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the threshing instruments The sublimity of the imagery which is taken from familiar objects results from its propriety-The poetic hell of the Hebrews explained; the imagery of which is borrowed from their subterraneous sepulchres and funeral rites,
OF POETIC IMAGERY FROM SACRED TOPICS.
Imagery which is borrowed from the rites and ceremonies of religion, pe
culiarly liable to obscurity and mistake, Instances of expressions which appear uncommonly harsh; and of others, the principal elegance of which would be lost, unless we adverted to the nature of the sacred rites—The exordium of the hundred-and-fourth Psalm explained,
OF POETIC IMAGERY FROM THE SACRED HISTORY.
The Imagery from the sacred history is the most luminous and evident of
all—The peculiar nature of this kind of metaphor explained, as used by the Hebrew Poets— The order of the topics which commonly furnish them : the Chaos and Creation; the Deluge; the destruction of Sodom; the emigration of the Israelites from Egypt; the descent of God upon Mount Sinai–This species of metaphor excellently adapted to the sacred poetry, and particularly to the prophetic; not easy to form any comparison between the sacred and profane poetry in this respect,
Three forms of Allegory : 1. Continued Metaphor; which is scarcely
worth distinguishing from the simple Metaphor— The freedom of the Hebrews in confounding the forms of the Metaphor, Allegory, and Comparison : a more perfect form also of Allegory instanced-2. The Parable; and its principal characteristics : that it ought to be formed from an apt and well-known image, the signification of which is obvious and definite; also from one which is elegant and beautiful; that its parts and adjuncts be perspicuous, and conduce to the main object; that it be consistent, and must not confound the literal and figurative meaning—The Parables of the Prophets, and particularly of Ezekiel, examined according to this standard,
OF THE MYSTICAL ALLEGORY.
The definition of the Mystical Allegory-Founded upon the allegorical or
typical nature of the Jewish religion—The distinction between this and the two former species of Allegory; in the nature of the materials : it being allowable in the former to make use of imagery from indifferent objects; in this, only such as is derived from things sacred, or their opposites : in the former, the exterior image bas no foundation in truth; in the latter, both images are equally true— The differeuce in the form or manner of treating them- The most beautiful form is when the cor
responding images run parallel through the whole poem, and mutually illustrate each other-Examples of this in the 2d and 720 PsalmsThe Parabolic Style admirably adapted to this species of Allegory; the nature of which renders it the language most proper for prophecyExtremely dark in itself, but it is gradually cleared up by the series of events foretold, and more complete revelation ; time also, which in the general obscures, contributes to its full explanation, moroccam.. Page 114
OF THE COMPARISON.
Comparisons are introduced for three purposes ; illustration, amplifica
tion, and variety- For the first an image is requisite, apt, well-kuown, and perspicuous; it is of little consequence whether it be sublime or beautiful, or neither : hence Comparisons from objects which are in themselves mean and humble may be sometimes useful— For the purpose of amplification an image is requisite which is sublime or beautiful, even though it should be less apt and perspicuous; and on this plea, a degree of obscurity, or a remoteness in the resemblance, may sometimes be excused — When variety is the object, splendid, beautiful, and elegant imagery must be sought for; and which has an apt agreement with the object of the Comparison in the circumstances or adjuncts, though the objects themselves may be different in kind— The most perfect Comparison is that in which all these excellencies are united— The peculiar form of Comparisons in the Hebrew Poetry; it results from the nature of the sententious style—They are short, frequent, simple, depending often on a single attribute-Different images displayed in the parallel sentences; many Comparisons are arranged in this manner to illustrate the same subject; or different attributes of the same Comparison are often distributed in the different divisions or parallelisms,
OF THE PROSOPOPEIA, OR PERSONIFICATION.
Two kinds of Personification : when a character is assigned to fictitious
or inanimate objects; and when a probable speech is attributed to a real person-of fictitious and inanimate characters; of real characters -The Prosopopæia of the mother of Sisera (in the song of Deborah) explained; also the triumphal song of the Israelites concerning the death of the King of Babylon (in Isaiah), which consists altogether of this figure, and exhibits it in all its different formsmarmara
OF THE SUBLIME IN GENERAL, AND OP SUBLIMITY OF EXPRESSION
III. In what manner the word Mashal inplies the idea of Sublimity
Sublimity of language and sentiment-On what account the poetic diction of the Hebrews, either considered in itself or compared with prose composition, merits an appellation expressive of sublimity— The sublimity of the poetic diction arises from the passions--How far the poetic diction differs from prose among the Hebrews–Certain forms of poetic diction and construction exemplified from Job, chap. iii.
OF SUBLIMITY OF EXPRESSION.
The character of the Poetic Dialect further illustrated by examples of dif
ferent kinds from the Song of Moses, Deut. xxxii.- The frequent and sudden transition from one person to another; its cause and effectsThe use of the tenses in a manner quite different from common language: the reasons of this— The Hebrew language peculiar in this respect—The future is often spoken of in the perfect present, and the past in the future tense: the reason of the former easy to be explained; the latter is a matter of considerable difficulty, which neither the Commentators, the Translators, nor even the Grammarians have elucidated -Some examples of this, and the explanation of them— The frequent use of this form of construction may be considered as characteristical of the poetic dialect,
OF SUBLIMITY OF SENTIMENT.
Sublimity of Sentiment arises either from elevation of mind, or from some
vehement passion ; in each, it is either natural, or the effect of divine inspiration-Elevation of mind is displayed in the greatness of the subject, the adjuncts, and the imagery-Examples from the descriptions of the Divine Majesty; of the works and attributes of the Deity; also from the display of the Divine Power in the form of interrogation and irony- The Hebrew Poets attribute the human passions to the Deity without departing from sublimity; and that frequently when the imagery appears least consistent with the Divine Majesty : the reason of this,
OF THE SUBLIME OF PASSION.
Sublimity of Sentiment, as arising from the vehement affections of the
mind—What is commonly called Enthusiasm is the natural effect of passion: the true enthusiasm arises from the impulse of the Divine Spirit, and is peculiar to the Sacred Poets—The principal force of poetry is displayed in the expression of passion : in exciting the passions poetry best achieves its purpose, whether it be utility or pleasure-How the passions are excited to the purpose of utility; how to that of pleasureThe difference and connexion between the pathetic and the sublimeThat sublimity which in the sacred poetry iceceeds from the imitation of the passions of admiration, of joy, indignation, grief, and terror, illustrated by examples,
THE THIRD PART.
OF THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF POETRY EXTANT IN THE
WRITINGS OF THE HEBREWS.
OF PROPHETIC POETRY.
THE WRITINGS OF THE PROPHETS ARE IN GENERAL POETICAL.
this mode of arrangement results rather from the nature of the subject
THE PROPHETIC POETRY IS SENTENTIOUS.
The Psalmody of the Hebrews—The manner of chanting the hymns by
alternate choirs : whence the origin of the poetical construction of the sentences, and that peculiar form in which verses and distichs run parallel or correspondent to each other-Three species of Parallelism; the synonymous, the antithetic, and the synthetic: examples of each ; first from the books generally allowed to be poetical, and afterwards from the writings of the Prophets—The sentiments of R. Azarias considered The great importance of an accurate attention to this poetical conformation of the sentences, wavnavanera
THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROPHETIC POETRY.
The whole of the Book of Daniel, as well as of Jonah, are to be excepted
as not poetical, though of the prophetic kind; also certain historical relations inserted in the books of the Prophets—Some poems occur in the prophetic writings, which properly belong to the other classes of poetry—The remainder constitutes what may be termed a system or code of prophetic poetry— The character of this species of poetry deduced from the nature and design of prophecy itself— An example of the true style of prophetic poetry produced from Isaiah, and explained ; also another from the prophecies of Balaam, translated into English verse,
THE PECULIAR CHARACTER OF EACH OF THE PROPHETS.
The particular style and character of the different Prophets : what parts of
each of them are poetical, and what otherwise-Nothing deserving of notice of this kind in the poetry of Greece-In the Latin poetry the fourth Eclogue of Virgil is remarkable: that poem much more obscure than it is generally aecounted, and has not bitherto been properly explained,
OF ELEGIAC POETRY.
OF THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE HEBREW ELEGY; AND OF THE
LAMENTATIONS OF JEREMIAH.
The nature and origin of the Hebrew Elegy traced into the solemn ex
pressions of grief exhibited in their funeral ceremonies— The office and function of professed mourners: the dirges which were sung by them were short, metrical, and sententious; many of the lamentations which are extant in the Prophets were composed in imitation of them— The whole of the Lamentations of Jeremiah constructed upon the same principle—The general conduct and form of that poem; the nature of the verse; the subject and the style,
OF THE REMAINING ELEGIES OF THE HEBREWS.
Many Poems of this kind still extant in the writings of the Hebrews
One collection of Elegies or Lamentations appears to be lost—Elegies in Ezekiel-Many passages in Job may be accounted Elegiac- About a seventh part of the book of Psalms consists of Elegies- A perfect specimen of elegiac poetry from the Psalms— The Lamentation of David over Saul and Jonathan explained: attempted in English verse, cocco 254
OF THE PROVERBS, OR DIDACTIC POETRY OF THE HEBREWS.
of Solomon : that work consists of two parts; the first, which extends