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SECOND DOCTRINE-CONTINUED.

THE MOSAIC CULTUS.

3. ON THE VARIOUS KINDS OF OFFERINGS WITH REFERENCE

TO THEIR PURPOSE—continued.

(6) THE PEACE-OFFERING.

§ 132.

Its Name, Notion, and Division.

The name of this sacrifice (open nai) (1) may be explained in a twofold manner. According to the rabbinic view (2), it is derived from the Kal bbw, integer fuit, to be unharmed. Hence 'pie, Ps. vii. 4, he who is in a peaceful or friendly relation to me. This makes the name of the sacrifice declare that the offerer is in a relation of integrity, a relation of peace and friendship with God. Hence the LXX. already render the words by ειρηνική θυσία and sometimes by σωτήριον, the Vulgate by sacrificia pacifica (3), moderns by peace-offering. That such a notion is at all events included in that of the peaceoffering, is evident from the fact that, in those cases in which these sacrifices appear in conjunction with sin-offerings, the latter (as also burnt-offerings) are to be offered first; comp. Lev. is. 18, Num. vi. 16, etc. Thus the peace - offering is manifestly a declaration that a relation of perfect peace between the Lord and the offerer is restored by means of the atonement effected. The second explanation of the expres

sion (4) refers it to the Piel bbw, to compensate, to which the noun ob is said to be related in the same manner as 125, atonement, to 19 (5). In behalf of this explanation, it may be advanced that the Piel yw is the technical term for the act of offering this sacrifice, for it is frequently used in combination

VOL. II.

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with 017? (vows, which are a kind of Dipe), Deut. xxiii. 22, etc., and also with nizin (offerings of thanksgiving), Ps. lvi. 13; nay, in Hos. xiv. 2, to offer calves as peace-offerings is called D'ye obv. Care must however be taken, if this derivation is adopted, not to limit the Dipsum to the specific notion of the thank-offering, for the former not only include the sacrificia eucharistica, but undoubtedly also the sacrificia impetratoria, the supplicatory offerings; for which reason peace-offerings are offered, e.g. 1 Sam. xiii. 9, before commencing a battle, and Judg. xx. 26, xxi. 4, 2 Sam. xxiv. 25, when public misfortunes had been suffered. Hence the notion of the show must be understood in a more general sense as a return not only for some benefit already obtained, but also for one still desired; in short, as a testimony that to God alone are we indebted for whatever we receive or hope for (6). These offerings were called bina! (na? signifying to slay with reference to eating), because a sacrificial repast was one of their essential elements, while the consumption of the entire sacrifice on the altar was peculiar to the burnt-offering (7). "In the Pentateuch this narrower use of na! is adhered to, the word being never there used of an atoning sacrifice; nor can such usage be proved of the subsequent books of the Old Testament (8), for in Ps. li. 18 the thank - offerings of the justified (Hupfeld, Hengstenberg, Delitzsch) are spoken of (9).

With respect to the division of the peace-offerings, various opinions have also been entertained, the chief passage in this respect, Lev. vii. 11 sqq., allowing of different interpretations.

$ According to Hengstenberg (Evang. Kirchenzeitung, 1852, p. 134), the term used, ver. 12 sq., min-by nat (sacrifice of thanksgiving, A. V.), does not designate one kind of peace-offering, but is another name for the whole species, and denotes the emotions which are incorporated by these sacrifices. Hence there would be only two kinds of peace-offerings (comp. xxii. 18, 21), viz.

,(on account of thankfulness) תּוֹרָה both being ,נְדָבוֹת and נְדָרִים

comp. Ps. liv. 8, lvi. 13, cvi. 18 (10). According to the

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