, doubtless most of us, my bearers, would now be enveloped in the thick gloom of pagan superstition and idolatry. If it was the duty of the primitive Christians, in compliance with the injunction of Christ, to send missionaries to enlighten our ancestors with the truths of the Gospel, it is equally our duty to convey a knowledge of the same truths to the present heatlien world. And he who denies the force of this obligation deserves to be deprived of all the civil and religious blessings which he has inherited, and to be placed in the deepest shade of that barbarism, and superstition, and ignorance from which he is unwilling to contributo a single cffort, or advance ever so small a bounty, to rescue millions of his fellow men. How is it possible, my bearers, that we can have an interest in Jesus Christ, that we can be members of Iris kingdom, the supreme law of which is, "peace on earth and good will towards men,” if we do not pray and strive for the extension of this kingdom, if we do not both feel and act for those who are still without its limits, who know nothing of its blessings, and who yield a dreadful submission to the great adversary of all good. Let the solemn occasion on which we are convened lead us all to inquire into the strength of our attachment to Jesus Christ, and to ask ourselves the question, how willing we should be to forsake all that is most dear to us and follow him. And while most of us are not called to this arduous service, but permitted to remain at home in the bosom of civilized society, how grateful should we be to those who are willing to take their lives in their hands; to forsake friends and home and country,and to encounter the severest trials, that they may enable us, in some measure, to fulfil our obligations to our Savior, while they only ask of us our good wishes, and prayers, and a portion of our charity,
61]! we sometimes hear the propriety of such adventures, as they are termedl, called in question. For it is easy and pleasant for those of us who sit quietly by our own fire-sides, surrounded with comforts and luxury, to wonder at the rashness of those who embark in such bazardous enterprizes; and, while we shrink from self-denial, and do so little for the cause of Christ, we hope in some measure to palliate our neg. lect by finding fault with those who do more. And, strange as it may scem, Woman-sent by Ileaven as an help-meet for man; designed to share and soothe lis sorrows; to participate in, and lighten his cares; to excite by her gentle influence, and invigorate by her kind remonstrances, his languishing efforts in the path of duty;--Woman-who inay have less active courage, but more unbending fortitude, than man; wliose instinctive good sense cxtricates from difficulties which his boasted sagacity cannot surmount;-Woman-who, like the vestal virgin of old, keeps bright the lamp of domestic picty in the quict of
lier retirement, while man suffers its flame to be almost extinguished in the tumaltuous bustle of the world;-Woman-may be the admired heroine of a novel; or follow her husband through the fatigues of a military campaign and attend him amid all the borrors of war; or traverse with him the mighty deep and spend years in some sultry cline while he is toiling to make his fortune;—she may do all this, and receive the loudest plaudits of approbation for her intrepidity and constancy;-but let her become the partner of some humble missionary, who goes to fight the battles of the cross, and to win an incorruptible crown, and to lay up treasure in leaven, and she no longer has any claim to magnanimity and fortitude of soul;--she must consent to bear the reproach of weakness or rashness. Take up this reproach, ve daughters of Zion, and patiently endure it; followers of ler whose dust reposes in India, but whose spirit now rejoices in Heaven over her past sufferings in the cause of Christ; and may the same arm which shielded Rebekal, who, at the call of Providence, left her kindred and home, even the almighty arm of the God of Abrabam, of Isaac and of Jacob, ever sustain and protect you.
"Could we but foresee the result of these missionary labors, we should know how to appreciate their value. Could we look down the vale of years, and contrast the present condition of Owbyhee, and the adjacent islands, with what it will be when Christianity shall prevail among them; could we see that universal licentiousness and indolence which now prevail there, succeeded by purity, sobriety and industry; parental government and domestic comfort taking place of lawless disobedience on the part of children and the arbitrary power of the males over the females; the ferocity of war yielding to the arts of peace; agriculture waving its golden harvest over the land; knowledge diffusing its blessings among the people; the priest no more immolating his human victim, or offering vain oblations to his idol-god; the temple and the worship of Jehovah established;—could we look beyond this enchanting scene and witness the happiness of the redeemed spirits who will ascend to heaven from that nation which now sits in darkness and in the region of the shadow of death, such delightful visions would give to the present occasion an interest which I dare not venture to describe; it would, methinks, enkindle devotion to this cause of the Redeemer in the coldest heart, and inspire us all with gratitude to God that we are permitted to take ever so humble a part in doing something to bring about such wonderful and glorious events."
CXXXIV. The Promised Land: a Sermon, delivered at Goshen, Connecticut,
at the ordination nf the Rev. Messrs. Hiram Bingham and Asä Thurston, as Missionaries to the Sandwich Islands, Sept. 29, 1819. By HEMAN HUMPHREY, Pastor of the Congregational Church in Pittsfield. Mass. With an Appendix, containing the Instructions of the Prudential Committee to the Missionaries and their assistants. Boston; S. T. Armstrong. pp. 40 and xvi. Price 25
cents, Is it the duty of Christians to send the Gospel into every region of the inhabited world? would seem to be one of the plainest questions,