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The twenty-fourth, and the three following chapters, seem to have been delivered about the same time : before the destruction of Moab by Shalmaneser; (see xxv. 10.) consequently before the destruction of Samaria ; probably in the beginning of Hezekiah's reign. But concerning the particolar subject of the twenty-fourth chapter, interpreters are not at all agreed: some refer it to the desolation caused by the iovasion of Shalmaneser; others to the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar; and others to the destruction of the city and nation by the Romans. Vitringa is singular in his opinion, who applies it to the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes. Perhaps it may have a view to all of the three great desolations of the country, by Sbalmaneser, by Nebuchadnezzar, and by the Romans; especially the last, to wbich some parts of it may seem more peculiarly applicable. However, the prophet chiefly employs general images; such as set forth the greatness and universality of the ruin and desolation that is to be brought upon the country by these great revolutions, involving all orders and degrees of men, changing entirely the face of things, and destroying the whole polity both religious and civil; without entering into minute circumstances, or necessarily restraining it by particular marks to one great event, exclusive of others of the same kind.
4. The world languisheth] The world is the same with the land; that ‘is, the kingdoms of Judah and Israel; orbis Israeliticus. See note on chap. xiii. 11.
5.--the law] 771), singular: so read LXX, Syr. Chald. 6. mare destroyed] For 1917, read 1211; see LXX, Syr. Chald. Sym.
9. -palm-wine-] That is the proper meaning of the word w, Bukepa: see note on chap. v. 11. All enjoyment shall cease; the sweetest wine shall become bitter to their taste.
11. is passed away] For TV, read y: transposing a letter, Houbigant, Secker. Five MSS. (two ancient), ada 5, after wo: LXX add the same word before it.
14. But these-) That is, they that escaped out of these calamities. The great distresses brought upon Israel and Judah drove the people away, and dispersed them all over the neighbouring countries : they fled to Egypt, to Asia Minor, to the islands and the coasts of Greece. They were to be found in great numbers in most of the principal cities of these countries. Alexandria was in a great measure peopled by them. They bad synagogues for their worship in many places; and were greatly instrumental in propagating the knowledge of the true God among these heathen nations, and preparing them for the reception of Christianity. This is what the prophet seems to mean by the celebration of the name of Jehovah in the waters, in the distant coasts, and in the uttermost parts of the land. On the waters ; vòwp, LXX; öðara, Theod. not op, from the sea.
15. In the distant coasts of the sea] For DMX, I suppose, we ought to read O'X); which is in a great degree justified by the repetition of the word in the next member of the sentence, with the addition of 09 to vary the phrase, exactly in the manner of the prophet. O'X is a word chiefly applied to any distant countries, especially those lying on the Mo
, , , ), ; O'n, a 7x, illustrati, Le Clerc. Twenty-three MSS.
read DTX). The LXX do not acknowledge the reading of the text, expressing here only the word "X, EV Taig vnodus, and that not repeated. Bat MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. 11. supply in this place the defect in the other copies of LΧΧ, thus : Δια τουτο η δοξα Κυριου εσται εν ταις νησοις της θαλασσης" εν ταις νησοις το ονομα του Κυριου θεου Ισραηλ ενδοξον εσται. According to which the LXX had in their Hebrew copy "X2, repeated afterward, not o 82.
16. But I said] The prophet speaks in the person of the inhabitants of the land still remaining there; who should be pursued by divine vengeance, and suffer repeated distresses from the inroads and dopredations of their powerful enemies. Agreeably to what he said before in a general donunciation of these calamities :
“ Though there be a tenth part remaining in it;
Chap. vi. 13. See the note there. Ibid. --the plunderers plunder] See note on chap. xxi. 2.
17, 18. The terror, the pit,-) If they escape one calamity, another shall overtake them;
“ As if a man should flee from a lion, and a bear should overtake him :
Or should betake bimself to his house, and lean his hand on the wall,
Amos. v. 19. For, as our Saviour expressed it in a like parabolical manner, “ wberesoever the carcass is, there shall the eagles be gathered together.” Matt. xxiv. 28. The images are taken from the different methods of hunting and taking wild beasts, which were anciently in use. The terror was a line strung with feathers of all colours, which fluttering in the air scared and frightened the beasts into the toils, or into the pit which was prepared for them. “ Nec est mirum, cum maximos ferarum greges linea pennis distincta contineat, et in insidias agat, ab ipso effectu dicta Formido.” Seneca de Ira, ii. 12. The pit, or pit-fall, Fovea; digged deep in the ground, and covered over with green boughs, torf, &c. in order to deceive them, that they might fall into it unawares. The snare, or toils, Indago; a series of nets, enclosing at first a great space of ground, in which the wild beasts were known to be; and then drawn in by degrees into a narrower compass, till they were at last closely shut up, and entangled in them.
For bopo, a MS. reads "Da, as it is in Jer. xlviii. 44, and so the Vuly, and Chald. But perhaps it is only, like the latter, a Hebraism, and means no more than the simple preposition . See Ps. cíi. 6. For it doos not appear that the terror was intended to scare the wild beasts by its voise. The paronomasia is very remarkable; pachad, pachath, pack: and that it was a common proverbial form, appears from Jeremiah's repoating it in the same words. Chap. xlviii. 43, 44.
18. -- from the pit] For Tino, from the midst of, a MS. reads 113, from, as it is in Jer. xlvii. 44. and so likewise LXX, Syr. Vulg. 19. The land] “ YOX, forte delendum , ut ex præcedente ortum.
SECKER. 20. —like a lodge for a night.] See note on cbap. i. 8.
21-23. -on high, --on earth-] That is, the ecclesiastioal and civil polity of the Jews; which shall be destroyed. The nation shall continue
in a state of depression and dereliction for a long time. The image seems to be taken from the practice of the great monarcbs of that time; wbo, when they had thrown their wretched captives into a dungeon, never gave themselves the trouble of inquiring about them; but let them lie a long time in that miserable condition, wholly destitute of relief, and disregarded. God shall at length revisit and restore his people in the last age: and then the kingdom of God shall be established in such perfection, as wholly to obscure and eclipse the glory of the temporary, typical, preparative kingdom now subsisting.
“ The figurative language of the propbets is taken from the analogy between the world natural, and an empire or kingdom considered as a world politic. Accordingly the whole world natural, consisting of heaven and earth, signifies the whole world politic, consisting of thrones and people, or so much of it as is considered in prophecy; and the things in that world signify the analogous things in this. For the heavens and the things therein signify thrones and dignities, and those who enjoy them ; and the earth, with the things thereon, the inferior people; and the lowest parts of the earth, called Hades, or Hell, the lowest or most miserable part of them.-Great earthquakes, and the shaking of heaven and earth, are put for the shaking of kingdoms, so as to distract and overthrow
the creating a new beaven and earth, and the passing of an old one, or the beginning and end of a world, for the rise and ruin of a body politic signified thereby.-The sun, for the whole species and race of kings, in the kingdoms of the world politic; the moon, for the body of the common people, considered as the king's wife; the stars, for subordinate princes and great men; or for bishops and rulers of the people of God, when the sun is Christ :-setting of the sun, moon, and stars ; darkening the sun, turning the moon into blood, and falling the stars, for the ceasing of a kingdom." Sir I. Newton, Observations on the Prophecies, Part I. chap. ii.
It doth not appear to me, that this chapter bath any close and particular connexion with the chapter immediately preceding, taken separately, and by itself. The subject of that was the desolation of the land of Israel and Judah, by the just judgment of God, for the wickedness and disobedience of the people: wbich, taken by itself, seems not with any propriety to introduce a bymn of thanksgiving to God for his mercies to bis people in delivering them from their enemies. But taking the whole course of prophecies, from the thirteenth to the twenty-fourth chapter inclusive, in which the prophet foretels the destruction of several cities and nations, enemies to the Jews, and of the land of Judah itself, yet with intimations of a remnant to be saved, and a restoration to be at length effected by a glorioas establishment of the kingdom of God: with a view to this extensive scene of God's providence in all its parts, and in all its coðsequences, the prophet may well be supposed to break out into this song of praise; in which his mind seems to be more possessed with the prospect of future mercies than with the recollection of the past.
2. -the city-) Niniveh, Babylon, Ar Moab, or any other strong fortross possessed by the enemies of the people of God.
For the first gyo Syr. Vulg. read 7977; LXX, and Chald. read, in tbe p!ural, Oil, transposing the letters. After the second hyna, a MS.
are often confounded by the great זדים and זרים But
קיר 80 ,ערר from עיר or as :קור read ,קיר d winter stom
Ibid. -- the proud ones-] For O'l, strangers, MS. Bodl. and another read O'71. the proud: so likewise the LXX; for they render it ageßwv here, and in verse 5th, as they do in some other places: see Deut.. xviii. 20. 22. Another MS. reads O'73, adversaries; which also makes a good sense. similitude of the letters 7 and ). See Mal. iii, 15. iv. 1. Psal. xix. 14. apud LXX: and Psal. liv. 5. (where Chald. reads 0991) compared with Psal. Ixxxvi. 14.
4. - a .] , : from 77. Capellus.
5. —the proud-] The same mistake bere as in ver. 2.: see note there. Here O'Ti, the proud, is parallel to O'yogy, the formidable: as in Psal. liv. 5. and Isxxvi. 14.
Ibid. As the heat by a thick cloud] Forn, Syr. Chald. Vulg. and two MSS. read ]0; wbich is a repetition of the beginning of the foregoing parallel line: and the verse taken out of the parallel form, and more fully expressed, would run thus: “ As a thick cloud interposing tempers the heat of the sun on the burnt soil, so shalt thou, by the interposition of thy power, bring low and abate the tumult of the proud, and the triumph of the formidable."
6. — shall make for all the people a feast.] A feast is a proper and usual expression of joy in consequence of victory, or any other great success. The feast here spoken of is to be celebrated on mount Sion, and all the peoples without distinction are to be invited to it. This can be no other than the celebration of the establishment of Christ's kingdom, which is frequently represented in the gospel under the image of a feast; “where many shall come from the cast and west, and shall sit down at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven.” Matt. viii. 11. See also Luke xiv. 16. xxii. 29, 30. This sense is fully confirmed by the concomitants of this feast expressed in the next verse; the removing of the veil from the face of the nations, and the abolition of death : the first of wbich is obviously and clearly explained of the preaching of the gospel; and the second must mean the blessing of immortality procured for us by Christ,“ who hath abolished death, and through death bath destroyed him that had the power of death."
Ibid. —of old wines] Heb. lees; that is, of wines kept long on the lees. The word used to express the lees in the original signifies the preservers; because they preserve the strength and flavour of the wine.
* All recent wines, after the fermentation has ceased, ought to be kept on their lees for a certain time; which greatly contribute to increase their strength and flavour. Whenever this first fermentation has been deficient, they will retain a more rich and sweet taste than is natural to them in å recent true vinous state ; and unless farther fermentation is promoted by their lying longer on their own lees, they will never attain their genuine strength and flavour, but run into repeated and ineffectual fermentations, and soon degenerate into a liquor of an acetous kind.-All wines of a light and austere kind, by a fermentation too great, or too long continued,
certainly degenerate into a weak sort of vinegar; while the stronger not only require, but will safely bear a stronger and often repeated fermentation ; and are more apt to degenerate from a defect than excess of fermentation, into a vapid, ropy, and at length into a putrescent state.” Sir Edward Barry, Observations on the Wines of the Ancients, p. 9, 10.
Thevenot observes particularly of the Scbiras wine, tbat, after it is re. ined from the lees, it is apt to grow sour: “Il a beaucoup de lie; c'est pourquoi il donne puissemment dans la teste'; et pour le rendre plus traitable, on le passe par un chausse d'hypocras : après quoi il est fort clair, et moins fumeux. Ils mittent ce vin dans des grandes jarres de terre, qui tiennent dix ou douze jusqu'à quatorze carabas : mais quand l'on a entamé une jarre, il faut la vuider au plutost, et mettre le vin qu'on en tire dans des bouteilles ou carabas ; car si l'on y manque en le laissant quelque tems après que la jarre est entamée, il se gâte et s'aigrit.” Voyages, tom. ii. p. 245.
This clearly explains the very elegant comparison, or rather allegory, of Jeremiah ; wbere the reader will find a remarkable example of the mixture of the proper with the allegorical, not uncommon in the Hebrew poets :
" Moab hath been at ease from his youth,
And he bath settled upon his lees;
Jer. xlviii. 11. Sir John Chardin's MS. note on this place of Jeremiah is as follows: On change anisi le vin de cape en cupe en orient; et quand op en entamé une, il faut la vuider en petites copes ou bouteilles, sans quoy s'aigrit.”
7. —the face of all- ] MS. Bodl. reads, 5'99 yy. The word 'has been removed from its right place into the line above, where it makes no sepse; as Houbigant conjectured.
9. -—shall they say-) So LXX and Vulg. in the plural number. They read 1908). Syr. reads n2x1, Thou shalt say.
10.-shall give rest- “ Heb. Min, quiescet. Annon Juan quietem dabit, ut Græci, avan avoiy dwoel, et Copt.?” Mr. Woide. That is, “shall give peace and quiet to Sion, by destroying the enemy;" as it follows.
Ibid. As the straw is threshed-] “ Hoc juxta ritum loquitur Palæstinæ et multarum Orientis provinciarum, quæ ob pratorum et fæni penuriam paleas preparent esui animantium. Sunt autem carpenta ferrata rotis per medium in serrarum modum se volventibus, quæ stipulam conterunt; et comminuunt in paleas. Quomodo igitur plaustris ferratis paleæ conteruntur, sic conteretur Moab sub eo; sive sub Dei potentia, sive in semetipso, ut nihil in eo integri remaneat.” Hieron. in loc. See note on chap. xxviii. 27.
Ibid. --under the wheels of the car.) For ,73079, LXX, Syr. Vulg. read p; which I have followed. See Joshua xv. 31. compared with xix. 5. where there is a mistake very nearly the same. The Keri, "D, is confirmed by twenty-eight MSS. (seven ancient), and three editions.
11. As he that sinketh stretcheth out his hands to swim.] There is great obscurity in this place: some understand God as the agent; others Moab.