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intellectual excellence. Men, with advantages. But intellectual excel. no other claim to notice, either from lence raises those who have no other birth or fortune, do universally com- dowry in the world, to a rank with mand the esteem and respect of the most exalted, as the lives of li. their fellow citizens by the mere terary men sufficiently testify; and possession of a cultivated mind; while it ennobles thé humble and and many, who, born in low situa- the poor, it adds splendour to wealth, tions in life, could have no pros- and confers dignity upon titular supects beyond the same dull road in periority. How many thousand earls which their fathers trod, have, by and dukes have passed into eternity, the improvement of their mental unnoticed, and unremembered, exfaculties, risen to fame, opulence, cept in the family genealogy, while and dignity. It is, indeed, a remark- the manes of Shaftsbury, Boling. able circumstance, that almost all broke, Musgrave, Roscommon, our men of genius have been of Clarendon, Buckingham, Orford, low origin; Johnson was the son Montesquieu, Montaigne, &c. &c. of a bookseller; Akenside, a most are registered in the annals of possublime poet, was the son of a terity, for every thing except their butcher; and Shakspeare was a sort titles ! of shepherd's boy, and so low in . I have extended my remarks so far, life, that he was forced to leave that I must postpone this subject to Stratford, his native place, in con- another letter: I hope, however, I sequence of some petty robbery. shall not weary you. Farewel ! From this it would appear, that Yours most affectionately, these men early felt the advantages of intellectual cultivation,

[To le concluded in our ne t.] only means left them to obtain distinction in society.

COINCIDENCE between AKENSIDE I have hitherto spoken of intellectu.

and GRAY. al cultivation as advantageous succeda

Sir, peums for birth and fortune. I will now shew its advantage to THOUC

THOUGH we are sometimes too those whom rank and wealth may

apt to consider as an imita. have placed above this compulsion.

tion in writers, what may have been ; So universal is the homage paid only an accidental coincidence arising by mankind to intellectual superio- from the same subject, occurring rity, that even the splendour of to different minds, yet I think the fortune, and the attractive power following lines from Akenside's of titles and rank, are capable of Pleasures of Imagination have more receiving additional honours from than a casual similitude with a stanza its possession. I do not deny, that of Gray's. with the mass of mankind depth

The various lot of life of purse goes beyond depth of mind; Oft from external circumstance assumes but the vulgar have in all ages been a moments disposition to rejoice

In those delights, which at a different the same, and the aurum popularis

hour, has been always despised by truly would pass unheeded. Fair the face of great and wise men.

To a man spring who appreciates things justly, mo- When rural songs and odours wake the ney, (unless united with virtue, and virtue is the child of cultivation), To every eve; but how much more to his, is but the gewgaw of children, and Round whom the bed of sickness long difthough ro man, I will venture to fus'd say, can despise money in itself, Its melancholy gloom! how doubly fair for it is and must be the source of When first, with fresh-born vigous heinall human comfort, yet, I do hope The balny breeze, and feels the bessed

hales and believe, for the honour of bile man nature, that thousands now warm at his bosom, from the springs of breathe who heartily despise it, when life it is made the pretence for obtaining Chasing oppressive dams and la guid esteem, unconnected with personal pain. UNIVERSAL Mag. VOL. XI.


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Gray, in his beautiful postliumous pen, if the balance of trade continues fragment on the pleasures arising every year in our favour, and thus from vicissitude, bas the following occasions an accumulation of specie, lines :

which, circulating only within our

selves, produces no increase of real The hues of bliss more brightly glow (however it may add to our nominal) Chastis'd by sabler tints of woe;

wealth. And, blended, form, with artful strife

I have thought it necessary thus The strength and harmony of life.

slightly to recapitulate my former see the wretch, that long has lost

argument, as it may serve to recal

the chief outlines of it to the mind of On the thorny bed of pain,

the reader, and shall now proceed to At length repair his vigour lost, And breathe, and walk again

sketch out the leading features of the The meanest floweret of the vale, systems pursued by legislators in conThe simplest note that swells the gate, sequence of the erroneous ideas they The common air, the sun, the skies,

have formed of the nature of money To him are opening paradise.

and trade, and shall give a brief

delineation of the most important
The Pleasures of Imagination were effects arising from those systems.
published in 1744, and the lines of But before I enter on these particu-
Gray were written, probably, twenty lars, it may be necessary to take a
years after. It is not therefore chi- cursory view of cominerce in general,
merical to suppose that he may have and of the effect which it produces
had the recollection of Akenside's on a state, under the varions heads of
imagery, upon his mind when he national and individual wealth, na-
wrote, though, probably, no distinct tional strength, morality, and po-
consciousness of whom it belonged pulation, and then proceed to consider
to, or whether, indeed, it belonged the injury which will arise to a country
to any but himself. If we admit, from any leading error in its commer-
however, that he is a plagiary, we cial regulations, and the impression
niust also admit that he exceeded such error will make on the character,
his model, by the superior elegance resources, and importance of the na-
of his language, and the added pro- tion.
priety of his ideas.

The trade of any particular state
I remain, Sir, &c.

is either carried on between the in-
F. G.

dividuals that compose it, or with the Lancaster, Jan. 1, 1809.

neighbouring kingdons. The former
is always of far greater importance to
the commonwealth than the latter,

on account of the greater frequency OBSERVATIONS on the COMMERCE of of mercantile transactions, the suthis COUNTRY.

perior number of individuals engaged, Continued from Fol. X. p. 499)

and consequently the magnitude of

capital employed in it. This supeSIE,

riority of the inland, over the exter

nal trade, is greatly increased by the I

TRUST I have in my former security and unchangeableness of the

essay on this subject, proved to former, while the latter is exposed to the satisfaction of the unprejudiced continual dangers and vicissitudes. reader, that the balance of trade in All commerce with other nations our favour (as it is erroneously stated) must occasionally suffer from shipis so far from being a benefit, that it wrecks and wars, exclusive of the is on the contrary, an injury to the chance of fluctuations in the marnation; as it is evident upon a mo. ket, occasioned by a thousand events ment's consideration, that money which affect the states with whom being the mere representative of real it is carried on. Nay, the very wealth, can never enrich a state, un, protection of such trade must often less at some period or other exchanged plunge the nation into contests, for the commodities it represents, a which, in a few years, consume circumstance which can never hap- the profits of a century.

On the

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other hand, the internal mercantile ministers are eternally fraught with transactions of the country are wholly boasts of the prosperity and wealth free from any such drawbacks. It of the country, which they curimust, however, be confessed, that ously prove from the preponderance each species of commerce is neces. of our export, over our import sary to the prosperity of the other, trade. This imagivary prosperity, and undoubtedly the trade carried also, enco trages them to continue on between individuals would be fighting and taxing, while every extremely cramped, were it not individual, from the peer to the aided by the productions of other peasant, feels his comforts either countries, which are procured by abridged, or annihilated, and the means of foreign or external trade. middling class of society are almost But to return to the principal sub- crushed to the earth. A second ject of our present enquiry. Com- feature of this system, is, the acmerce, when conducted on a rati- quiring of colonies, to secure onal system, has a most decided our export trade a still greater exinfluence on every branch of the tension ; and the third, and last, economy of the state. It alters the a continual readiness to engage in opinions, and civilizes the manners any war, however dangerous or of men, by the communication expensive, by which any part of which it opens between the great this notable system is to be deand enlightened of every climate, fended, acted upon, or improved. and of every age. It increases the The evils arising from these cirwealth, revenue, resources, and cumstances are far too numerous strength of the nation, by giving for me to attempt to recount; but a new spring to the industry of I shall endeavour, as succinctly as individuals, and by pouring into the I can, to point out some of the general stock the produce of every most striking and important. other country. It causes a great

One of the first consequences of improvement in the arts and sci- our enormous balance of trade, is, ences, and has very considerable the introduction of a vast quantity effects on the morality and popu- of money, or (which is the same lation of the country. How great, thing in effect) of notes, which, then, must the injúry be to each exceeding the real necessities of of these, should the whole system trade, must necessarily sink in be found erroneous, and the very value, and exchange for a less reasons on which it is founded, af: quantity of goods than it otherwise ford the most powerful arguments would have done. That this is against it? Such is our present the case, is obvious, from the presystem; and, as I have, I hope, sent high price of every article, completely exposed the fallacy of that is to say, the large quantity the principle on which it is founded of money which it is necessary to in my former essay, I shall merely give in exchange for any quantity point out its principal features, and of real goods. If any one should then proceed to consider its effects doubt whether I have attributed on the interests and happiness of the the effect to its right cause, let us state.

put a case which may. render it The leading characteristic of the more clear. Suppose the produce system of commerce, wbich this of the whole annual labour of Great country has pursued, and acted Britain were exchanged for specie, upon for many years, is--the dis- and nothing imported from abroad, couraging of imports, by imposing would not the quantity of specie vast duuies upon them, and the be vastly increased, and the value extension of exports, by bounties, of it consequently fall? Is it not drawbacks, and allowances. Our generally allowed that a superstatute books, therefore, are filled abundance of any article lowers its with acts imposing enormous taxes value, and raises the comparative on the produce of other countries, price of every other article? If and favouring the exportation of such would be the effect our own; and the speeches of our the whole of our produce to be


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converted into money, the same an addition to the price of any one consequence (in a less degree) must thing which he has occasion to use, arise from the so converting any and increases the price of his own very considerable part of it. accordingly. A tax operates in a

From this comparative dearness similar manner, by necessitating the of real goods, individuals who have dealer to ask a larger sum for it, no share in the advantages of the and thus giving his neighbour a export trade, suffer from its conse- sufficient reason for demanding more quences, particularly those whose for his goods. Add to this, that incomes are fixed, as all annuitants, the seller of any taxed article, exstockholders, &c. &c. Thus indi- pects to be reimbursed by the viduals suffer, while the nation, consuiner for the interest of the instead of increasing, diminishes in money he advances to government. wealth. For if I exchange a real Thus if A. employs 50001. in trade, good for a nominal one, surely my and deals in an article which is property is lessened, not enlarged, taxed so high as to oblige him to and that money is such a nominal increase his capital to 10000l. he good has been already proved. A rationally requires a profit upon second evil resulting from the in- this additional capital, and therefore crease of money, is the increase not only charges the consumer the of taxation. For the necessaries re- original' price, and the amount of quisite for the support of an army the tax, but adds the prosit which or navy, being, through the low he justly expects to make upon value of money, much dearer than the amount of the tax which he before, (that is to say, exchanging has advanced to government. But for a greater quantity of specie) it the evil is increased if the article becomes requisite that greater quan- passes through many hands before tities of specie should be raised, it comes to those of the consumer. in order to purchase them. The Thus:- If A. imports a raw material, export merchant, indeed, feels not which is taxed 100 per cent. and this advance of taxes, arising from sells it to B. he charges, as I have his trade. The same trade has before stated, the price, tax, and increased his ability of paying them. profit on both. But it B. partly But it is otherwise with the rest manufactures it, and then sells it to of the nation, on whom the stream C. he charges a profit not only on has not so abundantly flowed. They his labour, and the original price, groan, while the merchant smiles, but on the tar also, which he has and suffer while he speculates, in- advanced to C. If C. again comsures, and exports.

pletes the manufacture of the article, But all operations in which tax- and then disposes of it to D. be ation is concerned, have, what I imitates C. and demands a profit , beg leave to term, a reflective pro- upon the original price, the tax, and

perty. Thus the price of provisions the profit of B. which he had paid. influences taxes, and the taxes again If it goes through still more hands, influence provisions; and each article additional protits are charged at of trade, each separate tax, affects every stage,

and original at the long-run, all the rest. Thus tax is thus, perhaps, doubled to the butcher, finding bread encrease the consumer. in price, demands more for bis Thus much for the two first conmeat, and the heightening of the sequences of an increase of specie. price of meat is alledged to the I may, perbaps, again revert to baker, as a reason for a farther addi- them. For the present, however, tion to the price of bread. The grocer, I shall drop the pen, and, in my suffering from both, charges dearer next, proceed to point out a few for his tea, and the clothier, op- more of the pernicious consequences pressed by the three, asks another of our so much vaunted balance of sixpence for his cloth. The price trade. of cloth operates again on all the

[To be continued.] M. tormer; and thus every dealer, in estry article, feels the weight of


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in some

measure, be the reason

of his being so warm an antagonist Sir,

to the Bishop of Salisbury, whose TUCH pleased with the “ Ob- zeal had so eminently exerted itof Sir Walter Raleigh," by X. X. in As an author, he was undoubtedly the last number of your miscellany, possessed of a considerable share of I take the liberty of transmitting you genius, and wrote in concert with an account of the author, principally several of his contemporary geniuses, copied from the Biographia Drá- particularly in the Spectators and matica.

Tatlers, in the fifth volume of the Dr. Sewell was born, in what year latter, and the ninth of the former, we know not, at the College of in which he was principally conWindsor, of which place his father, cerned, as also in a translation of Mr. John Sewell, treasurer the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and and chapter clerk. He received an edition of Shakspeare's, poems, his early education at Eton school, He left only one dramatic piece but was afterwards sent to the behind him, which met with very university of Cambridge, where he great success at tirst, but has not was entered of Peter-House College, been acted for several years past, and there took the degree of Ba- entitled, 1. Sir Walter Raleigh, T. chelor of Physic, in 1709. From 8vo. 1719. 2. King Richard the thence he went to Leyden, where First, 8vo. 1728. This consists only he studied under the famous Dr. of a few fragments. Boerhaave; and, on his return to Beside several controversial pamLondon, practised physic in that me- phlets, Dr. Sewell was author of tropolis, for several years; but his The Life of John Phillips-A Vinsuccess was not sufficient to induce dication of the English Stage-and him to continue there. He then some Poenis. retired to Hampstead, and followed Speaking of the tragedy of Sir his profession with credit, reputation, Walter Raleigh, the author of the and profit, until three other physi- Biog. Dram. (David Erskine Baker, cians' settled at the place; after Esq.) says “it is extremely well which his gains became very in- written : the lines with which the considerable. He kept no house, fourth act concludes, have been justly but was

a boarder; was much celebrated for novelty of thought, and esteemed, and so frequently invited elegance of expression.” to the tables of gentlemen in the

Yours, &c. neighbourhood, that he had seldom

Jan. 12, 1809.

ARMIGER. occasion to dine at home. He died the 8th of February, 1726, and was supposed, at that time, to be

Hints as to the REAL CHARACTER in very indigent circumstances, as he was interred on the 12th of

of George Fox. the same month, in the meanest

Sir, madner, his coffin being

N the dispassionate consideration to their poor, who are buried from more important than the characters the workhouse ; neither did a single of those singular men who lay the friend or relation attend him to the ground-work of a new order in religrave.

No memorial was placed gious worship. Among these there over his remains; but they lie just are not many ab-original religionists under a holly tree, which formed a worthy of more attentive remark than part of a hedge-row, that was once the subject of my present communiibe boundary of the church yard. cation. He was

man of an amiable I would wish to premise that it is disposition, and greatly esteemed far from my intention to point any among his acquaintance. In his phrases of seeming harshness, into political principles he was inclined which my subject may lead me, at to the Tory party, which might, the existing society of friends. The


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