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15. —shall slay you.) For TOYOT), shall slay thee, LXX and Chald. read ODN'T), shall slay you, plural.
17. -I create new heavens, and a new earth] Concerning this image, and the application of it, see De S. Poes. Hebr. Præl. ix.
18. —in the age to come, which I create] So in chap. ix. 6. Ty ax, hamnp rov pellovroS alwvos, LXX. See Bishop Chandler, Defence of Christianity, p. 136.
20. For Own, thence, LXX, Syr. Vulg. read Ow, there.
21. They shall not build, and another inhabit] The reverse of the curse denounced on the disobedient, Deut. xxviii. 30. “ Thou shalt build a house, and thou shalt not dwell therein ; thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not gather the grapes thereof."
22. For as the days of a tree -] It is commonly supposed, that the oak, one of the most long-lived of the trees, lasts about a thousand years; being five hundred years growing to full perfection, and as many decaying: which seems to be a moderate and probable computation. See Evelyn, Sylya, b. iii. chap. iii. The present emperor of China, in bis very ingenious and sensible poem, entitled, Eloge de Moukden, a translation of which in French was published at Paris, 1770, speaks of a tree in his country which lives more than a hundred ages; and of another which, after fourscore ages is only in its prime, p. 37, 38. But bis imperial majesty's commentators, in their note on the place, carry the matter much farther; and quote authority which affirms, that the tree last mentioned by the emperor, the immortal tree, after having lived ten thousand years, is still only in its prime, I suspect that the Chinese enlarge somewhat in their national chronology, as well as in that of their trees. See Chou King, Preface, by Mons. de Guignes. The prophet's idea seems to be, that they shall live to the age of the antediluvians; wbich seems to be very justly expressed by the days of a tree, according to our notions,
23. My chosen shall not labour in vain] I remove '7772 from the end of the 22d to the beginning of the 230 verse, on the authority of LXX, Syr. Vulg. and a MS.; contrary to the division in the Masoretic text.
Ibid. Neither shall they generate a short-lived race] hicab, in festinationem, what shall soon hasten away. Eug karapav, for a curse, LXX. They seem to have read bob, Grotius. But Psal. Ixxviii. 33. both justifies and explains the word here:
ויכל בהבל ימיהם ושנותם בנחלה :
And their years in haste.” HETA O Tovdes, say the LXX. Jerom, on this place of Isaiah, explains it to the same purpose: "Elç avvnaprav, hoc est, ut esse desistant."
25. --shall feed together] For XI, as one, an ancient MS. bas 1917, together ; the usual word, to the same sense, but very different in the letters. LXX, Syr. and Vulg. seem to agree with the MS.
CHAP. LXVI. This chapter is a continuation of the subject of the foregoing. The Jews valued themselves much upon their temple, and the pompous system of services performed in it, which they supposed were to be of per
petual duration; and they assumed great confidence and merit to themselves for their strict observance of all the externals of their religion. And at the very time, when the judgments, denounced in ver. 6th and 12th of the preceding cbapter, were hanging over their heads, they were rebuilding, by Herod's munificence, the temple in a most magnificent manner. God admonishes them, that “the Most High dwelleth not in temples made with bands;" and that a mere external worship, how diligently soever attended, when accompanied with wicked and idolatrous practices in the worshippers, would never be accepted by him. This their hypocrisy is set forth in strong colours : wbich brings the prophet again to the subject of the former chapter; and he pursues it in a different manner, with more express declaration of the new economy, and of the flourishing state of the church under it. The increase of the church is to be sudden and astonishing. They that escape of the Jews, that is, that become converts to the Christian faith, are to be employed in the divine mission to the Gentiles, and are to act as priests in presenting the Gentiles as an offering to God: see Rom. xv. 16. And both, now collected into one body, shall be witnesses of the final perdition of the obstinate and irreclaimable.
These two chapters manifestly relate to the calling of the Gentiles, the establishment of the Christian dispensation, and the reprobation of the apostate Jews, and their destruction executed by the Romans.
2. —all these things are mine A word, absolutely necessary to the sense, is hiere lost out of the text: 5, mine ; it is preserved by LXX and Syr.
3. He that slayeth an ox, killeth a man--] These are instances of extreme wickedness joined with hypocrisy; of the most flagitious crimes committed by those, who at the same time affected great strictness in tbc performance of all the external services of religion. God, by the prophet Ezekiel, upbraids the Jews with the same practices: “When they had slain their children to their idols, then they came the same day into my sanctuary to profane it." Chap. xxiii. 39. Of the same kind was the hypocrisy of the Pharisees in our Saviour's time; “who devoured widows' houses, and for a pretence made long prayers.” Matt. xxiii. 14.
The generality of interpreters, by departing from the literal rendering of the text, have totally lost the true sense of it; and have substituted in its place what makes no good sense at all: for it is not easy to shew, how, in any circumstances, sacrifice and murder, the presenting of legal offerings and idolatrous worship, can possibly be of the same account in the sight of God.
Ibid.- that maketh an oblation, Coffereth] swine's blood] A word here likewise, necessary to complete the sense, is perhaps irrecoverably lost out of, the text. The Vulg. and Chald. add the word offereth, to make out the sense; not, as I imagine, from any different reading (for the word wanted seems to have been lost before the time of the oldest of them, as the LXX had it not in their copy); but from mere necessity.
Le Clerc thinks, that thyo is to be repeated from the beginning of this member ; but tbat is not the case in the parallel members, which bave another and a different verb in the second place. “ , sic versiones: putarem tamen legendam participium aliquod, et quidem , cum sequatur , nisi jam præcesserat.” . Secker. Houbigant supplies
Sax, eateth. After all, I think the most probable word is that which Chald. and Vulg. seem to have designed to represent; that is, I'mpo.
5. Say ye to your brethren—] The Syr. reads DONNY 1998; and so the LXX, edit. Comp. Elnare adepous yuwvo and MS. Marchal. bas adelpois' and so Cyril and Procopius read and explain it. It is not easy to make sense of the reading of LXX in the other editions: Eltate adem pos ημων τους μισουσιν υμας-but for ήμων, ΜS. I. D. 11. also has υμων.
8. —and who hath seen] Twenty MSS. (sour ancient), and the two oldest editions, with two others, have pi, adding the conjunction 1: and so read all the ancient versions.
11. -- from her abundant stores] For 90, two MSS., and the old edition of 1488, have 1992; and the latter is upon a rasure in three other MSS. It is remarkable that Kimchi and Sal. b. Melech, pot being able to make any thing of the word as it stands in the text, say it means the same with 10 : that is, in effect, they admit of a various reading, or an error, in the text. But as Vitringa obscrves, what sense is there in sucking nourishment from the splendour of her glory? He therefore endeavours to deduce another sense from the word ""; but as far as it
appears to me, without any authority. I am more inclined to accede to the opinion of those learned Rabbins, and to think that there is some mistake in the word; for that in truth is their opinion, though they disguise it by saying, that the corrupted word means the very same with that which they believe to be genuine. So in chap. xli. 24. they say, that yox, a viper, means the same with DAN, nothing ; instead of acknowledging that one is written by mistake instead of the other. I would propose to read in this place 7720, or fi (instead of myo), from the stores ; from 7), to nourish, to feed: see Gen. xlv. 23. 2 Chron, xi. 23. Psal. cxliv. 13. And this perhaps may be meant by Aquila, who renders the word by ano wavtoðarlag: with wbich that of the Vulgate,“ ab omnimoda gloria,” and of Symmachus and Theodotion, nearly agree. The Chaldee follows a different reading, without improving the sense; qua, from the wine.
12. — like the great river, and like the overflowing stream-] That is the Euphrates (it ought to bave been pointed 7725, ut fluvius ille, as the river), and the Nile. Ibid. And
shall suck at the breast] These two words to by, at the breast, seem to have been omitted in the present text, from their likeness to the two words following; 73 by, at the side. A very probable conjecture of Houbigant. Chald. and Vulg. lave omitted the two latter words instead of the two former. See note on chap. Ix. 4.
15. —shall come as a fire] For WR), in fire, the LXX had in their copy WX), as a fire; ús tvp.
Ibid. 1'o breathe forth his anger] Instead of a vib, as pointed by the Masoretes, to render, I understand it as auns, to breathe, from IVI.
17. --after the riles of Achad-) The Syrians worshipped a god called Adad. Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxvij. 11. Macrob. Sat. i. 23. They held him to be the highest and greatest of the gods, and to be the same with Jupiter and the Sun: and the name Adad, says Macrobius, signifies one; as likewise does the word Achad in Isaiah. Many learned men therefore have supposed, and with some probability, that the pro
-ome after an ,אחד אחר אחד ome by ome
, or perhaps ,אחד אחד copies
phet means the same pretended deity. T1X, in the Syrian and Chaldean dialects is 17; and perhaps by reduplication of the last letter, to express perfect unity, it may have become TN, not improperly expressed in Latin by Macrobius Adad, without the aspirate. It was also pronounced by the Syrians themselves, with a weaker aspirate, 7777; as in Benbadad, Hadadezer, names of their kings, which were certainly taken from their chief object of worship. This seems to me to be a probable account of this name.
But the Masoretes correct the text in this place; their marginal reading is nix, which is the same word, only in the feminine form : and so read thirty MSS. (six ancient), and the two oldest editions. This Le Clerc approves, and supposes it to mean Hecate, or the Moon; and be sopports his hypothesis by arguments not at all improbable. See his note on the place.
Whatever the particular mode of idolatry, which the prophet refers to, might be, the general sense of the place is perfectly clear. But Chald. and Syr. and after thcm Symmachus and Theodotion, cut off at once all these difficulties, by taking the word TX in its common meaning, not as a proper name; the two latter rendering the sentence thus: onlow alληλων εν μεσω εσθιοντων το κρεας το χοιρειον" one after another, in the midst of those that eat swine's flesh. I suppose, they :/ read in their
, , , other. See a large dissertation on this subject in Davidis Millii Dissertationes Selectæ, Dissert. vi.
18. For I know their deeds-) A word is here lost out of the present text, leaving the sense quite imperfect. The word is y71', knowing, supplied from the Syriac. The Chald. had the same word in the copy before him, which he paraphrases by "Op 12, their deeds are manifest before me: and the Aldine and Complutensian editions of LXX acknowledge the same word, Erlotapat; which is verified by MS. Pachom, and the Arabic version. I think there can be little doubt of its being genuine.
Ibid. And I come-] For ,7), which will not accord with any thing in the sentence, I read X2, with a MS.; the participle answering to yri, with which agree LXX, Syr. Valg. Perhaps it ought to be X2), Syr. quando veniam: and so LXX, according to edit. Ald. and Complut. and Cod. Marchal.
19. —who draw the bow] I much suspect, that the words nup 'JUA, who draw the bow, are a corruption of the word TWO, Moschi, the name of a nation situated between the Euxine and Caspian seas; and pro• perly joined with ban, the Tibareni: see Bochart, Phaleg. iji. 12. The LXX have uooox, without any thing of the drawers of the bow: the word being once taken for a participle, the bow was added to make sense of it. nup, the bow, is omitted in a MS.
Jbid. --who never heard my name] For you, my fame, I read with LXX and Syr. 'Dw, my name.
20. -and in counes] There is a sort of vehicle, much used in the east, consisting of a pair of bampers or cradles, thrown across a camel's back, one on each side: in each of which a person is carried. They have a covering to defend them from the rain and the sun. Thevenot calls them counes, i. p. 356. Maillet describes thein as covered cages hanging
on both sides of a camel. “At Aleppo,” says Dr. Russell, “women of inferior condition in longer journies are commonly stowed, one on each side of a mule, in a sort of covered cradles.” Nat. Hist. of Aleppo, p. 89. These seem to be what the prophet means by the word d']Y. See Harmer, Observ. i. p. 445.
21. —and for Levites] For D955, fifty-nine MSS. (eight ancient) have D9559, adding the conjunction ), as the sense seems necessarily to require: and so read all the ancient versions. See Josh. iii. 3. and the various readings on that place in Kennicott's Bible.
24. For their worm shall not die-] These words of the prophet are applied by our blessed Saviour, Mark ix. 44. to express the everlasting punishment of the wicked in Gehenna, or in hell. Gehenna, or the valley of Hinnom, was very near to Jerusalem to the south-east: it was the place where the idolatrous Jews celebrated that borrible rite of making their children pass through the fire, that is, of burning them in sacrifice, to Moloch. To put a stop to this abominable practice, Josiah defiled, or desecrated, the place, by filling it with human bones ; 2 Kings xxiii. 10. 14. : and probably it was the custom afterward to throw out the carcasses of animals there; and it became the common burying-place for the poorer people of Jerusalem. 'Our Saviour expressed the state of the blessed by sensible images; such as paradise, Abraham's, bosom, or, wbich is the same thing, a place to recline next to Abraham at table in the kingdom of heaven; seejMatt. viii. 11. (“Cæpabat Nerva cum paucis. Veiento proximus, atque etiam in sinu recumbebat.” Plin. Epist. iv. 22. Compare John xiii. 23.) for we could not possibly bave any conception of it, but by analogy from worldly objects: in like manner he expressed the place of torment under the image of Gehenna; and the punishment of the wicked, by the worm which there preyed on the carcasses, and the fire which consumed the wretched victims. Marking, however, in the strongest manner, the difference between Gehenna and the invisible place of torment; namely, that in the former the suffering is transient: the worm itself, that preys on the body, dies; and the fire, which totally consumes it, is soon extinguished: whereas in the figurative Gehenna, the instruments of punishment shall be everlasting, and the suffering without end; for thero“ the worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenchod.”
These emblematical images, expressing heaven and hell, were in use among the Jews before our Saviour's time; and in using them he complied with their notions. “Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God," says the Jew to our Saviour, Luke xiv. 15. And in regard to Gehenna, the Chaldee paraphrast, as I observed before on chap. Xxx. 33. renders everlasting, or continual burnings, by “the Gehenna of everlasting fire." And before his time the son of Sirach, vii. 17. bad said, “The vengeance of the ungodly is fire and worms.” So likewise the author of the book of Judith : “Woe to the nations rising up against my kindred: the Lord Almighty will take vengeance of them in the day of judgment, in putting fire and worms in their flesh:" chap. xvi. 17. manifestly referring to the same emblem.