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Dart forth lightning, and scatter them;
Shoot out thine arrows, and destroy them.” Psal. cxliv. 5, 6. “ And they shall build houses, and shall inhabit them;
And they shall plant vineyards, and shall eat the fruit thereof:
. Isa. Ixv. 21, 22. Parallels are also sometimes formed by a repetition of part of the first sentence: “ My voice is unto God, and I cry aloud;
My voice unto God, and he will hearken unto me." “ I will remember the works of Jehovah;
Yea, I will remember thy wonders of old." “ The waters saw thee, O God; The waters saw tbee; they were seized with anguish.”
Psal. Ixxvii. 1. 11. 16. “ For he hath humbled those that dwell on high;
The lofty city, he hath brought her down :
The feet of the poor, the steps of the needy." Isa. xxvi. 5, 6. “ What shall I do unto thee, O Ephraim!
What shall I do unto thee, O Judah!
Hos. vi. 4. i · Sometimes in the latter line a part is to be supplied from the former to complete the sentence: , “ And those that prosecute me thou wilt make to turn their backs to
Those that have me, and I will cut them off.” 2 Sam. xxii. 41. “ The mighty dead tremble from beneath; The waters, and they that dwell therein."
Job. xxvi. 5. « And I looked, and there was no man;
Even among the idols,t and there was no one that gave advice; And I inquired of them, and (there was no one] that returned an answer."
Isa. xli. 28. Farther, there are parallel triplets; when three lines
• In the parallel place, Psal. xviij. the poetical form of the sentence is much hurt, by the removing of the conjunction from the second to the first word in this line: but a MS. in that place reads as here.
+ See the note on the place.
correspond together, and form a kind of stanza; of which,
He shall guash his teeth, and pine away;
Psal. cxii. 10. “ That day, let it become darkness ;
Let not God from above inquire after it;
Nor let the flowing light radiate upon “ That night, let utter darkness seize it;
Let it not be united with the days of the year;
Let it not come into the number of the months." “Let the stars of its twilight he darkened :
Let it look for light, and may there be none :
And let it not behold the eyelids of the morning." Job iii. 4. 6.9. “ And he shall shall snatch on the right, and yet be hungry;
And he shall devour on the left, and not be satisfied;
Every man shall devour the flesh of his neighbour."* Isa. ix. 20. “ Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe ;
Come away, get you down, for the wine-press is full;
There are likewise parallels consisting of four lines:
Nor with zeal against the workers of iniquity:
And like the green herb they shall wither." Psal. xxxvii. 1, 2. “ The ox knoweth bis possessor ;
And the ass the crib of his lord;
Isa. i. 3. • And I said, I have laboured in vain ;
For nought and for vanity I have spent my strength:
* See the note on the place.
Nevertheless my cause is with Jehovah;
Isa. xlix. 4. " Jehovah shall roar from Sion;
And shall atter his voice from Jerusalem:
Amos i. 2. In like manner, some periods may be considered as making stanzas of five lines; in which the odd line, or member, either comes in between two distichs, or after two distichs makes a full close: “ If thou wouldst seek early unto God; And make thy supplication to the Almighty;
If thou wert pure and upright:
And make peaceable the dwelling of thy righteousness.” Job viii. 5,6. “ They bear him on the shoulder: they carry him about'; They set him down in his place, and he standeth;
From his place he shall not remove;
Isa. xlvi. 7. “ Who is wise, and will understand these things? Prudent, and will know them?
For right are the ways of Jehovah;
Hos. xiv. 9. “ And Jehovah shall roar out of Sion : And from Jerusalem shall utter his voice;
And the heavens and the earth shall tremble: But Jehovah will be the refuge of his people; And a strong defence to the sons of Israel."
Joel iii. 16. “ Who establisheth the word of his servant ;
And accomplisheth the counsel of his messengers :
Isa. xliv. 26. In stanzas of four lines sometimes the parallel lines answer to one another alternately; the first to the third, and the second to the fourth: “ As the beavens are bigh above the earth ;
So high is bis goodness over them that fear him: As remote as the east is from the west;
So far hath he removed from us our transgressions." Psal.ciii. 11,12.
12); compare the next verse ; and sce Isa. Iv. 9. and the note there,
“ And ye said: Nay, but on horses will we flee;
Therefore shall ye be put to flight:
Isa. Xxx. 16. And a stanza of five lines admits of the same elegance: “ Who is there among you, that feareth Jehovah ?
Let him hearken into the voice of his servant:
Let him trust in the name of Jehovah;
Isa. 1. 10. The second sort of parallels are the antithetic: when two lines correspond with one another by an opposition of terms and sentiments; when the second is contrasted with the first, sometimes in expressions, sometimes in sense only. Accordingly the degrees of antithesis are various; from an exact contraposition of word to word through the whole sentence, down to a general disparity, with something of a contrariety, in the two propositions.
Thus in the following examples: *“ 'A wise son rejoiceth his father; But a foolish son is the grief of his mother."
Prov. x. 1. Where every word hath its opposite: for the terms father and mother are, as the logicians say, relatively opposite. “ The memory of the just is a blessing ; But the name of the wicked shall rot.”
Prov. x. 7. Here there are only two antithetic terms; for
memory and name are synonymous. “ There is that scattereth, and still increaseth ;
And that is unreasonably sparing, yet groweth poor.” Prov. xi. 24. Here there is a kind of double antithesis; one between the two lines themselves; and likewise a subordinate opposition between the two parts of each. “ Many seek the face of the prince ; Bat the determination concerninig a man is from Jevovab."
Prov. xxix. 26.
Where the opposition is chiefly between the single terms,
the prince and Jehovah: but there is an opposition likewise in the general sentiment; which expresses, or intimates, the vanity of depending on the former, without seeking the favour of the latter. In the following there is much the same opposition of sentiment, without any contraposition of terms at all: “ The lot is cast into the lap:
But the whole determination of it is from Jehovah." Prov. xvi. 33. That is, the event seems to be the work of chance: but is really the direction of Providence.
The foregoing examples are all taken from the Proverbs of Solomon, where they abound: for this form is peculiarly adapted to that kind of writing; to adages, aphorisms, and detached sentences. Indeed the elegance, acuteness, and force of a great number of Solomon's wise sayings arise in a great measure from the antithetic form, the opposition of diction and sentiment. We are not therefore to expect frequent instances of it in the other poems of the Old Testament; especially those that are . elevated in the style, and more connected in the parts. However, I shall add a few examples of the like kind from the higher poetry : “ These in chariots, and those on horses ;
But we in the name of Jehovah our God will be strong.* They are bowed down, and fallen; But we are risen, and maintain ourselves firm.” Psal. xx, 7, 8. “ For his wrath is but for a moment, bis favour for life ; Sorrow may lodge for the evening, but in the morning gladness."
Psal. xxx. 5. " Yet a little while, and the wicked shall be no more ;
Thou shalt look at his place, and he shall not be found: But the meek shall inherit the land, And delight themselves in abundant prosperity." Psal. xxxvii. 10,11. In the last example the opposition lies between the two parts of a stanza of four lines, the latter distich being opposed to the former. So likewise the following: “ For the mountains shall be removed ;
And the hills shall be overthrown:
722), so LXX. Syr. Æthiop.